Climate Change 2007:
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
Summary for Policy Makers

A TiddlyWiki Translation of IPCC' Working Group II Report.
An element of Climate Change 2.0: Responding to Dangerous Climate Change
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Information and Communications Sub-Committee ,
NGO Committee on Education,
Conference Of Non-Governmental Organizations
in Consultative Relations with the United Nations
and the
NGO Networking Committee,
Planning Committee,
60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference
September 5-7, 2007
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability - A TiddlyWiki Rendition of IPCC's Working Group II Report for Climate Change 2007
!!!C4. Capacity building\n11. Everyone should have the necessary skills to benefit fully from the Information Society. Therefore capacity building and ICT literacy are essential. ICTs can contribute to achieving universal education worldwide, through delivery of education and training of teachers, and offering improved conditions for lifelong learning, encompassing people that are outside the formal education process, and improving professional skills.\n## Develop domestic policies to ensure that ICTs are fully integrated in education and training at all levels, including in curriculum development, teacher training, institutional administration and management, and in support of the concept of lifelong learning.\n## Develop and promote programmes to eradicate illiteracy using ICTs at national, regional and international levels.\n## Promote e-literacy skills for all, for example by designing and offering courses for public administration, taking advantage of existing facilities such as libraries, multipurpose community centres, public access points and by establishing local ICT training centres with the cooperation of all stakeholders. Special attention should be paid to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups.\n## In the context of national educational policies, and taking into account the need to eradicate adult illiteracy, ensure that young people are equipped with knowledge and skills to use ICTs, including the capacity to analyse and treat information in creative and innovative ways, share their expertise and participate fully in the Information Society.\n## Governments, in cooperation with other stakeholders, should create programmes for capacity building with an emphasis on creating a critical mass of qualified and skilled ICT professionals and experts.\n## Develop pilot projects to demonstrate the impact of ICT-based alternative educational delivery systems, notably for achieving Education for All targets, including basic literacy targets.\n## Work on removing the gender barriers to ICT education and training and promoting equal training opportunities in ICT-related fields for women and girls. Early intervention programmes in science and technology should target young girls with the aim of increasing the number of women in ICT careers. Promote the exchange of best practices on the integration of gender perspectives in ICT education.\n## Empower local communities, especially those in rural and underserved areas, in ICT use and promote the production of useful and socially meaningful content for the benefit of all.\n## Launch education and training programmes, where possible using information networks of traditional nomadic and indigenous peoples, which provide opportunities to fully participate in the Information Society.\n## Design and implement regional and international cooperation activities to enhance the capacity, notably, of leaders and operational staff in developing countries and LDCs, to apply ICTs effectively in the whole range of educational activities. This should include delivery of education outside the educational structure, such as the workplace and at home.\n## Design specific training programmes in the use of ICTs in order to meet the educational needs of information professionals, such as archivists, librarians, museum professionals, scientists, teachers, journalists, postal workers and other relevant professional groups. Training of information professionals should focus not only on new methods and techniques for the development and provision of information and communication services, but also on relevant management skills to ensure the best use of technologies. Training of teachers should focus on the technical aspects of ICTs, on development of content, and on the potential possibilities and challenges of ICTs.\n## Develop distance learning, training and other forms of education and training as part of capacity building programmes. Give special attention to developing countries and especially LDCs in different levels of human resources development.\n## Promote international and regional cooperation in the field of capacity building, including country programmes developed by the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies\n## Launch pilot projects to design new forms of ICT-based networking, linking education, training and research institutions between and among developed and developing countries and countries with economies in transition.\n## Volunteering, if conducted in harmony with national policies and local cultures, can be a valuable asset for raising human capacity to make productive use of ICT tools and build a more inclusive Information Society. Activate volunteer programmes to provide capacity building on ICT for development, particularly in developing countries.\n## Design programmes to train users to develop self-learning and self-development capacities.
From the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] \n\n116. Education is critical for promoting sustainable development. It is therefore essential to mobilize necessary resources, including financial resources at all levels, by bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and the regional development banks, by civil society and by foundations, to complement the efforts by national governments to pursue the following goals and actions:\n## Meet the [[Millennium development goal|Millennium Development Goals]] of achieving universal primary education, ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling;\n## Provide all children, particularly those living in rural areas and those living in poverty, especially girls, with the access and opportunity to complete a full course of primary education. \n117. Provide financial assistance and support to education, research, public awareness programmes and developmental institutions in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to:\n## Sustain their educational infrastructures and programmes, including those related to environment and public health education;\n## Consider means of avoiding the frequent, serious financial constraints faced by many institutions of higher learning, including universities around the world, particularly in developing countries and countries in transition. \n118. Address the impact of HIV/AIDS on the educational system in those countries seriously affected by the pandemic.\n\n119. Allocate national and international resources for basic education as proposed by the [[Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All|]] and for improved integration of sustainable development into education and in bilateral and multilateral development programmes, and improve integration between publicly funded research and development and development programmes.\n\n120. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, as provided in the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All, and at all levels of education no later than 2015, to meet the development goals contained in the [[Millennium Declaration|]], with action to ensure, inter alia, equal access to all levels and forms of education, training and capacity-building by gender mainstreaming, and by creating a gender-sensitive educational system.\n\n121. Integrate sustainable development into education systems at all levels of education in order to promote education as a key agent for change.\n\n122. Develop, implement, monitor and review education action plans and programmes at the national, subnational and local levels, as appropriate, that reflect the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All and that are relevant to local conditions and needs leading to the achievement of community development and make education for sustainable development a part of those plans.\n\n123. Provide all community members with a wide range of formal and non-formal continuing educational opportunities, including volunteer community service programmes, in order to end illiteracy and emphasize the importance of lifelong learning and promote sustainable development.\n\n124. Support the use of education to promote sustainable development, including through urgent actions at all levels to:\n## Integrate information and communications technology in school curriculum development to ensure its access by both rural and urban communities and provide assistance, particularly to developing countries, inter alia, for the establishment of an appropriate enabling environment required for such technology;\n## Promote, as appropriate, affordable and increased access to programmes for students, researchers and engineers from developing countries in the universities and research institutions of developed countries in order to promote the exchange of experience and capacity that will benefit all partners;\n## Continue to implement the work programme of the Commission on Sustainable Development on education for sustainable development;\n## Recommend to the United Nations General Assembly that it consider adopting a ''decade of education for sustainable development'', starting in 2005.
''General Assembly Resolution A/RES/57/254''. //20 December 2002//\n\n''United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development''\n\n//The General Assembly//,\n\n//Recalling// [[chapter 36 of Agenda 21|]], on promoting education, public awareness and training, adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992,\n\n//Reaffirming// the internationally agreed development goal of achieving universal primary education, in particular that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling,\n\n//Appreciating// the contribution made by the Commission on Sustainable Development to the issue of education for sustainable development since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,\n\n//Welcoming// the fact that the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] ("Johannesburg Plan of Implementation") confirmed the importance of education for sustainable development and recommended that the General Assembly consider adopting a decade of education for sustainable development starting in 2005,\n\n//Emphasizing// that education is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development,\n\n1. //Decides// to proclaim the ten-year period beginning on 1 January 2005 the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development;\n\n2. //Designates// the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as the lead agency for the promotion of the Decade, and requests it to develop a draft international implementation scheme, clarifying its relationship with the existing educational processes, in particular the [[Dakar Framework for Action|]] adopted at the World Education Forum/3 and the [[United Nations Literacy Decade|]], in consultation with the United Nations and other relevant international organizations, Governments, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders, with a view to providing recommendations for Governments on how to promote and improve the integration of education for sustainable development in their respective educational strategies and action plans at the appropriate level;\n\n3. //Invites// Governments to consider the inclusion of measures to implement the Decade in their respective educational strategies and action plans by 2005, taking into account the international implementation scheme to be prepared by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization;\n\n4. //Decides// to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-eighth session an item entitled "United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development".
''General Assembly Resolution A/RES/58/219''. //23 December 2003//\n''United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development''\n\n//The General Assembly//,\n\n//Recalling// [[chapter 36 of Agenda 21|,htm]], on promoting education, public awareness and training, adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 to 14 June 1992,\n\n//Recalling also// the relevant provisions of the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] ("Johannesburg Plan of Implementation") on education, in particular its provision 124 (//d//) on the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development,\n\n//Recalling further// its [[resolution 57/254|57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] of 20 December 2002,\n\n//Reaffirming// the internationally agreed development goal of achieving universal primary education, in particular that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling,\n\n//Taking note// of the report of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development,\n\n//Welcoming// the fact that the Commission on Sustainable Development, at its eleventh session, identified education as one of the cross-cutting issues of its multi-year programme of work,\n\n//Emphasizing// that education is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development,\n\n1. //Takes note// of the Framework for a Draft International Implementation Scheme prepared by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, requests the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, as the designated lead agency, to promote the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, in coordination with other relevant United Nations agencies and programmes, and further requests it to finalize the international implementation scheme, while clarifying its relationship with the existing educational processes, in particular the [[Dakar Framework for Action|]] adopted at the World Education Forum and the [[United Nations Literacy Decade|]], in consultation with Governments, the United Nations and other relevant international organizations, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders;\n\n2. //Reaffirms// that education for sustainable development is critical for promoting sustainable development, and in this regard encourages Governments to consider the inclusion of measures to implement the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development in their respective educational strategies and national development plans by 2005;\n\n3. //Invites// Governments to promote public awareness of and wider participation in the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, including through cooperation and initiatives engaging civil society and other relevant stakeholders;\n\n4. //Decides// to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-ninth session, under the item entitled "Environment and sustainable development", a sub-item entitled "United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development".
''General Assembly Resolution 59/237''. //22 December 2004//\n''United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development''\n\n//The General Assembly//,\n\n//Recalling// [[chapter 36 of Agenda 21|]], on promoting education, public awareness and training, adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 to 14 June 1992,\n\n//Recalling also// the work programme on education, public awareness and training initiated by the Commission on Sustainable Development at its fourth session in 1996 and elaborated upon at its sixth session in 1998,\n\n//Recalling further// the relevant provisions of the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] ("Johannesburg Plan of Implementation") on education to promote sustainable development, in particular its provision 124,\n\n//Recalling// its resolutions [[57/254|57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] of 20 December 2002 and [[58/219|58/219. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] of 23 December 2003,\n\n//Underlining// in this regard the fact that the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development shall begin on 1 January 2005,\n\n//Welcoming// the fact that the Commission on Sustainable Development, at its eleventh session, identified education as one of the cross-cutting issues of its multiyear programme of work,\n\n//Reaffirming// the internationally agreed development goal of achieving universal primary education, in particular that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that boys and girls will have equal access to all levels of education,\n\n//Taking note// of the oral report presented on 18 October 2004 at the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly by the Assistant Director-General for Education of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization regarding its preparations for the Decade,\n\n//Taking note also// of the report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction,in particular the reference to the issue "Learning to live with risk", as regards the need to focus on education and awareness, linked with the Decade, to be considered at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, to be held in Kobe, Japan, from 18 to 22 January 2005,\n\n//Emphasizing// that education is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development,\n\n1. //Reaffirms// that education for sustainable development is critical for promoting sustainable development;\n\n2. //Requests// the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, as the designated lead agency, to promote the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, in coordination with other relevant United Nations organizations and programmes, while taking into account the special needs of developing countries;\n\n3. //Requests// the Secretary-General to call upon the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to finalize the draft international implementation scheme for the Decade as soon as possible, preferably by the beginning of the Decade, in consultation with Governments, the United Nations and relevant international organizations, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders, while clarifying its relationship with the existing educational processes, in particular the [[Dakar Framework for Action|]] adopted at the World Education Forum and the [[United Nations Literacy Decade|]];\n\n4. //Also requests// the Secretary-General to call upon the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to submit the draft international implementation scheme to the governing bodies of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization for their final consideration and adoption;\n\n5. //Encourages// Governments to consider the inclusion, especially upon completion and adoption of the international implementation scheme, of measures to implement the Decade in their respective educational systems and strategies and, where appropriate, national development plans;\n\n6. //Invites// Governments to promote public awareness of and wider participation in the Decade, inter alia, through cooperation with and initiatives engaging civil society and other relevant stakeholders, especially at the beginning of the Decade;\n\n7. //Requests// the Secretary-General to invite the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to prepare a midterm review of the implementation of the Decade, for submission to the General Assembly at its sixty-fifth session under the sub-item entitled "United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development".
The ''60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference'' Ro be held at ''United Nations Headquarters'' from September 5-7, 2007.
* This Summary sets out the key policy-relevant findings of the Fourth Assessment of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).\n* The Assessment is of current scientific understanding of impacts of climate change on natural, managed and human systems, the capacity of these systems to adapt and their vulnerability^^1^^. It builds upon past IPCC assessments and incorporates new knowledge gained since the Third Assessment.\n* Statements in this Summary are based on chapters in the Assessment and principal sources are given at the end of each paragraph^^2^^.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was jointly established in 1988, by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Its present terms of reference are to:\n* Assess available information on the science, the impacts, and the economics of -- and the options for mitigating and/ or adapting to -- climate change.\n* Provide, on request, scientific/technical/socio-economic advice to the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).\nSince its establishment, the IPCC has produced a series of Assessment Reports (1990, 1995, and 2001), Special Reports, Technical Papers, and methodologies, such as the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, which have become standard works of reference, widely used by policymakers, scientists, and other experts and students.\n\nThis Synthesis Report completes the four-volume Third Assessment Report (TAR). It addresses specifically the issues of concern to the policymaker, in the context of Article 2 of the UNFCCC -- issues such as the extent to which human activities have influenced and will in the future influence the global climate, the impacts of a changed climate on ecological and socio-economic systems, and existing and projected technical and policy capacity to address anthropogenic climate change. It explores briefly the linked nature of a number of multilateral environmental conventions. It draws on the work of hundreds of experts from all regions of the world who have in the past and at present participated in the IPCC process. As is customary in the IPCC, success in producing this report has depended first and foremost on the dedication, enthusiasm, and cooperation of these experts in many different but related disciplines.\n\nWe take this opportunity to express our heart-felt gratitude to the authors and reviewers of all the IPCC reports and Technical Papers, particularly the TAR. We thank likewise the IPCC Bureau; Dr. Sundararaman, Secretary of IPCC, and his Secretariat staff; and those staffing the Technical Support Units of the three Working Groups. We acknowledge with gratitude the governments and organizations that contribute to the IPCC Trust Fund, and provide support to the experts and in other ways. The IPCC has been especially successful in engaging in its work a large number of experts from the developing countries and countries with their economies in transition; the Trust Fund enables extending financial assistance for their travel to IPCC meetings.\n\nWe thank the Chairman of the IPCC, Dr. Robert T. Watson, for guiding the effort in completing the TAR.\n\n''G.O.P. Obasi''\nSecretary General\nWorld Meteorological Organization\n\n''K. Töpfer''\nExecutive Director\nUnited Nations Environment Programme\nand Director-General\nUnited Nations Office in Nairobi
* [[Question 1]]\n** What can scientific, technical, and socio-economic analyses contribute to the determination of what constitutes dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system as referred to in Article 2 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change?\n* [[Question 2]]\n** What is the evidence for, causes of, and consequences of changes in the Earth's climate since the pre-industrial era?\n* [[Question 3]]\n** What is known about the regional and global climatic, environmental, and socio-economic consequences in the next 25, 50, and 100 years associated with a range of greenhouse gas emissions arising from scenarios used in the TAR (projections which involve no climate policy intervention)?\n* [[Question 4]]\n** What is known about the influence of the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the projected human-induced change in climate regionally and globally ... [[more|Question 4]]\n* [[Question 5]]\n** What is known about the inertia and time scales associated with the changes in the climate system, ecological systems, and socio-economic sectors and their interactions?\n* [[Question 6]]\n** How does the extent and timing of the introduction of a range of emissions reduction actions determine and affect the rate, magnitude, and impacts of climate change, and affect the global and regional economy, taking into account the historical and current emissions?\n** What is known from sensitivity studies about regional and global climatic, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of stabilizing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (in carbon dioxide equivalents), at a range of levels from today's to double that level or more, taking into account to the extent possible the effects of aerosols?\n* [[Question 7]]\n** What is known about the potential for, and costs and benefits of, and time frame for reducing greenhouse gas emissions?\n* [[Question 8]] \n** What is known about the interactions between projected human-induced changes in climate and other environmental issues (e.g., urban air pollution, regional acid deposition, loss of biological diversity, stratospheric ozone depletion, and desertification and land degradation)?\n** What is known about environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits and implications of these interactions for integrating climate change response strategies in an equitable manner into broad sustainable development strategies at the local, regional, and global scales?\n* [[Question 9]]\n** What are the most robust findings and key uncertainties regarding attribution of climate change and regarding model projections?\n\n\n
This Synthesis Report with its Summary for Policymakers is the fourth and final part of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It draws together and integrates for the benefit of policy makers, and others, and in response to questions identified by governments and subsequently agreed by the IPCC, information that has been approved and/ or accepted by the IPCC.1 It is intended to assist governments, individually and collectively, in formulating appropriate adaptation and mitigation responses to the threat of human-induced climate change.\n\nThe Synthesis Report is based mainly on the contributions of the three IPCC Working Groups to the TAR, but also uses information from earlier IPCC assessments, Special Reports, and Technical Papers. It follows the question and answer format, and is in two parts: a Summary for Policymakers and a longer document that contains expanded responses to each of the questions posed by governments. The Summary for Policymakers references the appropriate paragraphs in the longer report, while the longer report contains references to the source of the material on which the response is based -- that is, the Summaries for Policymakers and chapters from previously approved and accepted Working Group contributions to the TAR and earlier IPCC reports and Technical Papers (see the accompanying box for cross-referencing nomenclature).\n\nThe procedures for approving the Summary for Policymakers and adopting the balance of the Synthesis Report were formalized by the IPCC at its Fifteenth Session (San Jose, Costa Rica, 15-18 April 1999). A draft of the Synthesis Report and its Summary for Policymakers was prepared by a team of lead authors, who were involved in preparation of the TAR, and submitted for simultaneous government/ technical and expert review. The revised drafts were circulated to governments in a final distribution before approval/ adoption at the IPCC's Eighteenth Session (Wembley, United Kingdom, 24- 29 September 2001).\n\nThe Synthesis Report consists of nine policy-relevant questions:\n* [[Question 1]] addresses the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is found in Article 2 (i. e., what constitutes "dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system") and provides a framework for placing the issue of climate change in the context of sustainable development.\n* [[Question 2]] assesses and, where possible, attributes observed changes in climate and ecological systems since the pre-industrial era.\n* [[Questions 3|Question 3]] and [[4|Question 4]] assess the impact of future emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosol precursors (without specific policies to mitigate climate change) on climate, including changes in variability and extreme events and in ecological and socio-economic systems.\n* [[Question 5]] discusses inertia in the climate, ecological systems, and socio-economic sectors, and implications for mitigation and adaptation.\n* [[Question 6]] assesses the near-and long-term implications of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases on climate, ecological systems, and socio-economic sectors.\n* [[Question 7]] assesses the technologies, policies, and costs of near-and long-term actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.\n* [[Question 8]] identifies the interactions between climate change, other environmental issues, and development.\n* [[Question 9]] summarizes the most robust findings and key uncertainties.\n!!! [[Thanks|AR3-Synthesis: Thanks]]\n!!! [[Publication of the Synthesis Report|AR3-Synthesis: Publication]]\nR. T. Watson\nIPCC Chair\n\nN. Sundararaman\nIPCC Secretary
The Synthesis Report with its Summary for Policymakers was originally published in a single volume together with the Summaries for Policymakers and Technical Summaries of the Working Group contributions to the TAR, as well as a comprehensive, consolidated glossary. The Synthesis Report is also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish -- the other official languages of the IPCC. The Synthesis Report is also available as a stand-alone publication, as are discrete brochures consisting of the Summaries for Policymakers, Technical Summaries, and glossaries of the respective Working Group reports. The full English text of all four volumes comprising the Third Assessment Report has been published in both print and digital form, with searchable versions available on cd-rom and at
We take this opportunity to thank:\n* The Core Writing Team who drafted this report and, with their meticulous and painstaking attention to detail, finalized it\n* Other members of the IPCC Bureau who acted as Review Editors\n* The members of the Working Groups' teams of Coordinating Lead Authors and Lead Authors who helped with the initial drafting\n* The Heads and the staff of the Technical Support Units of the three Working Groups, particularly David Dokken, Maria Noguer, and Paul van der Linden for logistical and editorial support\n* The Head and the staff of the GRID office at Arendal, Norway -- Philippe Rekacewicz in particular -- for working with the author team on the graphics contained in the Synthesis Report\n* The staff of the IPCC Secretariat for innumerable administrative tasks performed.
This web site is based on a TiddlyWiki platform - a unique and brilliant design for a self-contained, [[Creative Commons]] "Wiki". Wiki is a Hawaiian word meaning //swift// or //swiftly//, and TiddlyWiki is the wikiest wiki to date., Unlike most web sites that consist of multiple, linked web pages, all of the content in a TiddlyWiki is contained in a single web page, that contains numerous sub-pages, known as "tiddlers".\n\nA TiddlyWiki page uses simple formatting codes for its tiddlers - similar, but not identical to the codes used in <<wikipedia Wikipedia>> and each tiddler can have one or more "tags" or "key words" that are displayed adjacent to the tiddler. This makes TiddlyWiki the easiest and quickest platform for creating and maintaining a web site.\n\nFrom a design standpoint, what makes TiddlyWiki unique is that not only can tiddlers contain and siplay text, images, links, etc, but the appearance and format of a TiddlyWiki is defined by "style sheets and "styles" that are themselves contained in tiddlers. In addition, a tiddler can include Javascript - the language that powers TiddlyWiki - that can add very useful features over and above those in the standard TiddlyWiki.\n\n
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> [[1. Preamble|]]\n!!! I. Social and Economic Dimensions\n> [[2. International Cooperation to Accelerate Sustainable Development in Developing Countries and Related Domestic Policies|]]\n> [[3. Combating Poverty|]]\n> [[4. Changing Consumption Patterns|]]\n> [[5. Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability|]]\n> [[6. Protecting and Promoting Human Health|]]\n> [[7. Promoting Sustainable Human Settlement Development|]]\n> [[8. Integrating Environment and Development in Decision-Making|]]\n!!! II. Conservation and Management of Resources for Development\n> [[9. Protection of the Atmosphere|]]\n> [[10. Integrated Approach to the Planning and Management of Land Resources|]]\n> [[11. Combating Deforestation|]]\n> [[12. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification and Drought|]]\n> [[13. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Sustainable Mountain Development|]]\n> [[14. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development|]]\n> [[15. Conservation of Biological Diversity|]]\n> [[16. Environmentally Sound Management of Biotechnology|]]\n> [[17. Protection of the Oceans, All Kinds of Seas, including Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas, and Coastal Areas and the Protection, Rational Use and Development of their Living Resources|]]\n> [[18. Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater Resources: Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, Management and Use of Water Resources|]]\n> [[19. Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals, Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Toxic and Dangerous Products|]]\n> [[20. Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Hazardous Wastes|]]\n> [[21. Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes and Sewage-related Issues|]]\n> [[22. Safe and Environmentally Sound Management of Radioactive Wastes|]]\n!!! III. Strengthening the Role of Major Groups\n> [[23. Preamble|]]\n> [[24. Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development|]]\n> [[25. Children and Youth in Sustainable Development|]]\n> [[26. Recognizing and Strengthening the Role of Indigenous People and their Communities|]]\n> [[27. Strengthening the Role of Non-governmental Organizations: Partners for Sustainable Development|]]\n> [[28. Local Authorities' Initiatives in Support of Agenda 21|]]\n> [[29. Strengthening the Role of Workers and their Trade Unions|]]\n> [[30. Strengthening the Role of Business and Industry|]]\n> [[31. Scientific and Technological Community|]]\n> [[32. Strengthening the Role of Farmers|]]\n!!! IV. Means of Implementation\n> [[33. Financial Resources and Mechanisms|]]\n> [[34. Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology, Cooperation and Capacity-building|]]\n> [[35. Science for Sustainable Development|]]\n> [[36. Promoting Education, Public Awareness and Training|]]\n> [[37. National Mechanisms and International Cooperation for Capacity-building in Developing Countries|]]\n> [[38. International Institutional Arrangements|]]\n> [[39. International Legal Instruments and Mechanisms|]]\n> [[40. Information for Decision-making|]]\n
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''Armenian Assembly of America'' works through research, education and advocacy to strengthen U.S./Armenia and U.S./Nagorno Karabakh relations, promotes Armenia's and Karabakh's democratic development and economic prosperity and seeks universal affirmation of the Armenian Genocide.\n\nWith a nation-wide network of volunteer activists, lay leaders, and staff in Washington, Los Angeles, New York, Boston, Yerevan, Stepanakert and Gyumri, the Assembly works with the Administration, Congress, and other policy makers in Washington, D.C., and state legislatures to advance issues of concern to Armenian-Americans. \n\nFor more information, visit
The //Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change// book, commissioned by ''Defra'' - the British Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - consolidates the scientific findings of a major conference held in Exeter, and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and technological options of meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.\n!!!The book focuses on three crucial questions:\n# ''For different levels of climate change what are the key impacts, for different regions and sectors, and for the world as a whole?''\n# ''What would such levels of climate change imply in terms of greenhouse gas stabilisation concentrations and emission pathways required to achieve such levels?''\n#'' What technological options are there for achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gases at different stabilisation concentrations in the atmosphere, taking into account costs and uncertainties?''\n!!! Read more:\n* [[Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change - executive summary|]], pdf (168 KB)\n* [[Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change - full text of book|]], pdf (16.3 MB - note very large file size)\n* [[News release|]] - 30 January 2006\n* The book can be ordered online via the [[Cambridge University Press website|]].\n\n* More on [[Climate Change @ Defra|]]
* A full consideration of observed climate change is provided in the IPCC Working Group I Fourth Assessment. This part of the Summary concerns the relationship between observed climate change and recent observed changes in the natural and human environment.\n* The statements presented here are based largely on data sets that cover the period since 1970. The number of studies of observed trends in the physical and biological environment and their relationship to regional climate changes has increased greatly since the Third Assessment in 2001. The quality of the data sets has also improved. There is, however, a notable lack of geographic balance in data and literature on observed changes, with marked scarcity in developing countries.\n* These studies have allowed a broader and more confident assessment of the relationship between observed warming and impacts than was made in the Third Assessment. That Assessment concluded that "there is high confidence^^3^^ that recent regional changes in temperature have had discernible impacts on many physical and biological systems".\n* From the current Assessment we conclude the following.\n** [[Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases|B.1. Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases]] +++\n\n\n<<tiddler "B.1. Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases">>\n===\n\n** [[A global assessment of data since 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems|B.2. A global assessment of data since 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems]] +++\n\n\n<<tiddler "B.2. A global assessment of data since 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems">>\n===\n\n** [[Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers|B.3. Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers]] +++\n\n\n<<tiddler "B.3. Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers">>\n===\n\n> ''Figure SPM-1: Temperature Change, 1970-2004''\n> <<tiddler "Working Group II. Figure SPM-1: Temperature Change, 1970-2004">>
* With regard to changes in snow, ice and frozen ground (including permafrost)4^^^^, there is high confidence that natural systems are affected. Examples are:\n** enlargement and increased numbers of glacial lakes [1.3];\n** increasing ground instability in permafrost regions, and rock avalanches in mountain regions [1.3];\n** changes in some Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems, including those in sea-ice biomes, and also predators high in the food chain [1.3, 4.4, 15.4].\n* Based on growing evidence, there is high confidence that the following types of hydrological systems are being affected around the world:\n** increased run-off and earlier spring peak discharge in many glacier- and snow-fed rivers [1.3];\n** warming of lakes and rivers in many regions, with effects on thermal structure and water quality [1.3].\n*There is very high confidence, based on more evidence from a wider range of species, that recent warming is strongly affecting terrestrial biological systems, including such changes as:\n** earlier timing of spring events, such as leaf-unfolding, bird migration and egg-laying [1.3];\n** poleward and upward shifts in ranges in plant and animal species [1.3, 8.2, 14.2].\n*Based on satellite observations since the early 1980s, there is high confidence that there has been a trend in many regions towards earlier 'greening'^^5^^ of vegetation in the spring linked to longer thermal growing seasons due to recent warming. [1.3, 14.2]\n* There is high confidence, based on substantial new evidence, that observed changes in marine and freshwater biological systems are associated with rising water temperatures, as well as related changes in ice cover, salinity, oxygen levels and circulation [1.3]. These include:\n** shifts in ranges and changes in algal, plankton and fish abundance in high-latitude oceans [1.3];\n** increases in algal and zooplankton abundance in high-latitude and high-altitude lakes [1.3];\n** range changes and earlier migrations of fish in rivers [1.3].\n* The uptake of anthropogenic carbon since 1750 has led to the ocean becoming more acidic with an average decrease in pH of 0.1 units [IPCC Working Group I Fourth Assessment]. However, the effects of observed ocean acidification on the marine biosphere are as yet undocumented. [1.3]
* Much more evidence has accumulated over the past five years to indicate that changes in many physical and biological systems are linked to anthropogenic warming. There are four sets of evidence which, taken together, support this conclusion:\n<<<\n# The Working Group I Fourth Assessment concluded that most of the observed increase in the globally averaged temperature since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.\n# Of the more than 29,000 observational data series^^7^^, from 75 studies, that show significant change in many physical and biological systems, more than 89% are consistent with the direction of change expected as a response to warming. (Figure SPM-1) [1.4]\n# A global synthesis of studies in this Assessment strongly demonstrates that the spatial agreement between regions of significant warming across the globe and the locations of significant observed changes in many systems consistent with warming is very unlikely to be due solely to natural variability of temperatures or natural variability of the systems.(see Figure SPM-1) [1.4]\n# Finally, there have been several modelling studies that have linked responses in some physical and biological systems to anthropogenic warming by comparing observed responses in these systems with modelled responses in which the natural forcings (solar activity and volcanoes) and anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases and aerosols) are explicitly separated. Models with combined natural and anthropogenic forcings simulate observed responses significantly better than models with natural forcing only. [1.4]\n<<<\n* Limitations and gaps prevent more complete attribution of the causes of observed system responses to anthropogenic warming. First, the available analyses are limited in the number of systems and locations considered. Second, natural temperature variability is larger at the regional than the global scale, thus affecting identification of changes due to external forcing. Finally, at the regional scale other factors (such as land-use change, pollution, and invasive species) are influential. [1.4]\n* Nevertheless, the consistency between observed and modelled changes in several studies and the spatial agreement between significant regional warming and consistent impacts at the global scale is sufficient to conclude with high confidence that anthropogenic warming over the last three decades has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems. [1.4]
* Effects of temperature increases have been documented in the following systems (medium confidence):\n** effects on agricultural and forestry management at Northern Hemisphere higher latitudes, such as earlier spring planting of crops, and alterations in disturbance regimes of forests due to fires and pests [1.3];\n** some aspects of human health, such as heat-related mortality in Europe, infectious disease vectors in some areas, and allergenic pollen in Northern Hemisphere high and mid-latitudes [1.3, 8.2, 8.ES];\n** some human activities in the Arctic (e.g., hunting and travel over snow and ice) and in lower-elevation alpine areas (such as mountain sports). [1.3]\n* Recent climate changes and climate variations are beginning to have effects on many other natural and human systems. However, based on the published literature, the impacts have not yet become established trends. Examples include:\n** Settlements in mountain regions are at enhanced risk to glacier lake outburst floods caused by melting glaciers. Governmental institutions in some places have begun to respond by building dams and drainage works. [1.3]\n** In the Sahelian region of Africa, warmer and drier conditions have led to a reduced length of growing season with detrimental effects on crops. In southern Africa, longer dry seasons and more uncertain rainfall are prompting adaptation measures. [1.3]\n** Sea-level rise and human development are together contributing to losses of coastal wetlands and mangroves and increasing damage from coastal flooding in many areas. [1.3]\n* ''Changes in physical and biological systems and surface temperature 1970-2004''\n> [img[Changes in physical and biological systems and surface temperature 1970-2004|]]\n<<<\n''Figure SPM-1.''\nLocations of significant changes in observations of physical systems (snow, ice and frozen ground; hydrology; and coastal processes) and biological systems (terrestrial, marine, and freshwater biological systems), are shown together with surface air temperature changes over the period 1970-2004.\n\nA subset of about 29,000 data series was selected from about 80,000 data series from 577 studies. These met the following criteria: (1) Ending in 1990 or later; (2) spanning a period of at least 20 years; and (3) showing a significant change in either direction, as assessed in individual studies. \n\nThese data series are from about 75 studies (of which ~70 are new since the Third Assessment) and contain about 29,000 data series, of which about 28,000 are from European studies. \n\nWhite areas do not contain sufficient observational climate data to estimate a temperature trend. \n\nThe 2 x 2 boxes show the total number of data series with significant changes (top row) and the percentage of those consistent with warming (bottom row) for\n> (i) continental regions: North America (NAM), Latin America (LA), Europe (EUR), Africa (AFR), Asia (AS), Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), and Polar Regions (PR) and<br>\n> (ii) global-scale: Terrestrial (TER), Marine and Freshwater (MFW), and Global (GLO).\n\nThe numbers of studies from the seven regional boxes (NAM, …, PR) do not add up to the global (GLO) totals because numbers from regions except Polar do not include the numbers related to Marine and Freshwater (MFR) systems. [F1.8, F1.9; Working Group I Fourth Assessment F3.9b]\n<<<
A central goal of the historic 1992 [[Earth Summit]], at which the [[Framework Convention on Climate Change]] was adopted, was the transition to a new, sustainable development path, based to a significant extent on the broad-based participation of all major groups in society. ''Climate Change 2.0'' - is an initiative of [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]] in support of the [[NGO Committee on Education]]'s commitment to the [[UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] (2005-2014). ''Information Habitat'' was founded in May 1990, in the early stages of preparation for the Summit, on the recognition of the critical role that the emerging information and communications revolution could play in that transition. The phenomenal advances in ICT, and their impact on almost all areas of human activity over the seventeen years since its founding have continued to confirm the validity of the initial premise of Information Habitat.\n\nHowever, while there is growing recognition of the significance of ICT as a driver in economic and social development, along with almost universal reliance on the Internet and electronic mail as the principal medium for access to and dissemination of information relating to sustainable development, there still remains very limited appreciation of the profound significance of ICT for sustainable development or of the nature of a development path based in a medium in which the marginal cost of production and economic exchange - in both financial and material terms - is virtually zero.
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!!!Beijing Declaration\n\n1. We, the Governments participating in the Fourth World Conference on Women,\n\n2. Gathered here in Beijing in September 1995, the year of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the United Nations,\n\n3. Determined to advance the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere in the interest of all humanity,\n\n4. Acknowledging the voices of all women everywhere and taking note of the diversity of women and their roles and circumstances, honouring the women who paved the way and inspired by the hope present in the world's youth,\n\n5. Recognize that the status of women has advanced in some important respects in the past decade but that progress has been uneven, inequalities between women and men have persisted and major obstacles remain, with serious consequences for the well-being of all people,\n\n6. Also recognize that this situation is exacerbated by the increasing poverty that is affecting the lives of the majority of the world's people, in particular women and children, with origins in both the national and international domains,\n\n7. Dedicate ourselves unreservedly to addressing these constraints and obstacles and thus enhancing further the advancement and empowerment of women all over the world, and agree that this requires urgent action in the spirit of determination, hope, cooperation and solidarity, now and to carry us forward into the next century.\n\n''We reaffirm our commitment to:''\n\n8. The equal rights and inherent human dignity of women and men and other purposes and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments, in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women and the Declaration on the Right to Development;\n\n9. Ensure the full implementation of the human rights of women and of the girl child as an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;\n\n10. Build on consensus and progress made at previous United Nations conferences and summits - on women in Nairobi in 1985, on children in New York in 1990, on environment and development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, on human rights in Vienna in 1993, on population and development in Cairo in 1994 and on social development in Copenhagen in 1995 with the objective of achieving equality, development and peace;\n\n11. Achieve the full and effective implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women;\n\n12. The empowerment and advancement of women, including the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief, thus contributing to the moral, ethical, spiritual and intellectual needs of women and men, individually or in community with others and thereby guaranteeing them the possibility of realizing their full potential in society and shaping their lives in accordance with their own aspirations.\n\n''We are convinced that''\n\n13. Women's empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of society, including participation in the decision-making process and access to power, are fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace;\n\n14. Women's rights are human rights;\n\n15. Equal rights, opportunities and access to resources, equal sharing of responsibilities for the family by men and women, and a harmonious partnership between them are critical to their well-being and that of their families as well as to the consolidation of democracy;\n\n16. Eradication of poverty based on sustained economic growth, social development, environmental protection and social justice requires the involvement of women in economic and social development, equal opportunities and the full and equal participation of women and men as agents and beneficiaries of people-centred sustainable development;\n\n17. The explicit recognition and reaffirmation of the right of all women to control all aspects of their health, in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment;\n\n18. Local, national, regional and global peace is attainable and is inextricably linked with the advancement of women, who are a fundamental force for leadership, conflict resolution and the promotion of lasting peace at all levels;\n\n19. It is essential to design, implement and monitor, with the full participation of women, effective, efficient and mutually reinforcing gender-sensitive policies and programmes, including development policies and programmes, at all levels that will foster the empowerment and advancement of women;\n\n20. The participation and contribution of all actors of civil society, particularly women's groups and networks and other non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations, with full respect for their autonomy, in cooperation with Governments, are important to the effective implementation and follow-up of the Platform for Action;\n\n21. The implementation of the Platform for Action requires commitment from Governments and the international community. By making national and international commitments for action, including those made at the Conference, Governments and the international community recognize the need to take priority action for the empowerment and advancement of women.\n\n''We are determined to'':\n\n22. Intensify efforts and actions to achieve the goals of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women by the end of this century;\n\n23. Ensure the full enjoyment by women and the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and take effective action against violations of these rights and freedoms;\n\n24. Take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and the girl child and remove all obstacles to gender equality and the advancement and empowerment of women;\n\n25. Encourage men to participate fully in all actions towards equality;\n\n26. Promote women's economic independence, including employment, and eradicate the persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women by addressing the structural causes of poverty through changes in economic structures, ensuring equal access for all women, including those in rural areas, as vital development agents, to productive resources, opportunities and public services;\n\n27. Promote people-centred sustainable development, including sustained economic growth, through the provision of basic education, life-long education, literacy and training, and primary health care for girls and women;\n\n28. Take positive steps to ensure peace for the advancement of women and, recognizing the leading role that women have played in the peace movement, work actively towards general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, and support negotiations on the conclusion, without delay, of a universal and multilaterally and effectively verifiable comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty which contributes to nuclear disarmament and the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects;\n\n29. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls;\n\n30. Ensure equal access to and equal treatment of women and men in education and health care and enhance women's sexual and reproductive health as well as education;\n\n31. Promote and protect all human rights of women and girls;\n\n32. Intensify efforts to ensure equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all women and girls who face multiple barriers to their empowerment and advancement because of such factors as their race, age, language, ethnicity, culture, religion, or disability, or because they are indigenous people;\n\n33. Ensure respect for international law, including humanitarian law, in order to protect women and girls in particular;\n\n34. Develop the fullest potential of girls and women of all ages, ensure their full and equal participation in building a better world for all and enhance their role in the development process.\n\n''We are determined to'':\n\n35. Ensure women's equal access to economic resources, including land, credit, science and technology, vocational training, information, communication and markets, as a means to further the advancement and empowerment of women and girls, including through the enhancement of their capacities to enjoy the benefits of equal access to these resources, inter alia, by means of international cooperation;\n\n36. Ensure the success of the Platform for Action, which will require a strong commitment on the part of Governments, international organizations and institutions at all levels. We are deeply convinced that economic development, social development and environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development, which is the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people. Equitable social development that recognizes empowering the poor, particularly women living in poverty, to utilize environmental resources sustainably is a necessary foundation for sustainable development. We also recognize that broad-based and sustained economic growth in the context of sustainable development is necessary to sustain social development and social justice. The success of the Platform for Action will also require adequate mobilization of resources at the national and international levels as well as new and additional resources to the developing countries from all available funding mechanisms, including multilateral, bilateral and private sources for the advancement of women; financial resources to strengthen the capacity of national, subregional, regional and international institutions; a commitment to equal rights, equal responsibilities and equal opportunities and to the equal participation of women and men in all national, regional and international bodies and policy-making processes; and the establishment or strengthening of mechanisms at all levels for accountability to the world's women;\n\n37. Ensure also the success of the Platform for Action in countries with economies in transition, which will require continued international cooperation and assistance;\n\n38. We hereby adopt and commit ourselves as Governments to implement the following Platform for Action, ensuring that a gender perspective is reflected in all our policies and programmes. We urge the United Nations system, regional and international financial institutions, other relevant regional and international institutions and all women and men, as well as non-governmental organizations, with full respect for their autonomy, and all sectors of civil society, in cooperation with Governments, to fully commit themselves and contribute to the implementation of this Platform for Action.
/***\n|Name|''timeline''|h\n|Author|[[Saq Imtiaz]]|\n|Version|0.5 bet|\n|Description|A replacement for the core timeline macro that offers more features|\n|Source||\n|TW Version|2.x|\n***/\n/***\n!!!Features:\n*list tiddlers with only specific tag\n*exclude tiddlers with a particular tag\n*limit entries to any number of days, for example one week\n*specify a start date for the timeline, only tiddlers after that date will be listed.\n\n!!!Installation:\nCopy the contents of this tiddler to your TW, tag with systemConfig, save and reload your TW.\n\n!!!Syntax:\n{{{<<timeline better:true>>}}}\n''the param better:true enables the advanced features, without it you will get the old timeline behaviour.''\n\nadditonal params:\n(use only the ones you want)\n{{{<<timeline better:true onlyTag:Tag1 excludeTag:Tag2 sortBy:modified/created firstDay:YYYYMMDD maxDays:7 maxEntries:30>>}}}\n\n''explanation of syntax:''\nonlyTag: only tiddlers with this tag will be listed. Default is to list all tiddlers.\nexcludeTag: tiddlers with this tag will not be listed.\nsortBy: sort tiddlers by date modified or date created. Possible values are modified or created.\nfirstDay: useful for starting timeline from a specific date. Example: 20060701 for 1st of July, 2006\nmaxDays: limits timeline to include only tiddlers from the specified number of days. If you use a value of 7 for example, only tiddlers from the last 7 days will be listed.\nmaxEntries: limit the total number of entries in the timeline.\n\n\n!!!History:\n*28-07-06: ver 0.5 beta, first release\n\n!!!Code\n***/\n//{{{\n// Return the tiddlers as a sorted array\nTiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddlers = function(field,excludeTag,includeTag)\n{\n var results = [];\n this.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler)\n {\n if(excludeTag == undefined || tiddler.tags.find(excludeTag) == null)\n if(includeTag == undefined || tiddler.tags.find(includeTag)!=null)\n results.push(tiddler);\n });\n if(field)\n results.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[field] == b[field]) return(0); else return (a[field] < b[field]) ? -1 : +1; });\n return results;\n}\n\n\n\n//this function by Udo\nfunction getParam(params, name, defaultValue)\n{\n if (!params)\n return defaultValue;\n var p = params[0][name];\n return p ? p[0] : defaultValue;\n}\n\nwindow.old_timeline_handler= config.macros.timeline.handler;\nconfig.macros.timeline.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n var args = paramString.parseParams("list",null,true);\n var betterMode = getParam(args, "better", "false");\n if (betterMode == 'true')\n {\n var sortBy = getParam(args,"sortBy","modified");\n var excludeTag = getParam(args,"excludeTag",undefined);\n var includeTag = getParam(args,"onlyTag",undefined);\n var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers(sortBy,excludeTag,includeTag);\n var firstDayParam = getParam(args,"firstDay",undefined);\n var firstDay = (firstDayParam!=undefined)? firstDayParam: "00010101";\n var lastDay = "";\n var field= sortBy;\n var maxDaysParam = getParam(args,"maxDays",undefined);\n var maxDays = (maxDaysParam!=undefined)? maxDaysParam*24*60*60*1000: (new Date()).getTime() ;\n var maxEntries = getParam(args,"maxEntries",undefined);\n var last = (maxEntries!=undefined) ? tiddlers.length-Math.min(tiddlers.length,parseInt(maxEntries)) : 0;\n for(var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=last; t--)\n {\n var tiddler = tiddlers[t];\n var theDay = tiddler[field].convertToLocalYYYYMMDDHHMM().substr(0,8);\n if ((theDay>=firstDay)&& (tiddler[field].getTime()> (new Date()).getTime() - maxDays))\n {\n if(theDay != lastDay)\n {\n var theDateList = document.createElement("ul");\n place.appendChild(theDateList);\n createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li",null,"listTitle",tiddler[field].formatString(this.dateFormat));\n lastDay = theDay;\n }\n var theDateListItem = createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li",null,"listLink",null);\n theDateListItem.appendChild(createTiddlyLink(place,tiddler.title,true));\n }\n }\n }\n\n else\n {\n window.old_timeline_handler.apply(this,arguments);\n }\n}\n//}}}
@@font-size:120%;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;[[NGO Committee on Education]] (A [[CONGO|Conference Of NGOs]] Committee)@@\n!!By-Laws\n!!!Purpose\nThe NGO Committee on Education will:\n# Focus attention on and promote the various programs of formal and non-formal education of the UN intergovernmental agencies, of international institutions, and of NGOs.\n# Promote and facilitate the exchange of knowledge and dissemination of information on formal and non-formal education issues to various governments, civil society organizations, including academia, foundations, etc.\n# Address the issue of literacy for all children and adults, and other aspects of education in order to further enhance the goal of world education for all.\n# Work closely with the other NGO Committees related to the United Nations system and with the various relevant UN Commissions and Conferences.\n!!!Membership\n# Regular Membership: Membership in the Committee is open to Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with ECOSOC. These members shall be eligible to vote and hold office.\n# Associate Membership: Any NGO having a formal relationship with the United Nations may become an Associate Member. Such members will not be entitled to hold office or vote on matters of policy.\n# An organization may become a member by submitting and application to the Chairperson or Secretary.\n!!!Officers\n# The officers of the NGO Committee on Education shall be one Chairperson, one Vice-Chairperson, Secretary and Treasurer. Such officers shall be elected for a term of two years, and no person shall be elected to the same office for more than two consecutive terms. Officers must be from NGOs in consultative status.\n# No member may hold more than one office. For purposes of this paragraph the term "office" includes members-at-large of the Executive Committee.\n!!!Duties of Officers\n# The Chairperson shall convene and preside over meetings, promote the general effectiveness of the Committee, and maintain communications with other NGO Committees and with representatives of the UN system. The Chairperson or Vice-Chairperson shall represent the Committee when required.\n# The Secretary shall keep minutes of the meetings of the Committee, a record of the membership, and a record of attendance at meetings. The Secretary shall arrange for distribution of the minutes in advance of the meeting at which they will be approved.\n# The Treasurer shall receive and disburse funds as determined by the Executive Committee and shall be responsible for the maintenance of accounts and shall report regularly to the Committee's membership.\n!!!Executive Committee\n# The responsibility of the Executive Committee shall be to carry on the business of the Committee between meetings. The members of the Committee shall be kept informed of the activities of the Executive Committee through a report from the Chairperson or Vice-Chairperson at regular meetings of the Committee when relevant.\n# The officers with up to four elected members-at-large shall serve as the Executive Committee. Members-at-large shall serve for a term of two years. No person shall be elected for more than two consecutive terms.\n# Members-at-large may be Regular or Associate Members of the Committee, however, voting rules as described in the membership section apply.\n!!!Subcommittees\n# The NGO Committee on Education may establish Subcommittees or Working Groups as needed. The Chairperson of a Subcommittee will be a member //ex officio// of the Executive Committee. Members of such Subcommittees or Working Groups shall elect their own chairs, subject to approval of the Executive Committee.\n!!!Finances\n# Payment of dues of $25.00 to the Treasurer shall entitle members to receive the minutes and other materials determined by the NGO Committee and allow them to vote.\n# The fiscal year shall be from 1 October to 30 September.\n!!Elections\n# A Nominating Committee shall be appointed by the Chairperson, on consultation with other offices, not less than two months prior to the election at the Annual Meetings. The report of the Nominating Committee shall be circulated in writing to all Regular members of the Committee at least three weeks prior to the meeting at which the election is to take place. The Nominating Committee shall not nominate representatives represented by members of the Nominating Committee.\n# The election of officers and members of the Executive Committee shall take place at an Annual Meeting. Elected officers shall take office immediately.\n# Election of officers and procedural matters shall be decided by the majority of member organizations present and voting.\n# A ballot by mail may be taken in the event that a meeting of the Committee is not possible.\n!!!Meetings\n# The Committee shall meet periodically, at least four times a year. The Committee shall hold an Annual Meeting during the month of May or June.\n# A quorum shall consist of a representatives of one-third of the regular member organizations.\n# Recommendations of statements of positions to be submitted to ECOSOC or any of its subsidiary bodies may not be made in the name of the Committee. Joint statements of member organizations may be submitted over the names of those organizations who wish to become signatories to the statement.\n!!!Amendments\n: Proposed amendments to these By-laws shall be submitted to the Chairperson in time for consideration by the Executive Committee and for written circulation to each member organizations not less than two days prior to the date of the proposed adoption. An amendment shall be adopted only after discussion in a plenary meeting of the Committee and upon affirmative vote of two-thirds of these representatives of member organizations present and voting.\n\n//Adopted, November 4, 2000//
The following is a selection of the key findings regarding projected impacts, as well as some findings on vulnerability and adaptation, in each system, sector and region for the range of (unmitigated) climate changes projected by the IPCC over this century^^8^^ judged to be relevant for people and the environment^^9^^. The impacts frequently reflect projected changes in precipitation and other climate variables in addition to temperature, sea level and concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The magnitude and timing of impacts will vary with the amount and timing of climate change and, in some cases, the capacity to adapt. These issues are discussed further in later sections of the Summary.\n* ''More specific information is now available across a wide range of systems and sectors concerning the nature of future impacts, including for some fields not covered in previous assessments.''\n<<<\n* [[Fresh water resources and their management|C.1 Fresh water resources and their management]] +++\n<<tiddler "C.1 Fresh water resources and their management">>\n===\n\n* [[Ecosystems|C.2 Ecosystems]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.2 Ecosystems">>\n===\n\n* [[Food, fibre and forest products|C.3 Food, fibre and forest products]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.3 Food, fibre and forest products">>\n===\n\n* [[Coastal systems and low-lying areas|C.4 Coastal systems and low-lying areas]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.4 Coastal systems and low-lying areas">>\n===\n\n* [[Industry, Settlement and Society|C.5 Industry, Settlement and Society]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.5 Industry, Settlement and Society">>\n===\n\n* [[Health|C.6 Health]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.6 Health">>\n===\n\n<<<\n* ''More specific information is now available across the regions of the world concerning the nature of future impacts, including for some places not covered in previous assessments.''\n<<<\n* [[Africa|C.7 Africa]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.7 Africa">>\n===\n\n* [[Asia|C.8 Asia]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.8 Asia">>\n===\n\n* [[Australia and New Zealand|C.9 Australia and New Zealand]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.9 Australia and New Zealand">>\n===\n\n* [[Europe|C.10 Europe]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.10 Europe">>\n===\n\n* [[Latin America|C.11 Latin America]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.11 Latin America">>\n===\n\n* [[North America|C.12 North America]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.12 North America">>\n===\n\n* [[Polar Regions|C.13 Polar Regions]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.13 Polar Regions">>\n===\n\n* [[Small Islands|C.14 Small Islands]] +++\n> <<tiddler "C.14 Small Islands">>\n===\n\n<<<\n* ''Magnitudes of impact can now be estimated more systematically for a range of possible increases in global average temperature.'' +++\n> <<tiddler "Magnitudes of impact can now be estimated more systematically for a range of possible increases in global average temperature.">>\n===\n
* By mid-century, annual average river runoff and water availability are projected to increase by 10-40% at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas, and decrease by 10-30% over some dry regions at mid-latitudes and in the dry tropics, some of which are presently water stressed areas. In some places and in particular seasons, changes differ from these annual figures. ''** D''^^10^^ [3.4]\n* Drought-affected areas will likely increase in extent. Heavy precipitation events, which are very likely to increase in frequency, will augment flood risk. ''** N'' [Working Group I Fourth Assessment, 3.4]\n* Adaptation procedures and risk management practices for the water sector are being developed in some countries and regions that have recognised projected hydrological changes with related uncertainties. ''*** N'' [3.6]\n* In the course of the century, water supplies stored in glaciers and snow cover are projected to decline, reducing water availability in regions supplied by meltwater from major mountain ranges, where more than one-sixth of the world population currently lives. ''** N'' [3.4]
* For the first time, wide ranging impacts of changes in current climate have been documented: retreating glaciers, longer growing seasons, shift of species ranges, and health impacts due to a heat wave of unprecedented magnitude. The observed changes described above are consistent with those projected for future climate change. ''*** N'' [12.2, 12.4, 12.6]\n* Nearly all European regions are anticipated to be negatively affected by some future impacts of climate change and these will pose challenges to many economic sectors. Climate change is expected to magnify regional differences in Europe's natural resources and assets. Negative impacts will include increased risk of inland flash floods, and more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion (due to storminess and sea-level rise). The great majority of organisms and ecosystems will have difficulties adapting to climate change. Mountainous areas will face glacier retreat, reduced snow cover and winter tourism, and extensive species losses (in some areas up to 60% under high emission scenarios by 2080). ''*** D'' [12.4]\n* In Southern Europe, climate change is projected to worsen conditions (high temperatures and drought) in a region already vulnerable to climate variability, and to reduce water availability, hydropower potential, summer tourism, and in general, crop productivity. It is also projected to increase health risks due to heat waves and the frequency of wildfires. ''** D'' [12.2, 12.4, 12.7]\n* In Central and Eastern Europe, summer precipitation is projected to decrease, causing higher water stress. Health risks due to heat waves are projected to increase. Forest productivity is expected to decline and the frequency of peatland fires to increase. ''** D'' [12.4]\n* In Northern Europe, climate change is initially projected to bring mixed effects, including some benefits such as reduced demand for heating, increased crop yields and increased forest growth. However, as climate change continues, its negative impacts (including more frequent winter floods, endangered ecosystems and increasing ground instability) are likely to outweigh its benefits. ''** D'' [12.4]\n* Adaptation to climate change is likely to benefit from experience gained in reaction to extreme climate events, by specifically implementing proactive climate change risk management adaptation plans. ''*** N'' [12.5]
* By mid-century, increases in temperature and associated decreases in soil water are projected to lead to gradual replacement of tropical forest by savanna in eastern Amazonia. Semi-arid vegetation will tend to be replaced by arid-land vegetation. There is a risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many areas of tropical Latin America. ''** D'' [13.4]\n* In drier areas, climate change is expected to lead to salinisation and desertification of agricultural land. Productivity of some important crops are projected to decrease and livestock productivity to decline, with adverse consequences for food security. In temperate zones soybean yields are projected to increase. ''** N'' [13.4, 13.7]\n* Sea-level rise is projected to cause increased risk of flooding in low-lying areas. ''** N'' [13.4, 13.7]\n* Increases in sea surface temperature due to climate change are projected to have adverse effects on Mesoamerican coral reefs, and cause shifts in the location of south-east Pacific fish stocks. ''** N'' [13.4]\n* Changes in precipitation patterns and the disappearance of glaciers are projected to significantly affect water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation. ''** D'' [13.4]\n* Some countries have made efforts to adapt, particularly through conservation of key ecosystems, early warning systems, risk management in agriculture, strategies for flood drought and coastal management, and disease surveillance systems. However, the effectiveness of these efforts is outweighed by: lack of basic information, observation and monitoring systems; lack of capacity building and appropriate political, institutional and technological frameworks; low income; and settlements in vulnerable areas, among others. ''** D'' [13.2]
* Moderate climate change in the early decades of the century is projected to increase aggregate yields of rain-fed agriculture by 5-20%, but with important variability among regions. Major challenges are projected for crops that are near the warm end of their suitable range or depend on highly utilised water resources. ''** D'' [14.4]\n* Warming in western mountains is projected to cause decreased snowpack, more winter flooding, and reduced summer flows, exacerbating competition for over-allocated water resources. ''*** D'' [14.4, B14.2]\n* Disturbances from pests, diseases, and fire are projected to have increasing impacts on forests, with an extended period of high fire risk and large increases in area burned. ''*** N'' [14.4, B14.1]\n* Cities that currently experience heat waves are expected to be further challenged by an increased number, intensity and duration of heat waves during the course of the century, with potential for adverse health impacts. The growing number of the elderly population is most at risk. ''*** D'' [14.4]\n* Coastal communities and habitats will be increasingly stressed by climate change impacts interacting with development and pollution. Population growth and the rising value of infrastructure in coastal areas increase vulnerability to climate variability and future climate change, with losses projected to increase if the intensity of tropical storms increases. Current adaptation is uneven and readiness for increased exposure is low. ''*** N'' [14.4]
* In the Polar Regions, the main projected biophysical effects are reductions in thickness and extent of glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in natural ecosystems with detrimental effects on many organisms including migratory birds, mammals and higher predators. In the Arctic, additional impacts include reductions in the extent of sea ice and permafrost, increased coastal erosion, and an increase in the depth of permafrost seasonal thawing. ''** D'' [15.3, 15.4, 15.2]\n* For Arctic human communities, impacts, particularly resulting from changing snow and ice conditions, are projected to be mixed. Detrimental impacts would include those on infrastructure and traditional indigenous ways of life. ''** D'' [15.4]\n* Beneficial impacts would include reduced heating costs and more navigable northern sea routes. ''* D'' [15.4]\n* In both polar regions, specific ecosystems and habitats are projected to be vulnerable, as climatic barriers to species' invasions are lowered. ''** D'' [15.6, 15.4]\n* Already Arctic human communities are adapting to climate change, but both external and internal stressors challenge their adaptive capacities. Despite the resilience shown historically by Arctic indigenous communities, some traditional ways of life are being threatened and substantial investments are needed to adapt or re-locate physical structures and communities. ''** D'' [15.ES]
* Small islands, whether located in the Tropics or higher latitudes, have characteristics which make them especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise and extreme events. ''***'' [16.1, 16.5]\n* Deterioration in coastal conditions, for example through erosion of beaches and coral bleaching, is expected to affect local resources, e.g., fisheries, and reduce the value of these destinations for tourism. ''** D'' [16.4]\n* Sea-level rise is expected to exacerbate inundation, storm surge, erosion and other coastal hazards, thus threatening vital infrastructure, settlements and facilities that support the livelihood of island communities. ''*** D'' [16.4]\n* Climate change is projected by the mid-century to reduce water resources in many small islands, e.g., in the Caribbean and Pacific, to the point where they become insufficient to meet demand during low rainfall periods. ''*** D'' [16.4]\n* With higher temperatures, increased invasion by non-native species is expected to occur, particularly on middle and high-latitude islands. ''** N'' [16.4]
* The resilience of many ecosystems is likely to be exceeded this century by an unprecedented combination of climate change, associated disturbances (e.g., flooding, drought, wildfire, insects, ocean acidification), and other global change drivers (e.g., land use change, pollution, over-exploitation of resources). ''** N'' [4.1 to 4.6]\n* Over the course of this century net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is likely to peak before mid-century and then weaken or even reverse^^11^^, thus amplifying climate change. ''** [4.ES]\n* Approximately 20-30% of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if increases in global average temperature exceed 1.5-2.5°C. ''* N'' [4.4, T4.1]\n* For increases in global average temperature exceeding 1.5-2.5°C and in concomitant atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, there are projected to be major changes in ecosystem structure and function, species' ecological interactions, and species' geographic ranges, with predominantly negative consequences for biodiversity, and ecosystem goods and services e.g., water and food supply. ''** N'' [4.4]\n* The progressive acidification of oceans due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is expected to have negative impacts on marine shell forming organisms (e.g., corals) and their dependent species. ''* N'' [B4.4, 6.4]
* Crop productivity is projected to increase slightly at mid to high latitudes for local mean temperature increases of up to 1-3°C depending on the crop, and then decrease beyond that in some regions. ''* D'' [5.4]\n* At lower latitudes, especially seasonally dry and tropical regions, crop productivity is projected to decrease for even small local temperature increases (1-2°C), which would increase risk of hunger. ''* D'' [5.4]\n* Globally, the potential for food production is projected to increase with increases in local average temperature over a range of 1-3°C, but above this it is projected to decrease. ''* D'' [5.4, 5.ES]\n* Adaptations such as altered cultivars and planting times allow low and mid- to high latitude cereal yields to be maintained at or above baseline yields for modest warming. ''* N'' [5.5]\n* Increases in the frequency of droughts and floods are projected to affect local production negatively, especially in subsistence sectors at low latitudes. ''** D'' [5.4, 5.ES]\n* Globally, commercial timber productivity rises modestly with climate change in the short- to medium-term, with large regional variability around the global trend. ''* D'' [5.4]\n* Regional changes in the distribution and production of particular fish species are expected due to continued warming, with adverse effects projected for aquaculture and fisheries. ''** D[5.4.6]
* Coasts are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea-level rise and the effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. ''*** D'' [6.3, 6.4]\n* Corals are vulnerable to thermal stress and have low adaptive capacity. Increases in sea surface temperature of about 1 to 3°C are projected to result in more frequent coral bleaching events and widespread mortality, unless there is thermal adaptation or acclimatisation by corals. ''*** D'' [B6.1, 6.4]\n* Coastal wetlands including salt marshes and mangroves are projected to be negatively affected by sea-level rise especially where they are constrained on their landward side, or starved of sediment. ''*** D'' [6.4]\n* Many millions more people are projected to be flooded every year due to sea-level rise by the 2080s. Those densely-populated and low-lying areas where adaptive capacity is relatively low, and which already face other challenges such as tropical storms or local coastal subsidence, are especially at risk. The numbers affected will be largest in the mega-deltas of Asia and Africa while small islands are especially vulnerable. ''*** D'' [6.4]\n* Adaptation for coastal regions will be more challenging in developing countries than developed countries due to constraints on adaptive capacity. ''** D'' [6.4, 6.5, T6.11]
* Costs and benefits of climate change for industry, settlement, and society will vary widely by location and scale. In the aggregate, however, net effects will tend to be more negative the larger the change in climate. ''** N'' [7.4, 7.6]\n* The most vulnerable industries, settlements and societies are generally those in coastal and river flood plains, those whose economies are closely linked with climate-sensitive resources, and those in areas prone to extreme weather events, especially where rapid urbanisation is occurring. ''** D'' [7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5]\n* Poor communities can be especially vulnerable, in particular those concentrated in high-risk areas. They tend to have more limited adaptive capacities, and are more dependent on climate-sensitive resources such as local water and food supplies. ''** N'' [7.2, 7.4, 5.4]\n* Where extreme weather events become more intense and/or more frequent, the economic and social costs of those events will increase, and these increases will be substantial in the areas most directly affected. Climate change impacts spread from directly impacted areas and sectors to other areas and sectors through extensive and complex linkages. ''** N'' [7.4, 7.5]
* Projected climate change-related exposures are likely to affect the health status of millions of people, particularly those with low adaptive capacity, through:\n** increases in malnutrition and consequent disorders, with implications for child growth and development;\n** increased deaths, disease and injury due to heat waves, floods, storms, fires and droughts;\n** the increased burden of diarrhoeal disease;\n** the increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone related to climate change; and,\n** the altered spatial distribution of some infectious disease vectors. ''** D'' [8.4, 8.ES, 8.2]\n* Climate change is expected to have some mixed effects, such as the decrease or increase of the range and transmission potential of malaria in Africa. ''** D'' [8.4]\n* Studies in temperate areas^^12^^ have shown that climate change is projected to bring some benefits, such as fewer deaths from cold exposure. Overall it is expected that these benefits will be outweighed by the negative health effects of rising temperatures world-wide, especially in developing countries. ''** D'' [8.4]\n* The balance of positive and negative health impacts will vary from one location to another, and will alter over time as temperatures continue to rise. Critically important will be factors that directly shape the health of populations such as education, health care, public health prevention and infrastructure and economic development. ''*** N'' [8.3]
* By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to an increase of water stress due to climate change. If coupled with increased demand, this will adversely affect livelihoods and exacerbate water-related problems. ''** D'' [9.4, 3.4, 8.2, 8.4]\n* Agricultural production, including access to food, in many African countries and regions is projected to be severely compromised by climate variability and change. The area suitable for agriculture, the length of growing seasons and yield potential, particularly along the margins of semi-arid and arid areas, are expected to decrease. This would further adversely affect food security and exacerbate malnutrition in the continent. In some countries, yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50% by 2020. ''** D'' [9.2, 9.4, F9.4, 9.6, 8.4]\n* Local food supplies are projected to be negatively affected by decreasing fisheries resources in large lakes due to rising water temperatures, which may be exacerbated by continued over-fishing. ''** N'' [9.4, 5.4, 8.4]\n* Towards the end of the 21st century, projected sea-level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas with large populations. The cost of adaptation could amount to at least 5-10% of GDP. Mangroves and coral reefs are projected to be further degraded, with additional consequences for fisheries and tourism. ''** D'' [9.4]\n* New studies confirm that Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate variability and change because of multiple stresses and low adaptive capacity. Some adaptation to current climate variability is taking place, however, this may be insufficient for future changes in climate. ''** N'' [9.5]
* Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to increase flooding, rock avalanches from destabilised slopes, and affect water resources within the next two to three decades. This will be followed by decreased river flows as the glaciers recede. ''* N'' [10.2, 10.4]\n* Freshwater availability in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia particularly in large river basins is projected to decrease due to climate change which, along with population growth and increasing demand arising from higher standards of living, could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s. ''** N'' [10.4.2]\n* Coastal areas, especially heavily-populated mega-delta regions in South, East and Southeast Asia, will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and in some mega-deltas flooding from the rivers. ''** D'' [10.4]\n* Climate change is projected to impinge on sustainable development of most developing countries of Asia as it compounds the pressures on natural resources and the environment associated with rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, and economic development. ''** D'' [10.5]\n* It is projected that crop yields could increase up to 20% in East and Southeast Asia while it could decrease up to 30% in Central and South Asia by the mid-21st century. Taken together and considering the influence of rapid population growth and urbanization, the risk of hunger is projected to remain very high in several developing countries. ''* N'' [10.4.1]\n* Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal disease primarily associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia due to projected changes in hydrological cycle associated with global warming. Increases in coastal water temperature would exacerbate the abundance and/or toxicity of cholera in South Asia. ''** N'' [10.4.5]
* As a result of reduced precipitation and increased evaporation, water security problems are projected to intensify by 2030 in southern and eastern Australia and, in New Zealand, in Northland and some eastern regions. ''** D'' [11.4]\n* Significant loss of biodiversity is projected to occur by 2020 in some ecologically-rich sites including the Great Barrier Reef and Queensland Wet Tropics. Other sites at risk include Kakadu wetlands, south-west Australia, sub-Antarctic islands and the alpine areas of both countries. ''*** D'' [11.4]\n* Ongoing coastal development and population growth in areas such as Cairns and Southeast Queensland (Australia) and Northland to Bay of Plenty (New Zealand), are projected to exacerbate risks from sea-level rise and increases in the severity and frequency of storms and coastal flooding by 2050. ''*** D'' [11.4, 11.6]\n* Production from agriculture and forestry by 2030 is projected to decline over much of southern and eastern Australia, and over parts of eastern New Zealand, due to increased drought and fire. However, in New Zealand, initial benefits to agriculture and forestry are projected in western and southern areas and close to major rivers due to a longer growing season, less frost and increased rainfall. ''** N'' [11.4]\n* The region has substantial adaptive capacity due to well-developed economies and scientific and technical capabilities, but there are considerable constraints to implementation and major challenges from changes in extreme events. Natural systems have limited adaptive capacity. ''** N'' [11.2, 11.5]
!!!Resolution on Information and Communications\nadopted by the\n''20th General Assembly''\nof the\n''Conference Of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Status with ECOSOC (CONGO)''\nGeneva, Switzerland, 3-5 November, 1997\n!!!Information and Communications\n<<<\nThe //20th General Assembly of the Conference of NGOs//, meeting in Geneva from 3 to 5 November, 1997,\n\n//Recognizing// the continuing dramatic advances in information and communications technology, and the ways in which these advances are:\n* transforming access to, and participation in, the United Nations system;\n* creating a forum for non-governmental organizations that transcends national boundaries; and\n* enabling structural changes in the relationships between non-governmental organizations and national and local governments; \n//Recognizing also// that there exist very substantial disparities between countries, and within countries, in the extent to which there is effective access to the global information infrastructure;\n\n//Resolves// to consider how the Conference of NGOs and its member organizations can make use of modern information and communications technology to increase their effectiveness and to strengthen the participation of non-governmental organizations in the work of the United Nations system in order to promote the goals of the United Nations. \n<<<\n\n----\n\nResolution proposed by:\n: [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]]\n: International Council of Jewish Women
The ''Catholic International Education Office'' is a non-governmental organization representing world-wide Catholic education as a NGO. Founded in 1952 in Lucerne (Switzerland). It groups the national secretariats of Catholic education from each member country. Organised in five world regions : Africa, America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, Middle and Near-East. General Secretariat established in Brussels (Belgium). Formal relationship with international agencies and institutions working in the field of education:\n* ''UNESCO'': consultative status, category B, since 1958. With a status of formal consultation relationship since 1997.\n* ''ECOSOC'': registered with the Social and Economic Council of the United Nations since 1958. Since 1998, special consultative status.\n* ''UNICEF'': consultative status since 1963.\n* ''Council of Europe'': consultative status since 1965.\n* Collaboration relationship with: ''FAO'' (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation), ''ILO'' (International Labour Office), ''OAU'' (Organisation of African Unity), ''OAS'' (Organisation of American States). \n\n\n\n
![[Overview]]\n!![[Climate Change Crisis]]\n* [[Nature of the Climate Change]]\n* [[Timelines of Climate Change]]\n* [[Overview: Historic & Projected Trends]]\n!![[CO2 Emissions]]\n* [[Escalating Energy Consumption]]\n* [[Greenhouse Effect]]\n!![[Global Warming]]\n* [[Melting Ice]]\n** [[Vanishing Icecaps]]\n** [[Thermal Currents]]\n** [[Vanishing Glaciers]]\n** [[Meltdown Dynamics]]\n** [[Freshwater Shortages]]\n* [[Sea level rise]]\n** [[Lowlands Loss & Flooding]]\n** [[Small Islands]]\n* [[Extreme Weather]]\n** [[Extreme Storms]]\n** [[Prolongued Droughts]]\n!![[Economics of Climate Change]]\n* [[The Stern Review]] - Macroeconomics\n* [[Grassroots Enterprises]] - Microeconomics\n!![[Vital Responses]]\n* [[Guiding Principles]]\n* [[Wetlands Restoration]]\n* [[Native Tree Planting]]\n* [[Soil Conservation]]\n* [[Composting]]\n* [[Biogas]]\n* [[Permaculture principles]]\n* [[Avoiding dangerous climate change]]\n!![[Open Source Intelligence]]
<<<\n"No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it."\n//Albert Einstein// (1879 - 1955) Physicist & Nobel Laureate \n<<<\n''Climate Change 2.0'' is being developed from a vision of a collaborative application of [[Web 2.0]] methodologies to the global [[climate change crisis|Climate change crisis]] and incorporating a transition to an [[Open Source]], [[Creative Commons]] climate. ''Climate Change 2.0'' is based on the recognition of the vital contribution that the combination of the [[economics of information|Economics of information]] and information and communications technologies (ICT) can contribute - and already are contributing - to addressing what is increasingly recognized as the greatest challenges to a sustainable common future, both through the power of the technologies and through the progressive discovery and realization of the fundamental properties and nature of a digital knowledge-based universe and the accompanying profound freedoms and transformation of human consciousness and the emergence of digitally-connected global civil society that has been growing rapidly since the early stages of preparations for the 1992 Earth Summit - of which the [[United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change]] was a key component.\n\n\nWhile Climate Change 2.0 \n<<<\n"''The Interlocking Crises''\nUntil recently, the planet was a large world in which human activities and their effects were neatly compartmentalized within nations, within sectors (energy, agriculture, trade), and within broad areas of concern (environment, economics, social). These compartments have begun to dissolve. This applies in particular to the various global 'crises' that have seized public concern, particularly over the past decade. These are not separate crises: an environmental crisis, a development crisis, an energy crisis. They are all one."\n//[[Our Common Future, From One Earth to One World|]]//\n<<<\n''Climate Change 2.0'' is being jointly launched by the [[NGO Networking Commitee]]\n\nDespite the fact that ICT has made indispensable contributions to the understanding of climate change. the lack of recognition of the current and potential role of ICT - and of the [[economics of information|Economics of information]], in addressing the climate change crisis is striking. Among the many contributions of ICT are the:\n* collection and analysis of the evidence demonstrating the nature and dynamics of climate change would not be possible;\n* use of earth observation satellite imagery\n* extensive and timely collaboration among thousands of research scientists, advocates and activists concerned with climate change;\n* use of the Internet as a key medium in the publication and dissemination of information and publications relating to climate change trends\nHowever, while there is a massive amount of information freely available online in relation to climate change,\n* there is no systematic strategy to optimize the organization of climate change information for a digital environment\n* almost all of the major documents are published as pdf files - a format optimized for printing - and that offers fairly primitive and cumbersome navigational features compared to the combination of HTML, scripting languages and database-driven methodologies\n* the pdf files are generally created without even the incorporation of internal pdf navigational tools, i.e. bookmarks, or with systematic inclusion of hyperlinks to references\nIn addition. although there are some excellent examples of the value of process-oriented ICT, little attention is given to the actual and potential use of ICT in such areas as:\n* monitoring and analyzing industrial energy & resource use, often within the conceptual framework of ''industrial ecology'' - see <<wikipedia "Industrial ecology">> at <<wikipedia Wikipedia>>.\n* monitoring and management of residential & office energy use\n* monitoring and management of traffic congestion & traffic flows\n* energy-saving through substituting the movement of information for the movement of people\n!!![[Background / Context]]\n!!![[Draft Plan of Action]]\n!!![[Current Status]]\n!!![[Related Initiatives]]
To date a number of elements of Climate 2.0 have been under development, with a short-term focus on the development of an online platform for the September 2007 ''60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference'' - on the theme of Climate Change in , and in the broader context of the [[NGO Committee on Education]]'s focus on the [[United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]], 2005-2014, and related international decades.\n\nThe DPI/NGO Climate Change Conference offers a unique opportunity for a demonstration project of [[Climate Change 2.0]] as it will be the last to be held at the United Nations Headquarters before major renovations begin, and there is strong interest in developing a prototype interactive online framework that would provide for real-time participation in the Conference, for this Conference, and as a model to be used for future Annual DPI/NGO Conferences.\n\nAmong the elements that are under development are the following:\n* [[Climate Change 2.0 - The Manhattan Connection]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble: Plan B 3.0 (beta)]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[Education, Youth & Technology for Sustainable Development]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements]]<br>[[|]]\n** [[TiddlyPerfect: An emerging hybrid information species]]<br>[[|]]
The ''Information Ecology of Climate Change'' is intended to harness the power of the Internet, and particularly of ''Web 2.0'' tools to the challenge of climate change, with a focus on the use of Free and Open Source software and through a focused and systematic expansion of the global [[Creative Commons]].\n\nThere is a vast amount of information and documents on the many aspects of climate change freely available online, and while it is relatively easy to find information and specific documents using search engines, it is also very easy to be overwhelmed by the sheer volume - a Google search for "climate change" currently generate approximately 85,000,000 hits, for "global warming" and "sustainable development", the numbers are 70,000,000 and 60,000,000 respectively.\n\nMost of the major documents on climate change are published - and freely available - as pdf files; however, pdf is optimized for printing, not for online accessibility; page breaks make reading a pdf document online a discontinuous process, and the use of hyperlinks in pdf files - when they are included - makes for a very cumbersome navigation process. One of the key initial tasks for ''Climate Change 2.0'' is the translation of these pdf documents into a format optimized for a web-based environment.\n\nWhen HTML versions of climate change reports are also published, e.g. with copies of the [[Third Assessment Review|IPCC Third Assessment Review]] of the [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]], the HTML pages are frequently in a fragmented form. The adoption of simple, no-cost, measures such as the creation of dedicated sub-domains for the publication of each report could provide significant benefits by enabling site-specific searches.\n\nFrequently, lengthy reports, e.g. the 659 page [[Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change|Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review]], are published without the inclusion of any bookmarks. Incidentally, the Stern Review, in addressing the economics of climate change gave very scant attention to the role of information technology, and offered no analysis of the economics of information.\n\nMany climate change-related research papers are only available through subscription to professional journals; while individual copies can generally be purchased, typically at the price of $9.00 per article (compared to a zero marginal cost), the number of articles that a serious lay investigator might have a legitimate interest in reading makes for a prohibitive cost for most people; a cooperative initiative among professional societies to waive the charge for papers on climate change, \n\nYochai Benkler's acclaimed book, [[The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom]] offers exceptional insight and examples as to the profound transformation that are taking place, through "peer production" and new forms of collaboration in the accelerating transition to a "networked information economy"; it seems clear that a systematic effort to harness these powerful processes in a broad-based mobilization of creative intelligence to address the global climate change crisis would pay handsome dividends.\n\nThe Wealth of Networks also highlights the opportunities for significant contributions to bodies of knowledge that can be made by individuals, often without formal credentials, who are able to develop online centers of excellence through a systematic process of gathering and organizing information from multiple online sources. Given the increasingly narrow specialization in scientific research, the free availability of scientific research on climate change could provide an excellent opportunity for a generalist, with a holistic perspective and a broad general understanding of different scientific fields to make a major contribution to the body of knowledge on climate change.\n\nThe example of ''Oscar'' - an open source design for an environmentally-sound automobile - offers another example of how the adoption of open source, creative commons approaches to technology offer the possibility of making significant contributions to addressing climate change. In a different vein, the combination of WalMart's recent commitment to address climate change and its extensive use of RFID technology could serve as a demonstration model for the establishment of full-cost accounting in the traditional economic sphere by making visible, and accountable, previously undocumented external costs, including environmental impacts, of economic activity. The Stern Review correctly recognizes the failure of conventional markets to acknowledge external costs as a fundamental market failure that has been a major economic driver in supporting unsustainable energy use and the corresponding increases in the emission of greenhouse gases.\n\nThere would be great value in developing and implementing a comprehensive initiative to gather and organize the available information on climate change - and on a broad range of sustainable development issues, and while the cost would not be trivial, the effort could pay great dividends in the challenge of addressing climate change. There is a clear need for the development and utilizations of a climate change taxonomy, and corresponding enhancements to search engine methodology, that could play a valuable role in targeted search for relevant information.\n\nA web-based campaign to make use of social bookmarking sites - e.g. [[|]] and [[Blue Dot|]] - as platforms for collaborative gathering and sharing of key online information and resources, together with the progressive development of a structured framework for climate change-related tags offers significant opportunities for rapid and effective dissemination of critical information.\n\nLikewise, the development of a collaborative wiki site, provided it incorporates an accountability and clear commitment to, and monitoring of, guidelines for participation that are unfortunately missing from <<wikipedia Wikipedia>>, could offer an invaluable participatory forum within which a rigorous, comprehensive body of climate change information could be assembled..\n\nTiddlyPerfect offers a very promising platform for managing, organizing and sharing climate change information. TiddlyPerfect is an emerging hybrid information species combining the power of two exceptional software platforms - TiddlyWiki - [[|]] - a brilliant and rapidly-evolving self-contained wiki that serves as a prime example of the "peer production" model described by Yochai Benkler - and DataPerfect, lesser-known companion of the classic WordPerfect for DOS and arguably the most brilliant relational database yet to see the light of day, whose genius was largely obscured by the transition to a Windows platform, but has remained alive, supported by a brilliant and dedicated group of developers - see [[|]] - and has now been adapted to an online environment where it is now able to function as a web server.\n\nIn a broader context, the radical change in an in increasingly networked information economy - touched on but not fully developed in Yochai Benkler's [[The Wealth of Networks|The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom]] is the largely unappreciated reality that in a networked knowledge-based universe, a universe in which knowledge is the central basis for wealth and in which the zero-based properties of information become increasingly self-evident and appreciated - i.e. that information has zero mass, zero physical size and takes virtually zero time and cost to travel - accessibility to wealth is no longer constrained the laws of conservation of mass and energy.
Hand-in-hand with the online dimensions of ''Climate Change 2.0'' is a focus on the simple, yet vital task of ''Renewing the Earth'' through composting -
<<<\n"No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it."\n//Albert Einstein// (1879 - 1955) Physicist & Nobel Laureate \n<<<\n''Climate Change 2.0 - The Manhattan Connection'', scheduled for release on ''Earth Day'' - ''Sunday, April 22, 2007'' - has been conceived as a vehicle to harness the power and intelligence of Web 2.0 and to mobilize the resources, genius, creativity, power and diversity of Manhattan, and surrounding areas, to address the truths and consequences of dangerous global climate change, and the addiction to oil with which the dangers are directly linked. \n!! Why Climate Change 2.0?\n!!! Phase 2: Truth & Consequences; The Need for Timely, Intelligent Responses\nWith the initial release of the [[Fourth Assessment Report]] of the [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]], following on the heels of [[An Inconvenient Truth]], and in the light of increasing reports of rapidly melting ice - sea ice, ice sheets, ice caps, snow caps and glaciers - in the polar and mountain regions of the Earth - and the growing disruption of human communities, wildlife, flora and fauna in those regions.\n!! Why The Manhattan Connection?\nWhile dangerous climate change \n!!! Magnitude of the Challenge\nNothing less than a commitment on a scale, and urgency as great or greater than that of the original Manhattan Project is needed for a timely, intelligent responses to the truth and consequences of global warming\nWe need to recognize that the magnitude and immediacy of the rising trend of both temperatures and of greenhouse gases - especially CO~~2~~ - Carbon Dioxide - combined with the cumulative impact of historical emissions and the time scale momentum of \n!!! Manhattan's Power and Influence\nAs both financial and communications capital of the world, \n\n* [[Climate Change 2.0 - Elements]]\n* [[Climate Change 2.0 - The Vision]]\n* [[Climate Change 2.0 - Renewing the Earth]]\n
Climate Change 2.0 incorporates a vision of
!! A. Introduction\n<<tiddler "A. Introduction">>\n!! B. Current knowledge about observed impacts of climate change on the natural and human environment\n<<tiddler "B. Current knowledge about observed impacts of climate change on the natural and human environment">>\n!! C. Current knowledge about future impacts\n<<tiddler "C. Current knowledge about future impacts">>\n!! D. Current knowledge about responding to climate change\n<<tiddler "D. Current knowledge about responding to climate change">>
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In addition to this main web site, the [[Information and Communications Sub-Committee]] has been developing a number of web sites for the [[NGO Committee on Education]]:\n* ''UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements'' - a unique hyperlinked collection of more than five hundred key United Nations documents relating to sustainable development, education, human rights, peace, etc., including the agreements from most of the major global conferences organized by the United Nations and a significant number of important conventions / treaties. [[Read more details|UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements]] \n* ''The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom'' - an HTML adaptation of the highly acclaimed book, released under a [[Creative Commons]] licence, on the nature and dynamics of a 'networked information economy' by ''Yochai Benkler''. Professor of Law at Yale University and New York University. [[Read more details|The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom]]
In many respects, composting is at the heart of Climate Change 2.0. Compostin - saving your coffee grounds and eggshells, banana and orange peel,
''CONGO'' - the ''C''onference ''O''f ''N''on-''G''overnmental ''O''rganizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations - is an independent, international, not-for-profit membership association of nongovernmental organizations that facilitates the participation of NGOs in United Nations debates and decisions. CONGO is most active in the major UN centers of New York, Geneva, and Vienna, but extends its work to all regions of the world. In 2000. CONGO became an NGO in General Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.\n*
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/***\n|Name|HoverMenuPlugin|\n|Created by|[[Saq Imtiaz]]|\n|Location||\n|Version|1.11|\n|Requires|~TW2.x|\n|Description: |Provides a hovering menu on the edge of the screen for commonly used commands, that scrolls with the page. |\n|Demo: |Observe the hovering menu on the right edge of the screen. |\n|Installation: |Copy the contents of this tiddler to your TW, tag with systemConfig, save and reload your TW. |\nTo customize your HoverMenu, edit the HoverMenu shadow tiddler.\n\nTo customize whether the menu sticks to the right or left edge of the screen, and its start position, edit the HoverMenu configuration settings part of the code below. It's well documented, so don't be scared!\n\nThe menu has an id of hoverMenu, in case you want to style the buttons in it using css.\n\n!Notes:\nSince the default HoverMenu contains buttons for toggling the side bar and jumping to the top of the screen and to open tiddlers, the ToggleSideBarMacro, JumpMacro and the JumpToTopMacro are included in this tiddler, so you dont need to install them separately. Having them installed separately as well could lead to complications.\n\nIf you dont intend to use these three macros at all, feel free to remove those sections of code in this tiddler.\n\n!To Do:\n* rework code to allow multiple hovering menus in different positions, horizontal etc.\n* incorporate code for keyboard shortcuts that correspond to the buttons in the hovermenu\n\n!History:\n*03-08-06, ver 1.1.2: compatibility fix with SelectThemePlugin\n*03-08-06, ver 1.11: fixed error with button tooltips\n*27-07-06, ver 1.1 : added JumpMacro to hoverMenu\n*23-07-06\n\n!Code\n***/\n\n/***\nstart HoverMenu plugin code\n***/\n//{{{\nconfig.hoverMenu={};\n//}}}\n\n/***\nHoverMenu configuration settings\n***/\n//{{{\nconfig.hoverMenu.settings={\n align: 'right', //align menu to right or left side of screen, possible values are 'right' and 'left' \n x: 18, // horizontal distance of menu from side of screen, increase to your liking.\n y: 200 //vertical distance of menu from top of screen at start, increase or decrease to your liking\n };\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\n//continue HoverMenu plugin code\nconfig.hoverMenu.handler=function()\n{ \n if (!document.getElementById("hoverMenu"))\n {\n var theMenu = createTiddlyElement(document.getElementById("contentWrapper"), "div","hoverMenu");\n theMenu.setAttribute("refresh","content");\n theMenu.setAttribute("tiddler","HoverMenu");\n var menuContent = store.getTiddlerText("HoverMenu");\n wikify(menuContent,theMenu);\n }\n\n var Xloc = this.settings.x;\n Yloc =this.settings.y;\n var ns = (navigator.appName.indexOf("Netscape") != -1);\n function SetMenu(id)\n {\n var GetElements=document.getElementById?document.getElementById(id):document.all?document.all[id]:document.layers[id];\n if(document.layers);\n GetElements.sP=function(x,y){[config.hoverMenu.settings.align]=x +"px"; +"px";};\n GetElements.x = Xloc;\n GetElements.y = findScrollY();\n GetElements.y += Yloc;\n return GetElements;\n }\n window.LoCate_XY=function()\n {\n var pY = findScrollY();\n ftlObj.y += (pY + Yloc - ftlObj.y)/15;\n ftlObj.sP(ftlObj.x, ftlObj.y);\n setTimeout("LoCate_XY()", 10);\n }\n ftlObj = SetMenu("hoverMenu");\n LoCate_XY();\n};\n\nwindow.old_lewcid_hovermenu_restart = restart;\nrestart = function()\n{\n window.old_lewcid_hovermenu_restart();\n config.hoverMenu.handler();\n};\n\nsetStylesheet(\n"#hoverMenu .imgLink, #hoverMenu .imgLink:hover {border:none; padding:0px; float:right; margin-bottom:2px; margin-top:0px;}\sn"+\n"#hoverMenu .button, #hoverMenu .tiddlyLink {border:none; font-weight:bold; background:#18f; color:#FFF; padding:0 5px; float:right; margin-bottom:4px;}\sn"+\n"#hoverMenu .button:hover, #hoverMenu .tiddlyLink:hover {font-weight:bold; border:none; color:#fff; background:#000; padding:0 5px; float:right; margin-bottom:4px;}\sn"+\n"#hoverMenu .button {width:100%; text-align:center}"+\n"#hoverMenu { position:absolute; width:7px;}\sn"+\n"\sn","hoverMenuStyles");\n\n\nconfig.macros.renameButton={};\nconfig.macros.renameButton.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n\n if (place.lastChild.tagName!="BR")\n {\n = params[0];\n if (params[1]) {place.lastChild.title = params[1];}\n }\n};\n\nconfig.shadowTiddlers["HoverMenu"]="<<top>>\sn<<toggleSideBar>><<renameButton '>' >>\sn<<jump j '' top>>\sn<<saveChanges>><<renameButton s 'Save TiddlyWiki'>>\sn<<newTiddler>><<renameButton n>>\sn";\n//}}}\n//end HoverMenu plugin code\n\n//Start ToggleSideBarMacro code\n//{{{\nconfig.macros.toggleSideBar={};\n\nconfig.macros.toggleSideBar.settings={\n styleHide : "#sidebar { display: none;}\sn"+"#contentWrapper #displayArea { margin-right: 1em;}\sn"+"",\n styleShow : " ",\n arrow1: "«",\n arrow2: "»"\n};\n\nconfig.macros.toggleSideBar.handler=function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n var tooltip= params[1]||'toggle sidebar';\n var mode = (params[2] && params[2]=="hide")? "hide":"show";\n var arrow = (mode == "hide")? this.settings.arrow1:this.settings.arrow2;\n var label= (params[0]&&params[0]!='.')?params[0]+" "+arrow:arrow;\n var theBtn = createTiddlyButton(place,label,tooltip,this.onToggleSideBar,"button HideSideBarButton");\n if (mode == "hide")\n { \n (document.getElementById("sidebar")).setAttribute("toggle","hide");\n setStylesheet(this.settings.styleHide,"ToggleSideBarStyles");\n }\n};\n\nconfig.macros.toggleSideBar.onToggleSideBar = function(){\n var sidebar = document.getElementById("sidebar");\n var settings = config.macros.toggleSideBar.settings;\n if (sidebar.getAttribute("toggle")=='hide')\n {\n setStylesheet(settings.styleShow,"ToggleSideBarStyles");\n sidebar.setAttribute("toggle","show");\n (,settings.arrow2);\n }\n else\n { \n setStylesheet(settings.styleHide,"ToggleSideBarStyles");\n sidebar.setAttribute("toggle","hide");\n (,settings.arrow1);\n }\n\n return false;\n}\n\nsetStylesheet(".HideSideBarButton .button {font-weight:bold; padding: 0 5px;}\sn","ToggleSideBarButtonStyles");\n//}}}\n//end ToggleSideBarMacro code\n\n//start JumpToTopMacro code\n//{{{\{};\,macroName)\n{\n createTiddlyButton(place,"^","jump to top",this.onclick);\n}\\n{\n window.scrollTo(0,0);\n};\n\ =\n{\n text:" ^ ",\n tooltip:"jump to top"\n};\n\ = function(event,src,title)\n{\n window.scrollTo(0,0);\n}\n//}}}\n//end JumpToStartMacro code\n\n//start JumpMacro code\n//{{{\nconfig.macros.jump= {};\nconfig.macros.jump.handler = function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n var label = (params[0] && params[0]!=".")? params[0]: 'jump';\n var tooltip = (params[1] && params[1]!=".")? params[1]: 'jump to an open tiddler';\n var top = (params[2] && params[2]=='top') ? true: false; \n\n var btn =createTiddlyButton(place,label,tooltip,this.onclick);\n if (top==true)\n btn.setAttribute("top","true")\n}\n\nconfig.macros.jump.onclick = function(e)\n{\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);\n var top = theTarget.getAttribute("top");\n var popup = Popup.create(this);\n if(popup)\n {\n if(top=="true")\n {createTiddlyButton(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),'Top ↑','Top of TW',;\n createTiddlyElement(popup,"hr");}\n \n story.forEachTiddler(function(title,element) {\n createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),title,true);\n });\n }\n,false);\n e.cancelBubble = true;\n if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();\n return false;\n}\n\ = function()\n{\n window.scrollTo(0,0);\n}\n//}}}\n//end JumpMacro code\n\n//utility functions\n//{{{\ = function(unused,slowly)\n{\n var curr = Popup.stack[Popup.stack.length-1];\n var rootLeft = findPosX(curr.root);\n var rootTop = findPosY(curr.root);\n var rootHeight = curr.root.offsetHeight;\n var popupLeft = rootLeft;\n var popupTop = rootTop + rootHeight;\n var popupWidth = curr.popup.offsetWidth;\n var winWidth = findWindowWidth();\n if (isChild(curr.root,'hoverMenu'))\n var x = config.hoverMenu.settings.x;\n else\n var x = 0;\n if(popupLeft + popupWidth+x > winWidth)\n popupLeft = winWidth - popupWidth -x;\n if (isChild(curr.root,'hoverMenu'))\n { = x + "px";}\n else\n = popupLeft + "px";\n = popupTop + "px";\n = "block";\n addClass(curr.root,"highlight");\n if(config.options.chkAnimate)\n anim.startAnimating(new Scroller(curr.popup,slowly));\n else\n window.scrollTo(0,ensureVisible(curr.popup));\n}\n\nwindow.isChild = function(e,parentId) {\n while (e != null) {\n var parent = document.getElementById(parentId);\n if (parent == e) return true;\n e = e.parentNode;\n }\n return false;\n};\n//}}}\n\n\n
* ''Some adaptation is occurring now, to observed and projected future climate change, but on a limited basis.'' +++\n* There is growing evidence since the IPCC Third Assessment of human activity to adapt to observed and anticipated climate change. For example, climate change is considered in the design of infrastructure projects such as coastal defence in the Maldives and The Netherlands, and the Confederation Bridge in Canada. Other examples include prevention of glacial lake outburst flooding in Nepal, and policies and strategies such as water management in Australia and government responses to heat waves in, for example, some European countries. [7.6, 8.2, 8.6, 17.ES, 17.2, 16.5, 11.5]\n===\n\n* ''Adaptation will be necessary to address impacts resulting from the warming which is already unavoidable due to past emissions.'' +++\n* Past emissions are estimated to involve some unavoidable warming (about a further 0.6°C by the end of the century) even if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remain at 2000 levels (see Working Group I Fourth Assessment). There are some impacts for which adaptation is the only available and appropriate response. An indication of these impacts can be seen in Table SPM-1.\n===\n\n* ''A wide array of adaptation options is available, but more extensive adaptation than is currently occurring is required to reduce vulnerability to future climate change. There are barriers, limits and costs, but these are not fully understood.'' +++\n* Impacts are expected to increase with increases in global average temperature, as indicated in Table SPM-1. Although many early impacts of climate change can be effectively addressed through adaptation, the options for successful adaptation diminish and the associated costs increase with increasing climate change. At present we do not have a clear picture of the limits to adaptation, or the cost, partly because effective adaptation measures are highly dependent on specific, geographical and climate risk factors as well as institutional, political and financial constraints. [7.6, 17.2, 17.4]\n* The array of potential adaptive responses available to human societies is very large, ranging from purely technological (e.g., sea defences), through behavioural (e.g., altered food and recreational choices) to managerial (e.g., altered farm practices), to policy (e.g., planning regulations). While most technologies and strategies are known and developed in some countries, the assessed literature does not indicate how effective various options14 are to fully reduce risks, particularly at higher levels of warming and related impacts, and for vulnerable groups. In addition, there are formidable environmental, economic, informational, social, attitudinal and behavioural barriers to implementation of adaptation. For developing countries, availability of resources and building adaptive capacity are particularly important. [See Sections 5 and 6 in Chapters 316; also 17.2, 17.4].\n* However, adaptation alone is not expected to cope with all the projected effects of climate change, and especially not over the long run as most impacts increase in magnitude [Table SPM-1].\n===\n\n* ''Vulnerability to climate change can be exacerbated by the presence of other stresses.'' +++\n* Non-climate stresses can increase vulnerability to climate change by reducing resilience and can also reduce adaptive capacity because of resource deployment to competing needs. For example, current stresses on some coral reefs include marine pollution and chemical runoff from agriculture as well as increases in water temperature and ocean acidification. Vulnerable regions face multiple stresses that affect their exposure and sensitivity as well as their capacity to adapt. These stresses arise from, for example, current climate hazards, poverty and unequal access to resources, food insecurity, trends in economic globalisation, conflict, and incidence of disease such as HIV/AIDS. [7.4, 8.3, 17.3, 20.3] Adaptation measures are seldom undertaken in response to climate change alone but can be integrated within, for example, water resource management, coastal defence, and disaster planning [17.2, 17.5].\n===\n\n* ''Future vulnerability depends not only on climate change but also on development pathway.'' +++\n* An important advance since the IPCC Third Assessment has been the completion of impacts studies for a range of different development pathways taking into account not only projected climate change but also projected social and economic changes. Most have been based on characterisations of population and income level drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). [2.4]\n* These studies show that the projected impacts of climate change can vary greatly due to the development pathway assumed. For example, there may be large differences in regional population, income and technological development under alternative scenarios, which are often a strong determinant of the level of vulnerability to climate change. [2.4]\n* To illustrate, in a number of recent studies of global impacts of climate change on food supply, risk of coastal flooding and water scarcity, the projected number of people affected is considerably greater under the A2-type scenario of development (characterised by relatively low per capita income and large population growth) than under other SRES futures. [T20.6] This difference is largely explained, not by differences in changes of climate, but by differences in vulnerability. [T6.6] This difference is largely explained, not by differences in changes of climate, but by differences in vulnerability. [T6.6]\n===\n\n* ''Sustainable development^^15^^ can reduce vulnerability to climate change, and climate change could impede nations' abilities to achieve sustainable development pathways.'' +++\n* Sustainable development can reduce vulnerability to climate change by enhancing adaptive capacity and increasing resilience. At present, however, few plans for promoting sustainability have explicitly included either adapting to climate change impacts, or promoting adaptive capacity. [20.3]\n* On the other hand, it is very likely that climate change can slow the pace of progress toward sustainable development either directly through increased exposure to adverse impact or indirectly through erosion of the capacity to adapt. This point is clearly demonstrated in the sections of the sectoral and regional chapters of this report that discuss implications for sustainable development. [See Section 7 in Chapters 3-8, 20.3, 20.7]\n* The [[Millennium Development Goals]] (MDGs) are one measure of progress towards sustainable development. Over the next half-century, climate change could impede achievement of the MDGs. [20.7]\n===\n\n* ''Many impacts can be avoided, reduced or delayed by mitigation.'' +++\n* A small number of impact assessments have now been completed for scenarios in which future atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are stabilised. Although these studies do not take full account of uncertainties in projected climate under stabilisation, they nevertheless provide indications of damages avoided or vulnerabilities and risks reduced for different amounts of emissions reduction. [2.4, T20.6]\n===\n\n* ''A portfolio of adaptation and mitigation measures can diminish the risks associated with climate change.'' +++\n* Even the most stringent mitigation efforts cannot avoid further impacts of climate change in the next few decades, which makes adaptation essential, particularly in addressing near-term impacts. Unmitigated climate change would, in the long term, be likely to exceed the capacity of natural, managed and human systems to adapt. [20.7]\n* This suggests the value of a portfolio or mix of strategies that includes mitigation, adaptation, technological development (to enhance both adaptation and mitigation) and research (on climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation). Such portfolios could combine policies with incentive-based approaches, and actions at all levels from the individual citizen through to national governments and international organizations. [18.1, 18.5]\n* One way of increasing adaptive capacity is by introducing consideration of climate change impacts in development planning [18.7], for example, by:\n** including adaptation measures in land-use planning and infrastructure design [17.2];\n** including measures to reduce vulnerability in existing disaster risk reduction strategies [17.2, 20.8].\n===\n\n* ''Impacts of climate change will vary regionally but, aggregated and discounted to the present, they are very likely to impose net annual costs which will increase over time as global temperatures increase.'' +++\n* This Assessment makes it clear that the impacts of future climate change will be mixed across regions. For increases in global mean temperature of less than 1 to 3°C above 1990 levels, some impacts are projected to produce benefits in some places and some sectors, and produce costs in other places and other sectors . It is, however, projected that some low latitude and polar regions will experience net costs even for small increases in temperature. It is very likely that all regions will experience either declines in net benefits or increases in net costs for increases in temperature greater than about 2 to 3°C [9.ES, 9.5, 10.6, T109, 15.3, 15.ES]. These observations re-confirm evidence reported in the Third Assessment that, while developing countries are expected to experience larger percentage losses, global mean losses could be 1-5% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 4°C of warming. [F20.3]\n* Many estimates of aggregate net economic costs of damages from climate change across the globe (i.e., the social cost of carbon (SCC), expressed in terms of future net benefits and costs that are discounted to the present) are now available. Peer-reviewed estimates of the social cost of carbon for 2005 have an average value of US$43 per tonne of carbon (tC) (i.e., US$12 per tonne of carbon dioxide) but the range around this mean is large. For example, in a survey of 100 estimates, the values ran from US$-10 per tonne of carbon (US$-3 per tonne of carbon dioxide) up to US$350/tC (US$130 per tonne of carbon dioxide) [20.6].\n* The large ranges of SCC are due in the large part to differences in assumptions regarding climate sensitivity, response lags, the treatment of risk and equity, economic and non-economic impacts, the inclusion of potentially catastrophic losses and discount rates. It is very likely that globally aggregated figures underestimate the damage costs because they cannot include many non-quantifiable impacts. Taken as a whole, the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time. [T20.3, 20.6, F20.4].\n* It is virtually certain that aggregate estimates of costs mask significant differences in impacts across sectors, regions, countries, and populations. In some locations and amongst some groups of people with high exposure, high sensitivity, and/or low adaptive capacity, net costs will be significantly larger than the global aggregate. [20.6, 20.ES, 7.4]\n===
The DPI/NGO Conference Planning Committee:\n\n
The [[NGO Committee on Education]] was a co-sponsor and organizer - with [[Rotary International]], [[UNESCO|]], [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]], [[Earthwatch Institute]] and the [[Armenian Assembly of America]] - of ''Education, Youth & Technology for Sustainable Development'', a workshop at the ''59th Annual DPI/NGO Conference'' in September 2005 that focused on the [[United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]]. For additional information on the workshop, please visit [[|]] - a site that was the Information and Communications Sub-Committee's first experiment with the TiddlyWiki software platform. \n\nNote that an earlier web site has been created for the workshop, using the open source educational software platform ''Moodle''- an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment - see [[|]]. However. while Moodle offers some exceptional features, it is a much more complex platform, and unlike TiddlyWiki, which is a self-contained web site requiring only a browser to create, edit and/or view a pages, Moodle requires the installation of server-side software - and a web hosting service that permits the installation of the necessary software. You may be able to access the Moodle site for the Workshop - currently hosted sporadically on a home computer running Windows XP - at\n\n
!!Education For All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments\n# Meeting in Dakar, Senegal, in April 2000, we, the participants in the World Education Forum, commit ourselves to the achievement of education for all (EFA) goals and targets for every citizen and for every society.\n# The Dakar Framework is a collective commitment to action. Governments have an obligation to ensure that EFA goals and targets are reached and sustained. This is a responsibility that will be met most effectively through broad-based partnerships within countries, supported by cooperation with regional and international agencies and institutions.\n# We re-affirm the vision of the [[World Declaration on Education for All|]] (Jomtien 1990), supported by the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights|]] and the [[Convention on the Rights of the Child|]], that all children, young people and adults have the human right to benefit from an education that will meet their basic learning needs in the best and fullest sense of the term, an education that includes learning to know, to do, to live together and to be. It is an education geared to tapping each individual's talents and potential, and developing learners' personalities, so that they can improve their lives and transform their societies.\n# We welcome the commitments made by the international community to basic education throughout the 1990s, notably at the [[World Summit for Children|]] (1990), the [[Conference on Environment and Development|]] (1992), the [[World Conference on Human Rights|]] (1993), the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality (1994), the [[International Conference on Population and Development|]] (1994), the [[World Summit for Social Development|]] (1995), the [[Fourth World Conference on Women|]] (1995), the [[Mid-Term Meeting of the International Consultative Forum on Education for All|The Amman Affirmation: Education for all: Achieving the goal]] (1996), the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (1997), and the International Conference on Child Labour (1997). The challenge now is to deliver on these commitments.\n# The EFA 2000 Assessment demonstrates that there has been significant progress in many countries. But it is unacceptable in the year 2000 that more than 113 million children have no access to primary education, 880 million adults are illiterate, gender discrimination continues to permeate education systems, and the quality of learning and the acquisition of human values and skills fall far short of the aspirations and needs of individuals and societies. Youth and adults are denied access to the skills and knowledge necessary for gainful employment and full participation in their societies. Without accelerated progress towards education for all, national and internationally agreed targets for poverty reduction will be missed, and inequalities between countries and within societies will widen.\n# Education is a fundamental human right. It is the key to sustainable development and peace and stability within and among countries, and thus an indispensable means for effective participation in the societies and economies of the twenty-first century, which are affected by rapid globalization. Achieving EFA goals should be postponed no longer. The basic learning needs of all can and must be met as a matter of urgency.\n# We hereby collectively commit ourselves to the attainment of the following goals:\n## expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;\n## ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;\n## ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes;\n## achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;\n## eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality;\n## improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.\n# To achieve these goals, we the governments, organizations, agencies, groups and associations represented at the World Education Forum pledge ourselves to:\n## mobilize strong national and international political commitment for education for all, develop national action plans and enhance significantly investment in basic education;\n## promote EFA policies within a sustainable and well-integrated sector framework clearly linked to poverty elimination and development strategies;\n## ensure the engagement and participation of civil society in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of strategies for educational development;\n## develop responsive, participatory and accountable systems of educational governance and management;\n## meet the needs of education systems affected by conflict, national calamities and instability and conduct educational programmes in ways that promote mutual understanding, peace and tolerance, and help to prevent violence and conflict;\n## implement integrated strategies for gender equality in education which recognize the need for changes in attitudes, values and practices;\n## implement as a matter of urgency education programmes and actions to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic;\n## create safe, healthy, inclusive and equitably resourced educational environments conducive to excellence in learning with clearly defined levels of achievement for all;\n## enhance the status, morale and professionalism of teachers;\n## harness new information and communication technologies to help achieve EFA goals;\n## systematically monitor progress towards EFA goals and strategies at the national, regional and international levels; and\n## build on existing mechanisms to accelerate progress towards education for all.\n# Drawing on the evidence accumulated during the national and regional EFA assessments, and building on existing national sector strategies, all States will be requested to develop or strengthen existing national plans of action by 2002 at the latest. These plans should be integrated into a wider poverty reduction and development framework, and should be developed through more transparent and democratic processes, involving stakeholders, especially peoples' representatives, community leaders, parents, learners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society. The plans will address problems associated with the chronic under-financing of basic education by establishing budget priorities that reflect a commitment to achieving EFA goals and targets at the earliest possible date, and no later than 2015. They will also set out clear strategies for overcoming the special problems facing those currently excluded from educational opportunities, with a clear commitment to girls' education and gender equity. The plans will give substance and form to the goals and strategies set out in this Framework, and to the commitments made during a succession of international conferences in the 1990s. Regional activities to support national strategies will be based on strengthened regional and subregional organizations, networks and initiatives.\n# Political will and stronger national leadership are needed for the effective and successful implementation of national plans in each of the countries concerned. However, political will must be underpinned by resources. The international community acknowledges that many countries currently lack the resources to achieve education for all within an acceptable time-frame. New financial resources, preferably in the form of grants and concessional assistance, must therefore be mobilized by bilateral and multilateral funding agencies, including the World Bank and regional development banks, and the private sector. We affirm that no countries seriously committed to education for all will be thwarted in their achievement of this goal by a lack of resources.\n# The international community will deliver on this collective commitment by launching with immediate effect a global initiative aimed at developing the strategies and mobilizing the resources needed to provide effective support to national efforts. Options to be considered under this initiative will include:\n## increasing external finance for education, in particular basic education;\n## ensuring greater predictability in the flow of external assistance;\n## facilitating more effective donor coordination;\n## strengthening sector-wide approaches;\n## providing earlier, more extensive and broader debt relief and/or debt cancellation for poverty reduction, with a strong commitment to basic education; and\n## undertaking more effective and regular monitoring of progress towards EFA goals and targets, including periodic assessments.\n# There is already evidence from many countries of what can be achieved through strong national strategies supported by effective development cooperation. Progress under these strategies could - and must - be accelerated through increased international support. At the same time, countries with less developed strategies - including countries in transition, countries affected by conflict, and post-crisis countries - must be given the support they need to achieve more rapid progress towards education for all.\n# We will strengthen accountable international and regional mechanisms to give clear expression to these commitments and to ensure that the Dakar Framework for Action is on the agenda of every international and regional organization, every national legislature and every local decision-making forum.\n# The EFA 2000 Assessment highlights that the challenge of education for all is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa, in South Asia, and in the least developed countries. Accordingly, while no country in need should be denied international assistance, priority should be given to these regions and countries. Countries in conflict or undergoing reconstruction should also be given special attention in building up their education systems to meet the needs of all learners.\n# Implementation of the preceding goals and strategies will require national, regional and international mechanisms to be galvanized immediately. To be most effective these mechanisms will be participatory and, wherever possible, build on what already exists. They will include representatives of all stakeholders and partners and they will operate in transparent and accountable ways. They will respond comprehensively to the word and spirit of the Jomtien Declaration and this Dakar Framework for Action. The functions of these mechanisms will include, to varying degrees, advocacy, resource mobilization, monitoring, and EFA knowledge generation and sharing.\n# The heart of EFA activity lies at the country level. National EFA Forums will be strengthened or established to support the achievement of EFA. All relevant ministries and national civil society organizations will be systematically represented in these Forums. They should be transparent and democratic and should constitute a framework for implementation at subnational levels. Countries will prepare comprehensive National EFA Plans by 2002 at the latest. For those countries with significant challenges, such as complex crises or natural disasters, special technical support will be provided by the international community. Each National EFA Plan will:\n## be developed by government leadership in direct and systematic consultation with national civil society;\n## attract co-ordinated support of all development partners;\n## specify reforms addressing the six EFA goals;\n## establish a sustainable financial framework;\n## be time-bound and action-oriented;\n## include mid-term performance indicators; and\n## achieve a synergy of all human development efforts, through its inclusion within the national development planning framework and process.\n# Where these processes and a credible plan are in place, partner members of the international community undertake to work in a consistent, co-ordinated and coherent manner. Each partner will contribute according to its comparative advantage in support of the National EFA Plans to ensure that resource gaps are filled.\n# Regional activities to support national efforts will be based on existing regional and subregional organizations, networks and initiatives, augmented where necessary. Regions and subregions will decide on a lead EFA network that will become the Regional or Subregional Forum with an explicit EFA mandate. Systematic involvement of, and co-ordination with, all relevant civil society and other regional and subregional organizations are essential. These Regional and Subregional EFA Forums will be linked organically with, and be accountable to, National EFA Forums. Their functions will be: co-ordination with all relevant networks; setting and monitoring regional/subregional targets; advocacy; policy dialogue; the promotion of partnerships and technical cooperation; the sharing of best practices and lessons learned; monitoring and reporting for accountability; and promoting resource mobilization. Regional and international support will be available to strengthen Regional and Subregional Forums and relevant EFA capacities, especially within Africa and South Asia.\n# UNESCO will continue its mandated role in co-ordinating EFA partners and maintaining their collaborative momentum. In line with this, UNESCO's Director-General will convene annually a high-level, small and flexible group. It will serve as a lever for political commitment and technical and financial resource mobilization. Informed by a monitoring report from the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), the UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE), the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) and, in particular, the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, and inputs from Regional and Subregional EFA Forums, it will also be an opportunity to hold the global community to account for commitments made in Dakar. It will be composed of highest-level leaders from governments and civil society of developing and developed countries, and from development agencies.\n# UNESCO will serve as the Secretariat. It will refocus its education programme in order to place the outcomes and priorities of Dakar at the heart of its work. This will involve working groups on each of the six goals adopted at Dakar. This Secretariat will work closely with other organizations and may include staff seconded from them.\n# Achieving Education for All will require additional financial support by countries and increased development assistance and debt relief for education by bilateral and multilateral donors, estimated to cost in the order of $8 billion a year. It is therefore essential that new, concrete financial commitments be made by national governments and also by bilateral and multilateral donors including the World Bank and the regional development banks, by civil society and by foundations.\n//28 April 2000 Dakar, Senegal//\n!!![[Expanded Commentary on the Dakar Framework for Action|]]\n
Daphne Cohen received han Ed.D. from Yeshiva University in New York in Administration and Supervision in 2006 , having conducted doctoral research on children’s views on basic concepts in morality. Building upon the work of Piaget, Kohlberg, Vygotsky, and Gilligan, Daphne was awarded a Schupf Foundation Fellowship that funded her doctoral research - undertaken with students at the United Nations International School.\n\nIn addition to pursuing her post-graduate education, Daphne is a Professor at the Graduate School of General and Special Education at Touro College. Professor Cohen teaches a variety of methods courses at Touro integrating technology into various disciplines such as math and science for elementary and middle school teachers. Dr. Cohen also teaches courses for CITE (Center for Integrated Teacher Education) and has taught educational technology and library programs in a variety of day schools. In addition, Professor Cohen has taught online courses for Axia College of the University of Phoenix and Touro College. Daphne is facilitating online courses in the areas of Educational methods integrating technology, math and science for elementary school teachers and critical thinking.\n\nA strong proponent of ongoing professional development with an overriding belief in the importance of utilizing the latest educational resources and technology to meet students’ needs and maintain a challenging, stimulating academic environment, Daphne spearheaded the development of a broad range of educational technology training workshops for school’s, serving as an invaluable resource to assist educators in integrating leading-edge technologies into the core curriculum. She created a comprehensive resource manual encapsulating educational software for early childhood through high school students.\n\nSince 1996, Daphne has developed educational programming and curriculum, established library media centers for educational organizations, and published educational materials. A key highlight in Daphne’s career was the publication of her coauthored work In Search of the Seven Wonders of Noah, a children’s book exploring moral and character education, and a companion educator’s resource guide. Daphne has developed and continues to deliver both teacher and student workshops delving into these publications.\n\nAn enthusiastic and dedicated educator committed to developing responsible, caring, and productive contributors to society, Daphne has a long track record of developing educational curriculum that sparks students’ curiosity, creativity, and critical thinking skills and encourages a life-long love of learning.\n\nPrior to pursuing her doctoral studies, Daphne obtained a Master of Science in Education from Yeshiva University and a Bachelor of Science\nin Elementary Education from Touro College in New York. She holds an Elementary and Early Childhood Education Certification through the\nState of New York as well as a Principal and Teacher’s License from the National Board of License for Teachers and Principals of Private\nSchools in North America. Finally, Dr. Cohen spent a year studying at Jerusalem College in Israel.\n\nDr. Cohen serves as treasurer of the NGO Committee on Education. Dr. Cohen is also a member of the Ethical Union, CEP {Character Education Partnership), AME {Association for Moral Education}, and the APA {American Psychological Association}.
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The contents of this TiddlyWiki web page were generated from a ''~DataPerfect'' database. ~DataPerfect is a little-known, brilliant relational database compantion of the legendary ''~WordPerfect for DOS'', which was used to prepare the text from the pdf files of The Stern Review for input into the ~DataPerfect database. The design of ~DataPerfect makes it an exceptional vehicle for generating content for TiddlyWiki web pages. \n\n~DataPerfect was written, and is still maintained by, ''Lew Bastian'' - older brother of ~WordPerfect's author; before joinging the ''~WordPerfect Corporation'', Lew had worked for ''IBM'', where he had written some of the early disk-caching patents. The development of ~DataPerfect was discontinued by the ''~WordPerfect Corporation'' after the introduction of Windows, and subsequently, Novell made the program freely available; an active ''~DataPerfect Users Group'' - [[|]] - of which Lew Bastian is a leading member - provides exceptional support.
<<<\nAdopted at the ''World Conference of the International Women's Year'' Mexico City, Mexico. 19 June-2 July 1975\n<<<\n//The World Conference of the International Women's Year//,\n\n//Recognizing// that women of the entire world, whatever differences exist between them, share the painful experience of receiving or having received unequal treatment, and that as their awareness of this phenomenon increases they will become natural allies in the struggle against any form of oppression, such as is practiced under colonialism, neo-colonialism, zionism, racial discrimination and apartheid, thereby constituting an enormous revolutionary potential for economic and social change in the world today,\n\n//Recognizing// also the urgency of improving the status of women and finding more effective methods and strategies which will enable them to have the same opportunities as men to participate actively in the development of their countries and to contribute to the attainment of world peace,\n\n//Convinced// that women must play an important role in the promotion, achievement and maintenance of international peace, and that it is necessary to encourage their efforts towards peace, through their full participation in the national and international organizations that exist for this purpose,\n\nWomen have a vital role to play in the promotion of peace in all spheres of life: in the family, the community, the nations and the world. As such, women must participate equally with men in the decision-making processes which help to promote peace at all levels.\n\nWomen as well as men should promote real, general and complete disarmament under effective international control, starting with nuclear disarmament. Until genuine disarmament is achieved, women and men throughout the world must maintain their vigilance and do their utmost to achieve and maintain international peace.\n!!!Plans of Action\nThe primary objective of development being to bring about sustained improvement in the well-being of the individual and of society and to bestow benefits on all, development should be seen not only as a desirable goal in itself but also as the most important means for furthering equality of the sexes and the maintenance of peace. \n* An essential condition for the maintenance and strengthening of international co-operation and peace is the promotion and protection of human rights for all in conditions of equity among and within nations. In order to involve more women in the promotion of international co-operation, the development of friendly relations among nations, the strengthening of international peace and disarmamentæthe peace efforts of women as individuals and in groups, and in national and international organizations should be recognized and encouraged.\n* Women should have equal opportunity with men to represent their countries in all international forums where the above questions are discussed, and in particular at meetings of the organization of the United Nations system, including the Security Council and all conferences on disarmament and international peace, and other regional bodies.
The ''Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education'', organized by Unesco in co-operation with UNEP, convened in the City of Tbilisi reflecting the harmony and consensus achieved there, solemnly adopts the following Declaration.\n<<<\nIn the last few decades, man has, through his power to transform his environment, wrought accelerated changes in the balance of nature. The result is frequent exposure of living species to dangers which may prove irreversible.\n\nThe [[Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]] organized in Stockholm in 1972 proclaimed: "to defend and improve the environment for present and future generations has become an imperative goal for mankind". This undertaking urgently calls for new strategies, incorporated into development, which particularly in the developing countries is a prerequisite for any such improvement. Solidarity and equity in the relations between nations should constitute the basis of a new international order, and bring together, as soon as possible, all available resources. Education utilizing the findings of science and technology should play a leading role in creating an awareness and a better understanding of environmental problems. It must foster positive patterns of conduct towards the environment and the nations' use of their resources.\n\nEnvironmental education should be provided for all ages, at all levels and in both formal and non-formal education. The mass media have a great responsibility to make their immense resources available for this educational mission. Environmental specialists as well as those whose actions and decisions can have a marked effect on the environment, should be provided in the course of their training with the necessary knowledge and skills and be given a full sense of their responsibilities in this respect.\n\nEnvironmental education, properly understood, should constitute a comprehensive lifelong education, one responsive to changes in a rapidly changing world. It should prepare the individual for life through an understanding of the major problems of the contemporary world, and the provision of skills and attributes needed to play a productive role towards improving life and protecting the environment with due regard given to ethical values. By adopting a holistic approach, rooted in a broad interdisciplinary base, it recreates an overall perspective which acknowledges the fact that natural environment and man-made environment are profoundly interdependent. It helps reveal the enduring continuity which links the acts of today to the consequences for tomorrow. It demonstrates the interdependencies among national communities and the need for solidarity among all mankind.\n\nEnvironmental education must look outward to the community. It should involve the individual in an active problem-solving process within the context of specific realities, and it should encourage initiative, a sense of responsibility and commitment to build a better tomorrow. By its very nature, environmental education can make a powerful contribution to the renovation of the educational process.\n\nIn order to achieve these goals, environmental education requires a number of specific actions to fill the gaps that, despite outstanding endeavours, continue to exist in our present education systems.\n<<<\n//Accordingly//, the Tbilisi Conference:\n<<<\n//Appeals// to Member States to include in their educational policies measures designed to introduce environmental concerns, activities and contents into their education systems, on the basis of the above objectives and characteristics;\n\n//Invites// educational authorities to promote and intensify thinking, research and innovation in regard to environmental education;\n\n//Urges// Member States to collaborate in this field, in particular by exchanging experiences, research findings, documentation and materials and by making their training facilities widely available to teachers and specialists from other countries; and\n\n//Appeals//, lastly, to the international community to give generously of its aid in order to strengthen this collaboration in a field which symbolizes the need for solidarity of all peoples and may be regarded as particularly conducive to the promotion of international understanding and to the cause of peace.\n<<<\n----\n\n[[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]
\n\nThe United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972, having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment,\n\nProclaims that:\n\n1. Man is both creature and moulder of his environment, which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on this planet a stage has been reached when, through the rapid acceleration of science and technology, man has acquired the power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. Both aspects of man's environment, the natural and the man-made, are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights the right to life itself.\n\n2. The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world; it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of all Governments.\n\n3. Man has constantly to sum up experience and go on discovering, inventing, creating and advancing. In our time, man's capability to transform his surroundings, if used wisely, can bring to all peoples the benefits of development and the opportunity to enhance the quality of life. Wrongly or heedlessly applied, the same power can do incalculable harm to human beings and the human environment. We see around us growing evidence of man-made harm in many regions of the earth: dangerous levels of pollution in water, air, earth and living beings; major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere; destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources; and gross deficiencies, harmful to the physical, mental and social health of man, in the man-made environment, particularly in the living and working environment.\n\n4. In the developing countries most of the environmental problems are caused by under-development. Millions continue to live far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence, deprived of adequate food and clothing, shelter and education, health and sanitation. Therefore, the developing countries must direct their efforts to development, bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. For the same purpose, the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries. In the industrialized countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development.\n\n5. The natural growth of population continuously presents problems for the preservation of the environment, and adequate policies and measures should be adopted, as appropriate, to face these problems. Of all things in the world, people are the most precious. It is the people that propel social progress, create social wealth, develop science and technology and, through their hard work, continuously transform the human environment. Along with social progress and the advance of production, science and technology, the capability of man to improve the environment increases with each passing day.\n\n6. A point has been reached in history when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for their environmental consequences. Through ignorance or indifference we can do massive and irreversible harm to the earthly environment on which our life and well being depend. Conversely, through fuller knowledge and wiser action, we can achieve for ourselves and our posterity a better life in an environment more in keeping with human needs and hopes. There are broad vistas for the enhancement of environmental quality and the creation of a good life. What is needed is an enthusiastic but calm state of mind and intense but orderly work. For the purpose of attaining freedom in the world of nature, man must use knowledge to build, in collaboration with nature, a better environment. To defend and improve the human environment for present and future generations has become an imperative goal for mankind-a goal to be pursued together with, and in harmony with, the established and fundamental goals of peace and of worldwide economic and social development.\n\n7. To achieve this environmental goal will demand the acceptance of responsibility by citizens and communities and by enterprises and institutions at every level, all sharing equitably in common efforts. Individuals in all walks of life as well as organizations in many fields, by their values and the sum of their actions, will shape the world environment of the future.\n\nLocal and national governments will bear the greatest burden for large-scale environmental policy and action within their jurisdictions. International cooperation is also needed in order to raise resources to support the developing countries in carrying out their responsibilities in this field. A growing class of environmental problems, because they are regional or global in extent or because they affect the common international realm, will require extensive cooperation among nations and action by international organizations in the common interest.\n\nThe Conference calls upon Governments and peoples to exert common efforts for the preservation and improvement of the human environment, for the benefit of all the people and for their posterity.\n\n''Principles''\n\nStates the common conviction that:\n\n''Principle 1''\n\nMan has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being, and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. In this respect, policies promoting or perpetuating apartheid, racial segregation, discrimination, colonial and other forms of oppression and foreign domination stand condemned and must be eliminated.\n\n''Principle 2''\n\nThe natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or management, as appropriate.\n\n''Principle 3''\n\nThe capacity of the earth to produce vital renewable resources must be maintained and, wherever practicable, restored or improved.\n\n''Principle 4''\n\nMan has a special responsibility to safeguard and wisely manage the heritage of wildlife and its habitat, which are now gravely imperilled by a combination of adverse factors. Nature conservation, including wildlife, must therefore receive importance in planning for economic development.\n\n''Principle 5''\n\nThe non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed in such a way as to guard against the danger of their future exhaustion and to ensure that benefits from such employment are shared by all mankind.\n\n''Principle 6''\n\nThe discharge of toxic substances or of other substances and the release of heat, in such quantities or concentrations as to exceed the capacity of the environment to render them harmless, must be halted in order to ensure that serious or irreversible damage is not inflicted upon ecosystems. The just struggle of the peoples of ill countries against pollution should be supported.\n\n''Principle 7''\n\nStates shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas by substances that are liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea.\n\n''Principle 8''\n\nEconomic and social development is essential for ensuring a favorable living and working environment for man and for creating conditions on earth that are necessary for the improvement of the quality of life.\n\n''Principle 9''\n\nEnvironmental deficiencies generated by the conditions of under-development and natural disasters pose grave problems and can best be remedied by accelerated development through the transfer of substantial quantities of financial and technological assistance as a supplement to the domestic effort of the developing countries and such timely assistance as may be required.\n\n''Principle 10''\n\nFor the developing countries, stability of prices and adequate earnings for primary commodities and raw materials are essential to environmental management, since economic factors as well as ecological processes must be taken into account.\n\n''Principle 11''\n\nThe environmental policies of all States should enhance and not adversely affect the present or future development potential of developing countries, nor should they hamper the attainment\n\nof better living conditions for all, and appropriate steps should be taken by States and international organizations with a view to reaching agreement on meeting the possible national and international economic consequences resulting from the application of environmental measures.\n\n''Principle 12''\n\nResources should be made available to preserve and improve the environment, taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries and any costs which may emanate- from their incorporating environmental safeguards into their development planning and the need for making available to them, upon their request, additional international technical and financial assistance for this purpose.\n\n''Principle 13''\n\nIn order to achieve a more rational management of resources and thus to improve the environment, States should adopt an integrated and coordinated approach to their development planning so as to ensure that development is compatible with the need to protect and improve environment for the benefit of their population.\n\n''Principle 14''\n\nRational planning constitutes an essential tool for reconciling any conflict between the needs of development and the need to protect and improve the environment.\n\n''Principle 15''\n\nPlanning must be applied to human settlements and urbanization with a view to avoiding adverse effects on the environment and obtaining maximum social, economic and environmental benefits for all. In this respect projects which arc designed for colonialist and racist domination must be abandoned.\n\n''Principle 16''\n\nDemographic policies which are without prejudice to basic human rights and which are deemed appropriate by Governments concerned should be applied in those regions where the rate of population growth or excessive population concentrations are likely to have adverse effects on the environment of the human environment and impede development.\n\n''Principle 17''\n\nAppropriate national institutions must be entrusted with the task of planning, managing or controlling the 9 environmental resources of States with a view to enhancing environmental quality.\n\n''Principle 18''\n\nScience and technology, as part of their contribution to economic and social development, must be applied to the identification, avoidance and control of environmental risks and the solution of environmental problems and for the common good of mankind.\n\n''Principle 19''\n\nEducation in environmental matters, for the younger generation as well as adults, giving due consideration to the underprivileged, is essential in order to broaden the basis for an enlightened opinion and responsible conduct by individuals, enterprises and communities in protecting and improving the environment in its full human dimension. It is also essential that mass media of communications avoid contributing to the deterioration of the environment, but, on the contrary, disseminates information of an educational nature on the need to project and improve the environment in order to enable mal to develop in every respect.\n\n''Principle 20''\n\nScientific research and development in the context of environmental problems, both national and multinational, must be promoted in all countries, especially the developing countries. In this connection, the free flow of up-to-date scientific information and transfer of experience must be supported and assisted, to facilitate the solution of environmental problems; environmental technologies should be made available to developing countries on terms which would encourage their wide dissemination without constituting an economic burden on the developing countries.\n\n''Principle 21''\n\nStates have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.\n\n''Principle 22''\n\nStates shall cooperate to develop further the international law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage caused by activities within the jurisdiction or control of such States to areas beyond their jurisdiction.\n\n''Principle 23''\n\nWithout prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country, and the extent of the applicability of standards which are valid for the most advanced countries but which may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries.\n\n''Principle 24''\n\nInternational matters concerning the protection and improvement of the environment should be handled in a cooperative spirit by all countries, big and small, on an equal footing. Cooperation through multilateral or bilateral arrangements or other appropriate means is essential to effectively control, prevent, reduce and eliminate adverse environmental effects resulting from activities conducted in all spheres, in such a way that due account is taken of the sovereignty and interests of all States.\n\n''Principle 25''\n\nStates shall ensure that international organizations play a coordinated, efficient and dynamic role for the protection and improvement of the environment.\n\n''Principle 26''\n\nMan and his environment must be spared the effects of nuclear weapons and all other means of mass destruction. States must strive to reach prompt agreement, in the relevant international organs, on the elimination and complete destruction of such weapons.
[[Welcome]]\n[[Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for Policy Makers]]\n[[Climate Change 2.0 - Elements]]
Diane Paravazian has had more than twenty years of experience in language and cross-cultural education and training both in academic and business settings. She has worked for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and Pace University as the Director of the World Trade Institute Language Center. As Director of the Language Center, she has created innovative and customized language and culture programs for major corporations. As Director and Adjunct Professor of French at Pace University, with Pace University's Department of Modern Languages, she designed a new undergraduate major, and a related bridge program at Murry Bergtraum High School. Currently Ms. Paravazian is a Professor of French at St. John's University, is working on her Doctoral Dissertation in at New York University and serves on a number of boards, including the Business Advisory Board of Murry Bergtraum High School, and the American Association of Teachers of French, Metropolitan Chapter. She is Treasurer of the Société des Professeurs Français et Francophones d'Amérique, a foundation which offers grants to students studying French. Ms. Paravazian has received a number of academic fellowships and awards, including the French Government's "Chevalier des Palmes Académiques."\n\nAt the United Nations, Ms. Paravazian serves as UN Representative for the [[World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts]]; she had previously represented the [[Armenian Assembly of America]] since 2000. During this time she has been a member of the DPI/NGO Planning Committee, Media Co-Chair for the Conference, member of the NGO Committees on Sustainable Development and Human Rights, Secretary of the NGO Committee on Education . She is currently active as member at large on the NGO Committee on the Status of Women and Acting Co-Chair of the [[NGO Committee on Education]].
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Title: Title\nAuthor: Author\nDate: Date
* Although science to provide policymakers with information about climate change impacts and adaptation potential has improved since the Third Assessment, it still leaves many important questions to be answered.\n* The chapters of the Working Group II report include a number of judgements about priorities for further observation and research, and this advice should be considered seriously (a list of these recommendations is given in the Technical Summary Section TS-6).
The ''Earthwatch Institute'' -
''Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review'' is a major publication, published in October 2006, that was commissioned by the Treasury Department of the British Government with the mandate of reviewing the issue of the economic dimensions of climate change - a key area that has not previously gained sufficient attention. \n\nThe web-based version of the ''Stern Review'' has been "translated" by the [[NGO Committee on Education]] into the "language" of a TiddlyPerfect platform, with the contents housed in a DataPerfect database from which the tiddlers and tags were generated, and is designed to optimize the accessibility and navigability of the contents of the report for reading in a digital environment, and to begin to raise the vital issue of the economics of information as it relates to climate change. The original, official version of the report was published in a pdf version. - a format that is optimized for print rather than for on-screen reading, and that is relatively cumbersome to navigate through the contents; to improve the online value of the pdf files of the Stern Review, an extensive set of bookmarks have been added to the pdf files - none having been included in the official pdf files - to make it easier for those who prefer to read the online version to find their way around the lengthy review..\n\nThe TiddlyPerfect version of the Stern Review also includes a shortened Executive Summary - the original being more than thirty pages long, and highlights the key concepts\n\n
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From [[Education Today Newsletter, February - May 2006|]]\n<<<\nEducation for sustainable development is a) teaching basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills to all, b) convincing people why they should not pollute, c) developing knowledge, skills and programmes that will end poverty for good, d) learning how to make decisions for the good of the whole community? Answer: all of the above.\n<<<\nType “sustainable development” into an internet search engine and you’ll get more than 60 million hits. Search under “education for sustainable development” and you’ll find close to 600,000 entries.\n\nClearly, sustainable development means a great many things to a great many people. There is no easy definition, nor is there one central issue or regional perspective around which world opinion has easily coalesced. Rather, we have a constantly evolving laundry list of issues – climate change, water resource management, gender inequality, biodiversity, urban decay, sustainable consumption, poverty reduction and genetically-modified food – to name a few.\n\nDeveloping and middle-income countries are struggling with different issues and challenges than developed countries. And while many would agree that the present course of action is unsustainable, there is lack of clear consensus on what to do next.\n\nAnd this makes the task of educating for sustainable development all the more complicated. “It forces us to struggle with values and our value systems,” sums up Mary Joy Pigozzi, Director for the Promotion of Quality Education at UNESCO, which is the lead agency for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD).\n!!A complex progress of change\n“Sustainable development must be more than just a slogan,” insists UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura. “It must be a concrete reality for all of us – individuals, organizations, governments – in all of our daily decisions and actions.”\n\nLaunched internationally on 1 March 2005, the DESD takes the broadest possible approach to conceptualizing sustainable development as a complex process of change heavily reliant upon local contexts, needs and priorities. It builds upon a concept first articulated in the 1987 UN report, [[Our Common Future|]]: “Sustainable development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”\n\nEducation for Sustainable Development (ESD) therefore is viewed as more than just simply environmental education, encompassing learning about human rights and conflict resolution, good governance, economics, the arts and culture as well. It is a multi-disciplinary and dynamic approach to educational reform, one that offers people at all stages of life and in all learning contexts – both formal and non-formal – the opportunity to learn the lifestyles and values necessary to create a sustainable future.\n\n“ESD must go beyond the frontiers generally set by current educational and learning practices,” says Aline Bory-Adams of UNESCO Paris. She adds, “one of the central challenges of the Decade is how to translate this complex vision into textbooks, curricula, teaching and learning methods and national education policies.”\n!!Towards a new kind of learning\n“The problem is you are dealing with different assumptions, in different disciplines,” says Natarajan Ishwaran, Director of Ecological and Earth Sciences at UNESCO. “People differ in their understandings of sustainable development, knowledge and education.” Ishwaran is responsible for the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme, which has been trying to encourage people from different disciplines to collaborate, under the hypothesis that such interdisciplinary co-operation is essential to attain DESD goals.\n\nIn the future, Ishwaran hopes the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, under the MAB programme will become “learning laboratories” for the Decade, putting special emphasis on converting reality-based learning into educational tools and converting context specific case studies into curriculum resources.\nMoreover, he thinks experiential learning is key to the success of ESD. “You can’t just talk only about principals and concepts. You have to talk from real life experience and practice.”\n!!Action plans and strategies\nAs partnerships are formed between educators, NGOs, community activists and policy-makers and as a growing body of knowledge develops to give real-world form to the abstract notion of ESD, the greatest promise of the Decade is that a new paradigm of education for sustainable development will take hold.\n\n“The Decade invites us to celebrate our achievements to date,” adds Wynn Calder, Associate Director of the USA-based University Leaders for a Sustainable Future. “And it calls us on to look forward ten years, to envision what we hope to achieve, and to create a strategy for getting there.”\n\nNow celebrating its first anniversary, the DESD has been so far about deliberations at the international, regional and national level to formulate action plans and strategies.\n\nThe final version of the [[International Implementation Scheme|International Implementation Scheme - UNESCO]], approved by UNESCO’s Executive Board last September, sets out a broad framework for all partners to contribute to the Decade. It provides overall guidance and shows why, how, when and where the enormous range of partners can develop their contributions.\n\nMeanwhile, the equally challenging work of fostering links with the Decade’s activities and other UN initiatives like the Millennium Development Goals, Literacy Decade and Education for All, as well as with UN agencies, is also getting off the ground. Examples of concrete activities include a joint UNEP-UNESCO project spearheaded by UNESCO’s Nairobi office to expand environmental research and training at African universities and by the UNEP-Tongji office to expand post-graduate degrees and scholarships in Chinese universities.\n!!Localizing the approach\nThe broad and varied response to the DESD is most evident at the regional and national level in nearly all regions and the 40 countries that have formally launched the Decade.\n\nThe Europe and North America region was the first to officially adopt its strategy shortly after the UN launch in March 2005. Now the region is focused on developing indicators to measure the effectiveness of the implementation of its strategy by the end of 2006. This is, in fact, seen as a critical component in the overall success of the DESD and it is hoped that this attempt, along with the efforts of other regions to formulate their own measures of success, will form the basis of the next generation of thinking about ESD.\n\nThe Asia and the Pacific region, has also contributed significantly to the start of the Decade by conducting an in-depth analysis of the ESD efforts of every country and sub-region in its constituency. UNESCO Bangkok’s Situational Analysis gives an excellent glimpse into both the challenges and opportunities facing many countries in this part of the world.\n\nOne trend clearly emerges. While all of the countries in the region have incorporated Environmental Education (EE) into their curriculum to some extent, there is very little implementation or even basic understanding of the emerging concept of ESD. In the Pacific, South Asia, and Central Asia, the survey notes that many practitioners, especially those who are not in the environmental field, mistakenly think that EE and ESD hold the same meaning and use the terms interchangeably. Southeast Asian countries, such as Viet Nam, understand ESD as the pre-eminent challenge of the 21st century and are beginning to think creatively about how to incorporate these practices into their formal and non-formal education systems.\n!!Institutionalizing commitment\nThis underscores the necessity for understanding and leadership amongst national governments and officials from a variety of ministries – not just environmental departments.\n\nAccording to Derek Elias, who coordinates UNESCO’s ESD activities in the Asia Pacific region, Iran, Japan, New Zealand and Viet Nam are amongst the countries taking the lead at developing ESD at the national level. For example, Iran developed a charter on the Sustainable Development of the Earthquake Stricken City of Bam. “These countries are really helping us in our task of raising awareness,” he says.\n\nAwareness also helps with fundraising. Calder, who recently wrote an in-depth status report on global DESD efforts, says it is clear that the Decade is helping to direct more funding toward ESD. “That’s part of its power,” he says. This is especially important since the UN offers very little funding for DESD-related activities.\n\nGermany, notes Calder, has perhaps gone the furthest in establishing and funding a National Committee for the Decade to bring together a cross-section of experts and institutions including the Education, Development and Environment Ministries, parliamentarians and the States, NGOs, the media and private enterprise. “There is enough interest in Germany amongst people who can actually make things happen. There is buy-in at the highest level,” he says. Much more common is the approach taken by such countries as Japan and the United States that rely on private, voluntary networking organizations to promote DESD.\n!!Re-orienting existing programmes\nMore countries are taking the route that China has chosen by expanding current environmental education programmes and experimenting with ESD pilot projects. China’s “Education for Environment, Population and Sustainable Development” programme was initially launched in 1998 and aimed at providing interdisciplinary and moral education to teenagers. Now reaching 3,000 schools and over one million students, it is being expanded to incorporate primary school students as well. Organizers note the success of the pilot project is changing national educators’ minds about ESD and say it could serve as the basis for a national curriculum initiative.\n\nThe “Sandwatch Initiative” is another interesting example of how environmental education programmes are being re-formatted and re-energized to adapt to the new priorities. This programme was initially started in the Caribbean with the aim of incorporating information about the problems facing surrounding coastal environments and fragile marine habitats into traditional classes such as biology, woodworking, literature, mathematics, information technology and drama. This successful programme is now being adapted for use in other island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.\n!!Teaching values\nPerhaps most importantly, the Decade has also inspired local action. One of many examples is in South Africa where the first Youth Environmental Symposium for the City of Cape Town brought together students of different backgrounds from twenty-one schools to discuss sustainable living.\n\nThis project, as well as the many other community-based projects inspired by the principles of ESD, is serving as a building block for the future of the movement. “This is about establishing ownership of ESD as broadly as possible. It is about reinforcing each other’s positive contributions,” says Derek Elias who takes every opportunity he can to remind activists in his region that, “you are part of a larger groundswell, you are not standing alone.”\n\nThe bottom line is that for the Decade to be successful, people must make sense of it in their own terms. “Educating for Sustainable Development is not another lofty, unattainable notion,” comments Pigozzi. “It’s a necessity”, she says.\n\nOr as one schoolgirl from New Zealand put it simply when asked to help create a play celebrating the launch of the Decade in her country: “It’s about making the good things last longer.”
Type the text for 'Education for Sustainable Development'
<<tiddler "DPI/NGO Workshop">> [[edit contents|DPI/NGO Workshop]]
The Executive Committee of the [[NGO Committee on Education]] consists of the Officers, Members-at-Large, and Sub-Committee Chairs (//ex officio//):\n!!! Co-Chairs\n* [[Diane Paravazian]], [[World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts]]\n* [[Faye C. Feller]], [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]]\n!!! Secretary\n* ''Catherine Waters'', [[Catholic International Education Office]]\n!!! Treasurer\n* [[Daphne Cohen]], [[International Humanist and Ethical Union]]\n!!!Members-at-Large\n* ''Catherine Moore''. [[International Federation of University Women]]\n* ''Doris Sargeant'', [[Rotary International]]\n* ''Cora Weiss'', [[The Hague Appeal for Peace]]\n!!!Sub-Committee Chairs\n* ''Information & Communications Sub-Committee''\n** [[Robert Pollard]], [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]]
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Faye C. Feller has had a lifelong involvement with multi-cultural arts and education programs for children and youth. She is currently Executive Director of the National Association of Women for the Arts, and serves as ~Co-Chair of the [[NGO Committee on Education]] at the United Nations and as a U.N. Representative for [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]], an NGO in Special Consultative Status with ECOSOC that has focused on the transformative opportunities of the Internet revolution.\n\nFaye’s work with the NGO Committee on Education is focused on a major initiative in support of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and ~Non-Violence for the Children of the World, the Decade of Action: Water for Life and the Second Decade of the World’s Indigenous People.\n\nFaye developed a prototype Science Seekers program as an after-school program for Middle School students at the Rotary Learning Lab in East Harlem; she has worked with student-led initiatives Peace in Public Places and Pumped up for Peace, which is featured on the U.N.'s Cyberschoolbus web site. Faye has served on the New York City Task Force for the ~Gandhi-King Season of Nonviolence.
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The ''Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007'' of the [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]], is ...
'Gandhi-King Season for Nonviolence'\n\n[[||
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* [[Summary for Policy Makers|]] - pdf\n* [[Full Report|]] - html
''Third Assessment Review'' of the [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]] - [[|]]\n* Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis - [[|]]\n* Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability -[[|]]\n* Climate Change 2001: Mitigation - [[|]]\n* Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report -[[|]]
{{{\n[img[title|filename]]\n[img[filename]]\n[img[title|filename][link]]\n[img[filename][link]]\n}}}\nImages can be included by their filename or full URL. It's good practice to include a title for the image to be shown as a tooltip, and when the image isn't available. An image can also link to another tiddler or or a URL, e.g.\n[img[Twin Light & Colour Cube|][Twin Light & Colour Cubes]]\n{{{\n[img[Twin Light & Colour Cube|][Twin Light & Colour Cubes]]\n}}}\n\nYou can also float images to the right or left: use {{{[<img[}}} for left-floating images and {{{[>img[}}} for right-floated images; you can use CSS to clear the floats.\n[<img[Twin Light & Colour Cube - floating left|][]] [>img[Twin Light & Colour Cube - floating right|][]]\n@@clear(left):clear(right):display(block):@@\n{{{\n[<img[Twin Light & Colour Cube - floated left|][]]\n[>img[Twin Light & Colour Cube - floated right|][]]\n@@clear(left):clear(right):display(block):@@\n}}}
The ''Import Tiddlers'' tiddler uses the ''<html>&lt;&lt;importTiddlers&gt;&gt;</html>'' built-in macro that allows you to import tiddlers from other TiddlyWiki pages.\n\n<<importTiddlers inline>>
/***\n|''Name:''|ImportTiddlersPlugin|\n|''Source:''||\n|''Author:''|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|\n|''License:''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|]]|\n|''~CoreVersion:''|2.0.10|\n\nWhen many people share and edit copies of the same TiddlyWiki document, the ability to quickly collect all these changes back into a single, updated document that can then be redistributed to the entire group is very important. It can also be very extremely helpful when moving your own tiddlers from document to document (e.g., when upgrading to the latest version of TiddlyWiki, or 'pre-loading' your favorite stylesheets into a new 'empty' TiddlyWiki document.)\n\nThis plugin lets you selectively combine tiddlers from any two TiddlyWiki documents. An interactive control panel lets you pick a document to import from, and then select which tiddlers to import, with prompting for skip, rename, merge or replace actions when importing tiddlers that match existing titles. Automatically add tags to imported tiddlers so they are easy to find later on. Generates a detailed report of import 'history' in ImportedTiddlers.\n!!!!!Interactive interface\n<<<\n{{{<<importTiddlers>>}}}\ncreates "import tiddlers" link. click to show/hide import control panel\n\n{{{<<importTiddlers inline>>}}}\ncreates import control panel directly in tiddler content\n\n<<importTiddlers inline>>\n\nPress ''[browse]'' to select a TiddlyWiki document file to import. You can also type in the path/filename or a remote document URL (starting with http://)and press ''[open]''. //Note: There may be some delay to permit the browser time to access and load the document before updating the listbox with the titles of all tiddlers that are available to be imported.//\n\nSelect one or more titles from the listbox (hold CTRL or SHIFT while clicking to add/remove the highlight from individual list items). You can press ''[select all]'' to quickly highlight all tiddler titles in the list. Use the ''[-]'', ''[+]'', or ''[=]'' links to adjust the listbox size so you can view more (or less) tiddler titles at one time. When you have chosen the tiddlers you want to import and entered any extra tags, press ''[import]'' to begin copying them to the current TiddlyWiki document.\n\n''select: all, new, changes, or differences''\n\nYou can click on ''all'', ''new'', ''changes'', or ''differences'' to automatically select a subset of tiddlers from the list. This makes it very quick and easy to find and import just the updated tiddlers you are interested in:\n>''"all"'' selects ALL tiddlers from the import source document, even if they have not been changed.\n>''"new"'' selects only tiddlers that are found in the import source document, but do not yet exist in the destination document\n>''"changes"'' selects only tiddlers that exist in both documents but that are newer in the source document\n>''"differences"'' selects all new and existing tiddlers that are different from the destination document (even if destination tiddler is newer)\n\n''Import Tagging:''\n\nTiddlers that have been imported can be automatically tagged, so they will be easier to find later on, after they have been added to your document. New tags are entered into the "add tags" input field, and then //added// to the existing tags for each tiddler as it is imported.\n\n''Skip, Rename, Merge, or Replace:''\n\nWhen importing a tiddler whose title is identical to one that already exists, the import process pauses and the tiddler title is displayed in an input field, along with four push buttons: ''[skip]'', ''[rename]'', ''[merge]'' and ''[replace]''.\n\nTo bypass importing this tiddler, press ''[skip]''. To import the tiddler with a different name (so that both the tiddlers will exist when the import is done), enter a new title in the input field and then press ''[rename]''. Press ''[merge]'' to combine the content from both tiddlers into a single tiddler. Press ''[replace]'' to overwrite the existing tiddler with the imported one, discarding the previous tiddler content.\n\n//Note: if both the title ''and'' modification date/////time match, the imported tiddler is assumed to be identical to the existing one, and will be automatically skipped (i.e., not imported) without asking.//\n\n''Import Report History''\n\nWhen tiddlers are imported, a report is generated into ImportedTiddlers, indicating when the latest import was performed, the number of tiddlers successfully imported, from what location, and by whom. It also includes a list with the title, date and author of each tiddler that was imported.\n\nWhen the import process is completed, the ImportedTiddlers report is automatically displayed for your review. If more tiddlers are subsequently imported, a new report is //added// to ImportedTiddlers, above the previous report (i.e., at the top of the tiddler), so that a reverse-chronological history of imports is maintained.\n\nIf a cumulative record is not desired, the ImportedTiddlers report may be deleted at any time. A new ImportedTiddlers report will be created the next time tiddlers are imported.\n\nNote: You can prevent the ImportedTiddlers report from being generated for any given import activity by clearing the "create a report" checkbox before beginning the import processing.\n\n<<<\n!!!!!non-interactive 'load tiddlers' macro\n<<<\nUseful for automated installation/update of plugins and other tiddler content.\n\n{{{<<loadTiddlers "label:load tiddlers from %0" confirm>>}}}\n<<loadTiddlers "label:load tiddlers from %0" confirm>>\n\nSyntax:\n{{{<<loadTiddlers label:text prompt:text filter source quiet confirm>>}}}\n\n''label:text'' and ''prompt:text''\n>defines link text and tooltip (prompt) that can be clicked to trigger the load tiddler processing. If a label is NOT provided, then no link is created and loadTiddlers() is executed whenever the containing tiddler is rendered.\n''filter'' (optional) determines which tiddlers will be automatically selected for importing. Use one of the following keywords:\n>''"all"'' retrieves ALL tiddlers from the import source document, even if they have not been changed.\n>''"new"'' retrieves only tiddlers that are found in the import source document, but do not yet exist in the destination document\n>''"changes"'' retrieves only tiddlers that exist in both documents for which the import source tiddler is newer than the existing tiddler\n>''"updates"'' retrieves both ''new'' and ''changed'' tiddlers (this is the default action when none is specified)\n>''"tiddler:~TiddlerName"'' retrieves only the specific tiddler named in the parameter.\n>''"tag:text"'' retrieves only the tiddlers tagged with the indicated text.\n''source'' (required) is the location of the imported document. It can be either a local document path/filename in whatever format your system requires, or a remote web location (starting with "http://" or "https://")\n>use the keyword ''ask'' to prompt for a source location whenever the macro is invoked\n''"quiet"'' (optional)\n>supresses all status message during the import processing (e.g., "opening local file...", "found NN tiddlers..." etc). Note that if ANY tiddlers are actualy imported, a final information message will still be displayed (along with the ImportedTiddlers report), even when 'quiet' is specified. This ensures that changes to your document cannot occur without any visible indication at all.\n''"confirm"'' (optional)\n>adds interactive confirmation. A browser message box (OK/Cancel) is displayed for each tiddler that will be imported, so that you can manually bypass any tiddlers that you do not want to import.\n<<<\n!!!!!Installation\n<<<\ncopy/paste the following tiddlers into your document:\n''ImportTiddlersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)\n\ncreate/edit ''SideBarOptions'': (sidebar menu items) \n^^Add "< < ImportTiddlers > >" macro^^\n\n''Quick Installation Tip #1:''\nIf you are using an unmodified version of TiddlyWiki (core release version <<version>>), you can get a new, empty TiddlyWiki with the Import Tiddlers plugin pre-installed (''[[download from here|TW+ImportExport.html]]''), and then simply import all your content from your old document into this new, empty document.\n<<<\n!!!!!Revision History\n<<<\n''2006.10.12 [3.0.8]'' in readTiddlersFromHTML(), fallback to find end of store area by matching "/body" when POST-BODY-START is not present (backward compatibility for older documents)\n''2006.09.10 [3.0.7]'' in readTiddlersFromHTML(), find end of store area by matching "POST-BODY-START" instead of "/body" \n''2006.08.16 [3.0.6]'' Use higher-level store.saveTiddler() instead of store.addTiddler() to avoid conflicts with ZW and other adaptations that hijack low-level tiddler handling. Also, in CreateImportPanel(), no longer register notify to "refresh listbox after every tiddler change" (left over from old 'auto-filtered' list handling). Thanks to Bob McElrath for report/solution.\n''2006.07.29 [3.0.5]'' added noChangeMsg to loadTiddlers processing. if not 'quiet' mode, reports skipped tiddlers.\n''2006.04.18 [3.0.4]'' in loadTiddlers.handler, fixed parsing of "prompt:" param. Also, corrected parameters mismatch in loadTiddlers() callback function definition (order of params was wrong, resulting in filters NOT being applied)\n''2006.04.12 [3.0.3]'' moved many display messages to macro properties for easier L10N translations via 'lingo' definitions.\n''2006.04.12 [3.0.2]'' additional refactoring of 'core candidate' code. Proposed API now defines "loadRemoteFile()" for XMLHttpRequest processing with built in fallback for handling local filesystem access, and readTiddlersFromHTML() to process the resulting source HTML content.\n''2006.04.04 [3.0.1]'' in refreshImportList(), when using [by tags], tiddlers without tags are now included in a new "untagged" psuedo-tag list section\n''2006.04.04 [3.0.0]'' Separate non-interactive {{{<<importTiddlers...>>}}} macro functionality for incorporation into TW2.1 core and renamed as {{{<<loadTiddlers>>}}} macro. New parameters for loadTiddlers: ''label:text'' and ''prompt:text'' for link creation, ''ask'' for filename/URL, ''tag:text'' for filtering, "confirm" for accept/reject of individual inbound tiddlers. Also, ImportedTiddlers report generator output has been simplified and "importReplace/importPublic" tags and associated "force" param (which were rarely, if ever, used) has been dropped.\n''2006.03.30 [2.9.1]'' when extracting store area from remote URL, look for "</body>" instead of "</body>\sn</html>" so it will match even if the "\sn" is absent from the source.\n''2006.03.30 [2.9.0]'' added optional 'force' macro param. When present, autoImportTiddlers() bypasses the checks for importPublic and importReplace. Based on a request from Tom Otvos.\n''2006.03.28 [2.8.1]'' in loadImportFile(), added checks to see if 'netscape' and 'x.overrideMimeType()' are defined (IE does *not* define these values, so we bypass this code)\nAlso, when extracting store area from remote URL, explicitly look for "</body>\sn</html>" to exclude any extra content that may have been added to the end of the file by hosting environments such as GeoCities. Thanks to Tom Otvos for finding these bugs and suggesting some fixes.\n''2006.02.21 [2.8.0]'' added support for "tiddler:TiddlerName" filtering parameter in auto-import processing\n''2006.02.21 [2.7.1]'' Clean up layout problems with IE. (Use tables for alignment instead of SPANs styled with float:left and float:right)\n''2006.02.21 [2.7.0]'' Added "local file" and "web server" radio buttons for selecting dynamic import source controls in ImportPanel. Default file control is replaced with URL text input field when "web server" is selected. Default remote document URL is defined in SiteURL tiddler. Also, added option for prepending SiteProxy URL as prefix to remote URL to mask cross-domain document access (requires compatible server-side script)\n''2006.02.17 [2.6.0]'' Removed "differences only" listbox display mode, replaced with selection filter 'presets': all/new/changes/differences. Also fixed initialization handling for "add new tags" so that checkbox state is correctly tracked when panel is first displayed.\n''2006.02.16 [2.5.4]'' added checkbox options to control "import remote tags" and "keep existing tags" behavior, in addition to existing "add new tags" functionality.\n''2006.02.14 [2.5.3]'' FF1501 corrected unintended global 't' (loop index) in importReport() and autoImportTiddlers()\n''2006.02.10 [2.5.2]'' corrected unintended global variable in importReport().\n''2006.02.05 [2.5.1]'' moved globals from window.* to config.macros.importTiddlers.* to avoid FireFox crash bug when referencing globals\n''2006.01.18 [2.5.0]'' added checkbox for "create a report". Default is to create/update the ImportedTiddlers report. Clear the checkbox to skip this step.\n''2006.01.15 [2.4.1]'' added "importPublic" tag and inverted default so that auto sharing is NOT done unless tagged with importPublic\n''2006.01.15 [2.4.0]'' Added support for tagging individual tiddlers with importSkip, importReplace, and/or importPrivate to control which tiddlers can be overwritten or shared with others when using auto-import macro syntax. Defaults are to SKIP overwriting existing tiddlers with imported tiddlers, and ALLOW your tiddlers to be auto-imported by others.\n''2006.01.15 [2.3.2]'' Added "ask" parameter to confirm each tiddler before importing (for use with auto-importing)\n''2006.01.15 [2.3.1]'' Strip TW core scripts from import source content and load just the storeArea into the hidden IFRAME. Makes loading more efficient by reducing the document size and by preventing the import document from executing its TW initialization (including plugins). Seems to resolve the "Found 0 tiddlers" problem. Also, when importing local documents, use convertUTF8ToUnicode() to convert the file contents so support international characters sets.\n''2006.01.12 [2.3.0]'' Reorganized code to use callback function for loading import files to support event-driven I/O via an ASYNCHRONOUS XMLHttpRequest. Let's processing continue while waiting for remote hosts to respond to URL requests. Added non-interactive 'batch' macro mode, using parameters to specify which tiddlers to import, and from what document source. Improved error messages and diagnostics, plus an optional 'quiet' switch for batch mode to eliminate //most// feedback.\n''2006.01.11 [2.2.0]'' Added "[by tags]" to list of tiddlers, based on code submitted by BradleyMeck\n''2006.01.09 [2.1.1]'' When a URL is typed in, and then the "open" button is pressed, it generates both an onChange event for the file input and a click event for open button. This results in multiple XMLHttpRequest()'s which seem to jam things up quite a bit. I removed the onChange handling for file input field. To open a file (local or URL), you must now explicitly press the "open" button in the control panel.\n''2006.01.08 [2.1.0]'' IMPORT FROM ANYWHERE!!! re-write getImportedTiddlers() logic to either read a local file (using local I/O), OR... read a remote file, using a combination of XML and an iframe to permit cross-domain reading of DOM elements. Adapted from example code and techniques courtesy of Jonny LeRoy.\n''2006.01.06 [2.0.2]'' When refreshing list contents, fixed check for tiddlerExists() when "show differences only" is selected, so that imported tiddlers that don't exist in the current file will be recognized as differences and included in the list.\n''2006.01.04 [2.0.1]'' When "show differences only" is NOT checked, import all tiddlers that have been selected even when they have a matching title and date.\n''2005.12.27 [2.0.0]'' Update for TW2.0\nDefer initial panel creation and only register a notification function when panel first is created\n''2005.12.22 [1.3.1]'' tweak formatting in importReport() and add 'discard report' link to output\n''2005.12.03 [1.3.0]'' Dynamically create/remove importPanel as needed to ensure only one instance of interface elements exists, even if there are multiple instances of macro embedding. Also, dynamically create/recreate importFrame each time an external TW document is loaded for importation (reduces DOM overhead and ensures a 'fresh' frame for each document)\n''2005.11.29 [1.2.1]'' fixed formatting of 'detail info' in importReport()\n''2005.11.11 [1.2.0]'' added 'inline' param to embed controls in a tiddler\n''2005.11.09 [1.1.0]'' only load HTML and CSS the first time the macro handler is called. Allows for redundant placement of the macro without creating multiple instances of controls with the same ID's.\n''2005.10.25 [1.0.5]'' fixed typo in importReport() that prevented reports from being generated\n''2005.10.09 [1.0.4]'' combined documentation with plugin code instead of using separate tiddlers\n''2005.08.05 [1.0.3]'' moved CSS and HTML definitions into plugin code instead of using separate tiddlers\n''2005.07.27 [1.0.2]'' core update 1.2.29: custom overlayStyleSheet() replaced with new core setStylesheet()\n''2005.07.23 [1.0.1]'' added parameter checks and corrected addNotification() usage\n''2005.07.20 [1.0.0]'' Initial Release\n<<<\n!!!!!Credits\n<<<\nThis feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/]]\n<<<\n!!!!!Code\n***/\n// // ''MACRO DEFINITION''\n//{{{\n// Version\nversion.extensions.importTiddlers = {major: 3, minor: 0, revision: 8, date: new Date(2006,10,12)};\n\n// IE needs explicit global scoping for functions/vars called from browser events\nwindow.onClickImportButton=onClickImportButton;\nwindow.refreshImportList=refreshImportList;\n\n// default cookie/option values\nif (!config.options.chkImportReport) config.options.chkImportReport=true;\n\nconfig.macros.importTiddlers = { };\nconfig.macros.importTiddlers = {\n label: "import tiddlers",\n prompt: "Copy tiddlers from another document",\n foundMsg: "Found %0 tiddlers in %1",\n countMsg: "%0 tiddlers selected for import",\n importedMsg: "Imported %0 of %1 tiddlers from %2",\n src: "", // path/filename or URL of document to import (retrieved from SiteUrl tiddler)\n proxy: "", // URL for remote proxy script (retrieved from SiteProxy tiddler)\n useProxy: false, // use specific proxy script in front of remote URL\n inbound: null, // hash-indexed array of tiddlers from other document\n newTags: "", // text of tags added to imported tiddlers\n addTags: true, // add new tags to imported tiddlers\n listsize: 8, // # of lines to show in imported tiddler list\n importTags: true, // include tags from remote source document when importing a tiddler\n keepTags: true, // retain existing tags when replacing a tiddler\n index: 0, // current processing index in import list\n sort: "" // sort order for imported tiddler listbox\n};\n\nconfig.macros.importTiddlers.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {\n if (!config.macros.loadTiddlers.handler)\n { alert("importTiddlers error: this plugin requires LoadTiddlersPlugin or TiddlyWiki 2.1+"); return; }\n if (!params[0]) // LINK TO FLOATING PANEL\n createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickImportMenu);\n else if (params[0]=="inline") {// // INLINE TIDDLER CONTENT\n createImportPanel(place);\n document.getElementById("importPanel").style.position="static";\n document.getElementById("importPanel").style.display="block";\n }\n else config.macros.loadTiddlers.handler(place,macroName,params); // FALLBACK: PASS TO LOADTIDDLERS\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // ''INTERFACE DEFINITION''\n\n// // Handle link click to create/show/hide control panel\n//{{{\nfunction onClickImportMenu(e)\n{\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var parent=resolveTarget(e).parentNode;\n var panel = document.getElementById("importPanel");\n if (panel==undefined || panel.parentNode!=parent)\n panel=createImportPanel(parent);\n var isOpen ="block";\n if(config.options.chkAnimate)\n anim.startAnimating(new Slider(panel,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));\n else\n = isOpen ? "none" : "block" ;\n e.cancelBubble = true;\n if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();\n return(false);\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // Create control panel: HTML, CSS\n//{{{\nfunction createImportPanel(place) {\n var panel=document.getElementById("importPanel");\n if (panel) { panel.parentNode.removeChild(panel); }\n setStylesheet(config.macros.importTiddlers.css,"importTiddlers");\n panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"span","importPanel",null,null)\n panel.innerHTML=config.macros.importTiddlers.html;\n refreshImportList();\n var siteURL=store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl"); if (!siteURL) siteURL="";\n document.getElementById("importSourceURL").value=siteURL;\n config.macros.importTiddlers.src=siteURL;\n var siteProxy=store.getTiddlerText("SiteProxy"); if (!siteProxy) siteProxy="SiteProxy";\n document.getElementById("importSiteProxy").value=siteProxy;\n config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=siteProxy;\n return panel;\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // CSS\n//{{{\nconfig.macros.importTiddlers.css = '\s\n#importPanel {\s\n display: none; position:absolute; z-index:11; width:35em; right:105%; top:3em;\s\n background-color: #eee; color:#000; font-size: 8pt; line-height:110%;\s\n border:1px solid black; border-bottom-width: 3px; border-right-width: 3px;\s\n padding: 0.5em; margin:0em; -moz-border-radius:1em;\s\n}\s\n#importPanel a, #importPanel td a { color:#009; display:inline; margin:0px; padding:1px; }\s\n#importPanel table { width:100%; border:0px; padding:0px; margin:0px; font-size:8pt; line-height:110%; background:transparent; }\s\n#importPanel tr { border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\s\n#importPanel td { color:#000; border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }\s\n#importPanel select { width:98%;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%;}\s\n#importPanel input { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%}\s\n#importPanel .box { border:1px solid black; padding:3px; margin-bottom:5px; background:#f8f8f8; -moz-border-radius:5px;}\s\n#importPanel .topline { border-top:2px solid black; padding-top:3px; margin-bottom:5px; }\s\n#importPanel .rad { width:auto; }\s\n#importPanel .chk { width:auto; margin:1px;border:0; }\s\n#importPanel .btn { width:auto; }\s\n#importPanel .btn1 { width:98%; }\s\n#importPanel .btn2 { width:48%; }\s\n#importPanel .btn3 { width:32%; }\s\n#importPanel .btn4 { width:24%; }\s\n#importPanel .btn5 { width:19%; }\s\n#importPanel .importButton { padding: 0em; margin: 0px; font-size:8pt; }\s\n#importPanel .importListButton { padding:0em 0.25em 0em 0.25em; color: #000000; display:inline }\s\n#importCollisionPanel { display:none; margin:0.5em 0em 0em 0em; }\s\n';\n//}}}\n\n// // HTML \n//{{{\nconfig.macros.importTiddlers.html = '\s\n<!-- source and report -->\s\n<table><tr><td align=left>\s\n import from\s\n <input type="radio" class="rad" name="importFrom" value="file" CHECKED\s\n onClick="document.getElementById(\s'importLocalPanel\s').style.display=this.checked?\s'block\s':\s'none\s';\s\n document.getElementById(\s'importHTTPPanel\s').style.display=!this.checked?\s'block\s':\s'none\s'"> local file\s\n <input type="radio" class="rad" name="importFrom" value="http"\s\n onClick="document.getElementById(\s'importLocalPanel\s').style.display=!this.checked?\s'block\s':\s'none\s';\s\n document.getElementById(\s'importHTTPPanel\s').style.display=this.checked?\s'block\s':\s'none\s'"> web server\s\n</td><td align=right>\s\n <input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkImportReport" checked\s\n onClick="config.options[\s'chkImportReport\s']=this.checked;"> create a report\s\n</td></tr></table>\s\n<!-- import from local file -->\s\n<div id="importLocalPanel" style="display:block;margin-bottom:5px;margin-top:5px;padding-top:3px;border-top:1px solid #999">\s\nlocal document path/filename:<br>\s\n<input type="file" id="fileImportSource" size=57 style="width:100%"\s\n onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value"\s\n onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value;">\s\n</div><!--panel-->\s\n\s\n<!-- import from http server -->\s\n<div id="importHTTPPanel" style="display:none;margin-bottom:5px;margin-top:5px;padding-top:3px;border-top:1px solid #999">\s\n<table><tr><td align=left>\s\n remote document URL:<br>\s\n</td><td align=right>\s\n <input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="importUseProxy"\s\n onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.useProxy=this.checked;\s\n document.getElementById(\s'importSiteProxy\s').style.display=this.checked?\s'block\s':\s'none\s'"> use a proxy script\s\n</td></tr></table>\s\n<input type="text" id="importSiteProxy" style="display:none;margin-bottom:1px" onfocus="" value="SiteProxy"\s\n onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=this.value"\s\n onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.proxy=this.value;">\s\n<input type="text" id="importSourceURL" onfocus="" value="SiteUrl"\s\n onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value"\s\n onChange="config.macros.importTiddlers.src=this.value;">\s\n</div><!--panel-->\s\n\s\n<table><tr><td align=left>\s\n select:\s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectAll"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select all tiddlers">\s\n &nbsp;all&nbsp;</a>\s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectNew"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers not already in destination document">\s\n &nbsp;added&nbsp;</a> \s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectChanges"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers that have been updated in source document">\s\n &nbsp;changes&nbsp;</a> \s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importSelectDifferences"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="select tiddlers that have been added or are different from existing tiddlers">\s\n &nbsp;differences&nbsp;</a> \s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importToggleFilter"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="show/hide selection filter">\s\n &nbsp;filter&nbsp;</a> \s\n</td><td align=right>\s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListSmaller"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="reduce list size">\s\n &nbsp;&#150;&nbsp;</a>\s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListLarger"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="increase list size">\s\n &nbsp;+&nbsp;</a>\s\n <a href="JavaScript:;" id="importListMaximize"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)" title="maximize/restore list size">\s\n &nbsp;=&nbsp;</a>\s\n</td></tr></table>\s\n<select id="importList" size=8 multiple\s\n onchange="setTimeout(\s'refreshImportList(\s'+this.selectedIndex+\s')\s',1)">\s\n <!-- NOTE: delay refresh so list is updated AFTER onchange event is handled -->\s\n</select>\s\n<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkAddTags" checked\s\n onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags=this.checked;">add new tags &nbsp;\s\n<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkImportTags" checked\s\n onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.importTags=this.checked;">import source tags &nbsp;\s\n<input type=checkbox class="chk" id="chkKeepTags" checked\s\n onClick="config.macros.importTiddlers.keepTags=this.checked;">keep existing tags<br>\s\n<input type=text id="txtNewTags" size=15 onKeyUp="config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags=this.value" autocomplete=off>\s\n<div align=center>\s\n <input type=button id="importOpen" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="open"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n <input type=button id="importStart" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="import"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n <input type=button id="importClose" class="importButton" style="width:32%" value="close"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n</div>\s\n<div id="importCollisionPanel">\s\n tiddler already exists:\s\n <input type=text id="importNewTitle" size=15 autocomplete=off">\s\n <div align=center>\s\n <input type=button id="importSkip" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="skip"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n <input type=button id="importRename" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="rename"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n <input type=button id="importMerge" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="merge"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n <input type=button id="importReplace" class="importButton" style="width:23%" value="replace"\s\n onclick="onClickImportButton(this)">\s\n </div>\s\n</div>\s\n';\n//}}}\n\n// // Control interactions\n//{{{\nfunction onClickImportButton(which)\n{\n // DEBUG alert(;\n var theList = document.getElementById('importList');\n if (!theList) return;\n var thePanel = document.getElementById('importPanel');\n var theCollisionPanel = document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel');\n var theNewTitle = document.getElementById('importNewTitle');\n var count=0;\n switch (\n {\n case 'fileImportSource':\n case 'importOpen': // load import source into hidden frame\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=null; // clear the imported tiddler buffer\n refreshImportList(); // reset/resize the listbox\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.src=="") break;\n // Load document into hidden iframe so we can read it's DOM and fill the list\n loadRemoteFile(config.macros.importTiddlers.src, function(src,txt) {\n var tiddlers = readTiddlersFromHTML(txt);\n var count=tiddlers?tiddlers.length:0;\n displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.foundMsg.format([count,src]));\n config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=tiddlers;\n window.refreshImportList(0);\n });\n break;\n case 'importSelectAll': // select all tiddler list items (i.e., not headings)\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {\n if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;\n theList.options[t].selected=true;\n count++;\n }\n clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));\n break;\n case 'importSelectNew': // select tiddlers not in current document\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {\n theList.options[t].selected=false;\n if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;\n theList.options[t].selected=!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value);\n count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;\n }\n clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));\n break;\n case 'importSelectChanges': // select tiddlers that are updated from existing tiddlers\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {\n theList.options[t].selected=false;\n if (theList.options[t].value==""||!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value)) continue;\n for (var i=0; i<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; i++) // find matching inbound tiddler\n { var inbound=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[i]; if (inbound.title==theList.options[t].value) break; }\n theList.options[t].selected=(inbound.modified-store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value).modified>0); // updated tiddler\n count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;\n }\n clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));\n break;\n case 'importSelectDifferences': // select tiddlers that are new or different from existing tiddlers\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {\n theList.options[t].selected=false;\n if (theList.options[t].value=="") continue;\n if (!store.tiddlerExists(theList.options[t].value)) { theList.options[t].selected=true; count++; continue; }\n for (var i=0; i<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; i++) // find matching inbound tiddler\n { var inbound=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[i]; if (inbound.title==theList.options[t].value) break; }\n theList.options[t].selected=(inbound.modified-store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value).modified!=0); // changed tiddler\n count+=theList.options[t].selected?1:0;\n }\n clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));\n break;\n case 'importToggleFilter': // show/hide filter\n case 'importFilter': // apply filter\n alert("coming soon!");\n break;\n case 'importStart': // initiate the import processing\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=0;\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(0);\n importStopped();\n break;\n case 'importClose': // unload imported tiddlers or hide the import control panel\n // if imported tiddlers not loaded, close the import control panel\n if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) {'none'; break; }\n importReport(); // if an import was in progress, generate a report\n config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound=null; // clear the imported tiddler buffer\n refreshImportList(); // reset/resize the listbox\n break;\n case 'importSkip': // don't import the tiddler\n var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];\n for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;\n var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];\n theImported.status='skipped after asking'; // mark item as skipped\n'none';\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index+1); // resume with NEXT item\n importStopped();\n break;\n case 'importRename': // change name of imported tiddler\n var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];\n for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;\n var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];\n theImported.status = 'renamed from '+theImported.title; // mark item as renamed\n theImported.set(theNewTitle.value,null,null,null,null); // change the tiddler title\n theItem.value = theNewTitle.value; // change the listbox item text\n theItem.text = theNewTitle.value; // change the listbox item text\n'none';\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with THIS item\n importStopped();\n break;\n case 'importMerge': // join existing and imported tiddler content\n var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];\n for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;\n var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];\n var theExisting = store.getTiddler(theItem.value);\n var theText = theExisting.text+'\sn----\sn^^merged from: ';\n theText +='[['+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+'#'+theItem.value+'|'+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+'#'+theItem.value+']]^^\sn';\n theText +='^^'+theImported.modified.toLocaleString()+' by '+theImported.modifier+'^^\sn'+theImported.text;\n var theDate = new Date();\n var theTags = theExisting.getTags()+' '+theImported.getTags();\n theImported.set(null,theText,null,theDate,theTags);\n theImported.status = 'merged with '+theExisting.title; // mark item as merged\n theImported.status += ' - '+theExisting.modified.formatString("MM/DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss");\n theImported.status += ' by '+theExisting.modifier;\n'none';\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with this item\n importStopped();\n break;\n case 'importReplace': // substitute imported tiddler for existing tiddler\n var theItem = theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index];\n for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==theItem.value) break;\n var theImported = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];\n var theExisting = store.getTiddler(theItem.value);\n theImported.status = 'replaces '+theExisting.title; // mark item for replace\n theImported.status += ' - '+theExisting.modified.formatString("MM/DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss");\n theImported.status += ' by '+theExisting.modifier;\n'none';\n config.macros.importTiddlers.index=importTiddlers(config.macros.importTiddlers.index); // resume with THIS item\n importStopped();\n break;\n case 'importListSmaller': // decrease current listbox size, minimum=5\n if (theList.options.length==1) break;\n theList.size-=(theList.size>5)?1:0;\n config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize=theList.size;\n break;\n case 'importListLarger': // increase current listbox size, maximum=number of items in list\n if (theList.options.length==1) break;\n theList.size+=(theList.size<theList.options.length)?1:0;\n config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize=theList.size;\n break;\n case 'importListMaximize': // toggle listbox size between current and maximum\n if (theList.options.length==1) break;\n theList.size=(theList.size==theList.options.length)?config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize:theList.options.length;\n break;\n }\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // refresh listbox\n//{{{\nfunction refreshImportList(selectedIndex)\n{\n var theList = document.getElementById("importList");\n if (!theList) return;\n // if nothing to show, reset list content and size\n if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) \n {\n while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }\n theList.options[0]=new Option('please open a document...',"",false,false);\n theList.size=config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize;\n return;\n }\n // get the sort order\n if (!selectedIndex) selectedIndex=0;\n if (selectedIndex==0) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='title'; // heading\n if (selectedIndex==1) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='title';\n if (selectedIndex==2) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='modified';\n if (selectedIndex==3) config.macros.importTiddlers.sort='tags';\n if (selectedIndex>3) {\n // display selected tiddler count\n for (var t=0,count=0; t < theList.options.length; t++) count+=(theList.options[t].selected&&theList.options[t].value!="")?1:0;\n clearMessage(); displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.countMsg.format([count]));\n return; // no refresh needed\n }\n\n // get the alphasorted list of tiddlers (optionally, filter out unchanged tiddlers)\n var tiddlers=config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound;\n tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a['title'] == b['title']) return(0); else return (a['title'] < b['title']) ? -1 : +1; });\n // clear current list contents\n while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }\n // add heading and control items to list\n var i=0;\n var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(tiddlers.length+' tiddler'+((tiddlers.length!=1)?'s are':' is')+' in the document',"",false,false);\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="title" )?">":indent)+' [by title]',"",false,false);\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="modified")?">":indent)+' [by date]',"",false,false);\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(((config.macros.importTiddlers.sort=="tags")?">":indent)+' [by tags]',"",false,false);\n // output the tiddler list\n switch(config.macros.importTiddlers.sort)\n {\n case "title":\n for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)\n theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);\n break;\n case "modified":\n // sort descending for newest date first\n tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a['modified'] == b['modified']) return(0); else return (a['modified'] > b['modified']) ? -1 : +1; });\n var lastSection = "";\n for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) {\n var tiddler = tiddlers[t];\n var theSection = tiddler.modified.toLocaleDateString();\n if (theSection != lastSection) {\n theList.options[i++] = new Option(theSection,"",false,false);\n lastSection = theSection;\n }\n theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);\n }\n break;\n case "tags":\n var theTitles = {}; // all tiddler titles, hash indexed by tag value\n var theTags = new Array();\n for(var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) {\n var title=tiddlers[t].title;\n var tags=tiddlers[t].tags;\n if (!tags || !tags.length) {\n if (theTitles["untagged"]==undefined) { theTags.push("untagged"); theTitles["untagged"]=new Array(); }\n theTitles["untagged"].push(title);\n }\n else for(var s=0; s<tags.length; s++) {\n if (theTitles[tags[s]]==undefined) { theTags.push(tags[s]); theTitles[tags[s]]=new Array(); }\n theTitles[tags[s]].push(title);\n }\n }\n theTags.sort();\n for(var tagindex=0; tagindex<theTags.length; tagindex++) {\n var theTag=theTags[tagindex];\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(theTag,"",false,false);\n for(var t=0; t<theTitles[theTag].length; t++)\n theList.options[i++]=new Option(indent+indent+theTitles[theTag][t],theTitles[theTag][t],false,false);\n }\n break;\n }\n theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item\n if (theList.size<config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize) theList.size=config.macros.importTiddlers.listsize;\n if (theList.size>theList.options.length) theList.size=theList.options.length;\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // re-entrant processing for handling import with interactive collision prompting\n//{{{\nfunction importTiddlers(startIndex)\n{\n if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) return -1;\n\n var theList = document.getElementById('importList');\n if (!theList) return;\n var t;\n // if starting new import, reset import status flags\n if (startIndex==0)\n for (var t=0;t<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;t++)\n config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[t].status="";\n for (var i=startIndex; i<theList.options.length; i++)\n {\n // if list item is not selected or is a heading (i.e., has no value), skip it\n if ((!theList.options[i].selected) || ((t=theList.options[i].value)==""))\n continue;\n for (var j=0;j<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length;j++)\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j].title==t) break;\n var inbound = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[j];\n var theExisting = store.getTiddler(inbound.title);\n // avoid redundant import for tiddlers that are listed multiple times (when 'by tags')\n if (inbound.status=="added")\n continue;\n // don't import the "ImportedTiddlers" history from the other document...\n if (inbound.title=='ImportedTiddlers')\n continue;\n // if tiddler exists and import not marked for replace or merge, stop importing\n if (theExisting && (inbound.status.substr(0,7)!="replace") && (inbound.status.substr(0,5)!="merge"))\n return i;\n // assemble tags (remote + existing + added)\n var newTags = "";\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.importTags)\n newTags+=inbound.getTags() // import remote tags\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.keepTags && theExisting)\n newTags+=" "+theExisting.getTags(); // keep existing tags\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags && config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags.trim().length)\n newTags+=" "+config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags; // add new tags\n inbound.set(null,null,null,null,newTags.trim());\n // set the status to 'added' (if not already set by the 'ask the user' UI)\n inbound.status=(inbound.status=="")?'added':inbound.status;\n // do the import!\n // OLD: store.addTiddler(in); store.setDirty(true);\n store.saveTiddler(inbound.title, inbound.title, inbound.text, inbound.modifier, inbound.modified, inbound.tags);\n store.fetchTiddler(inbound.title).created = inbound.created; // force creation date to imported value\n }\n return(-1); // signals that we really finished the entire list\n}\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\nfunction importStopped()\n{\n var theList = document.getElementById('importList');\n var theNewTitle = document.getElementById('importNewTitle');\n if (!theList) return;\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.index==-1)\n importReport(); // import finished... generate the report\n else\n {\n // DEBUG alert('import stopped at: '+config.macros.importTiddlers.index);\n // import collision... show the collision panel and set the title edit field\n document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel').style.display='block';\n theNewTitle.value=theList.options[config.macros.importTiddlers.index].value;\n }\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // ''REPORT GENERATOR''\n//{{{\nfunction importReport(quiet)\n{\n if (!config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound) return;\n // DEBUG alert('importReport: start');\n\n // if import was not completed, the collision panel will still be open... close it now.\n var panel=document.getElementById('importCollisionPanel'); if (panel)'none';\n\n // get the alphasorted list of tiddlers\n var tiddlers = config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound;\n // gather the statistics\n var count=0;\n for (var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++)\n if (tiddlers[t].status && tiddlers[t].status.trim().length && tiddlers[t].status.substr(0,7)!="skipped") count++;\n\n // generate a report\n if (count && config.options.chkImportReport) {\n // get/create the report tiddler\n var theReport = store.getTiddler('ImportedTiddlers');\n if (!theReport) { theReport= new Tiddler(); theReport.title = 'ImportedTiddlers'; theReport.text = ""; }\n // format the report content\n var now = new Date();\n var newText = "On "+now.toLocaleString()+", "+config.options.txtUserName\n newText +=" imported "+count+" tiddler"+(count==1?"":"s")+" from\sn[["+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+"|"+config.macros.importTiddlers.src+"]]:\sn";\n if (config.macros.importTiddlers.addTags && config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags.trim().length)\n newText += "imported tiddlers were tagged with: \s""+config.macros.importTiddlers.newTags+"\s"\sn";\n newText += "<<<\sn";\n for (var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) if (tiddlers[t].status) newText += "#[["+tiddlers[t].title+"]] - "+tiddlers[t].status+"\sn";\n newText += "<<<\sn";\n// 20060918 ELS: DON'T ADD "discard" BUTTON TO REPORT\n// newText += "<html><input type=\s"button\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" ";\n// newText += "onclick=\s"story.closeTiddler('"+theReport.title+"'); store.deleteTiddler('"+theReport.title+"');\s" ";\n// newText += "value=\s"discard report\s"></html>";\n // update the ImportedTiddlers content and show the tiddler\n theReport.text = newText+((theReport.text!="")?'\sn----\sn':"")+theReport.text;\n theReport.modifier = config.options.txtUserName;\n theReport.modified = new Date();\n // OLD: store.addTiddler(theReport);\n store.saveTiddler(theReport.title, theReport.title, theReport.text, theReport.modifier, theReport.modified, theReport.tags);\n if (!quiet) { story.displayTiddler(null,theReport.title,1,null,null,false); story.refreshTiddler(theReport.title,1,true); }\n }\n\n // reset status flags\n for (var t=0; t<config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound.length; t++) config.macros.importTiddlers.inbound[t].status="";\n\n // refresh display if tiddlers have been loaded\n if (count) { store.setDirty(true); store.notifyAll(); }\n\n // always show final message when tiddlers were actually loaded\n if (count) displayMessage(config.macros.importTiddlers.importedMsg.format([count,tiddlers.length,config.macros.importTiddlers.src]));\n}\n//}}}\n\n/***\n!!!!!TW 2.1beta Core Code Candidate\n//The following section is a preliminary 'code candidate' for incorporation of non-interactive 'load tiddlers' functionality into TW2.1beta. //\n***/\n//{{{\n// default cookie/option values\nif (!config.options.chkImportReport) config.options.chkImportReport=true;\n\nconfig.macros.loadTiddlers = {\n label: "",\n prompt: "add/update tiddlers from '%0'",\n askMsg: "Please enter a local path/filename or a remote URL",\n openMsg: "Opening %0",\n openErrMsg: "Could not open %0 - error=%1",\n readMsg: "Read %0 bytes from %1",\n foundMsg: "Found %0 tiddlers in %1",\n nochangeMsg: "'%0' is up-to-date... skipped.",\n loadedMsg: "Loaded %0 of %1 tiddlers from %2"\n};\n\nconfig.macros.loadTiddlers.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {\n var label=(params[0] && params[0].substr(0,6)=='label:')?params.shift().substr(6):this.label;\n var prompt=(params[0] && params[0].substr(0,7)=='prompt:')?params.shift().substr(7):this.prompt;\n var filter="updates";\n if (params[0] && (params[0]=='all' || params[0]=='new' || params[0]=='changes' || params[0]=='updates'\n || params[0].substr(0,8)=='tiddler:' || params[0].substr(0,4)=='tag:'))\n filter=params.shift();\n var src=params.shift(); if (!src || !src.length) return; // filename is required\n var quiet=(params[0]=="quiet"); if (quiet) params.shift();\n var ask=(params[0]=="confirm"); if (ask) params.shift();\n var force=(params[0]=="force"); if (force) params.shift();\n if (label.trim().length) {\n // link triggers load tiddlers from another file/URL and then applies filtering rules to add/replace tiddlers in the store\n createTiddlyButton(place,label.format([src]),prompt.format([src]), function() {\n if (src=="ask") src=prompt(config.macros.loadTiddlers.askMsg);\n loadRemoteFile(src,loadTiddlers,quiet,ask,filter,force);\n })\n }\n else {\n // load tiddlers from another file/URL and then apply filtering rules to add/replace tiddlers in the store\n if (src=="ask") src=prompt(config.macros.loadTiddlers.askMsg);\n loadRemoteFile(src,loadTiddlers,quiet,ask,filter,force);\n }\n}\n\nfunction loadTiddlers(src,html,quiet,ask,filter,force)\n{\n var tiddlers = readTiddlersFromHTML(html);\n var count=tiddlers?tiddlers.length:0;\n if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.foundMsg.format([count,src]));\n var count=0;\n if (tiddlers) for (var t=0;t<tiddlers.length;t++) {\n var inbound = tiddlers[t];\n var theExisting = store.getTiddler(inbound.title);\n if (inbound.title=='ImportedTiddlers')\n continue; // skip "ImportedTiddlers" history from the other document...\n\n // apply the all/new/changes/updates filter (if any)\n if (filter && filter!="all") {\n if ((filter=="new") && theExisting) // skip existing tiddlers\n continue;\n if ((filter=="changes") && !theExisting) // skip new tiddlers\n continue;\n if ((filter.substr(0,4)=="tag:") && inbound.tags.find(filter.substr(4))==null) // must match specific tag value\n continue;\n if ((filter.substr(0,8)=="tiddler:") && inbound.title!=filter.substr(8)) // must match specific tiddler name\n continue;\n if (!force && store.tiddlerExists(inbound.title) && ((theExisting.modified.getTime()-inbound.modified.getTime())>=0))\n { if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.nochangeMsg.format([inbound.title])); continue; }\n }\n // get confirmation if required\n if (ask && !confirm((theExisting?"Update":"Add")+" tiddler '"+inbound.title+"'\snfrom "+src))\n { tiddlers[t].status="skipped - cancelled by user"; continue; }\n // DO IT!\n // OLD: store.addTiddler(in);\n store.saveTiddler(inbound.title, inbound.title, inbound.text, inbound.modifier, inbound.modified, inbound.tags);\n store.fetchTiddler(inbound.title).created = inbound.created; // force creation date to imported value\n tiddlers[t].status=theExisting?"updated":"added"\n count++;\n }\n if (count) {\n // refresh display\n store.setDirty(true);\n store.notifyAll();\n // generate a report\n if (config.options.chkImportReport) {\n // get/create the report tiddler\n var theReport = store.getTiddler('ImportedTiddlers');\n if (!theReport) { theReport= new Tiddler(); theReport.title = 'ImportedTiddlers'; theReport.text = ""; }\n // format the report content\n var now = new Date();\n var newText = "On "+now.toLocaleString()+", "+config.options.txtUserName+" loaded "+count+" tiddlers from\sn[["+src+"|"+src+"]]:\sn";\n newText += "<<<\sn";\n for (var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) if (tiddlers[t].status) newText += "#[["+tiddlers[t].title+"]] - "+tiddlers[t].status+"\sn";\n newText += "<<<\sn";\n// 20060918 ELS: DON'T ADD "discard" BUTTON TO REPORT\n// newText += "<html><input type=\s"button\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" ";\n// newText += "onclick=\s"story.closeTiddler('"+theReport.title+"'); store.deleteTiddler('"+theReport.title+"');\s" ";\n// newText += "value=\s"discard report\s"></html>";\n // update the ImportedTiddlers content and show the tiddler\n theReport.text = newText+((theReport.text!="")?'\sn----\sn':"")+theReport.text;\n theReport.modifier = config.options.txtUserName;\n theReport.modified = new Date();\n // OLD: store.addTiddler(theReport);\n store.saveTiddler(theReport.title, theReport.title, theReport.text, theReport.modifier, theReport.modified, theReport.tags);\n if (!quiet) { story.displayTiddler(null,theReport.title,1,null,null,false); story.refreshTiddler(theReport.title,1,true); }\n }\n }\n // always show final message when tiddlers were actually loaded\n if (!quiet||count) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.loadedMsg.format([count,tiddlers.length,src]));\n}\n\nfunction loadRemoteFile(src,callback,quiet,ask,filter,force) {\n if (src==undefined || !src.length) return null; // filename is required\n if (!quiet) clearMessage();\n if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.openMsg.format([src]));\n if (src.substr(0,4)!="http" && src.substr(0,4)!="file") { // if not a URL, fallback to read from local filesystem\n var txt=loadFile(src);\n if ((txt==null)||(txt==false)) // file didn't load\n { if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,"(unknown)"])); }\n else {\n if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.readMsg.format([txt.length,src]));\n if (callback) callback(src,convertUTF8ToUnicode(txt),quiet,ask,filter,force);\n }\n }\n else {\n var x; // get an request object\n try {x = new XMLHttpRequest()} // moz\n catch(e) {\n try {x = new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP")} // IE 6\n catch (e) {\n try {x = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")} // IE 5\n catch (e) { return }\n }\n }\n // setup callback function to handle server response(s)\n x.onreadystatechange = function() {\n if (x.readyState == 4) {\n if (x.status==0 || x.status == 200) {\n if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.readMsg.format([x.responseText.length,src]));\n if (callback) callback(src,x.responseText,quiet,ask,filter,force);\n }\n else {\n if (!quiet) displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,x.status]));\n }\n }\n }\n // get privileges to read another document's DOM via http:// or file:// (moz-only)\n if (typeof(netscape)!="undefined") {\n try {"UniversalBrowserRead"); }\n catch (e) { if (!quiet) displayMessage(e.description?e.description:e.toString()); }\n }\n // send the HTTP request\n try {\n var url=src+(src.indexOf('?')<0?'?':'&')+'nocache='+Math.random();\n"GET",src,true);\n if (x.overrideMimeType) x.overrideMimeType('text/html');\n x.send(null);\n }\n catch (e) {\n if (!quiet) {\n displayMessage(config.macros.loadTiddlers.openErrMsg.format([src,"(unknown)"]));\n displayMessage(e.description?e.description:e.toString());\n }\n }\n }\n}\n\nfunction readTiddlersFromHTML(html)\n{\n // extract store area from html \n var start=html.indexOf('<div id="storeArea">');\n var end=html.indexOf("<!--POST-BODY-START--"+">",start);\n if (end==-1) var end=html.indexOf("</body"+">",start); // backward-compatibility for older documents\n var sa="<html><body>"+html.substring(start,end)+"</body></html>";\n\n // load html into iframe document\n var f=document.getElementById("loaderFrame"); if (f) document.body.removeChild(f);\n f=document.createElement("iframe");"loaderFrame";\n"0px";"0px";"0px";\n document.body.appendChild(f);\n var d=f.document;\n if (f.contentDocument) d=f.contentDocument; // For NS6\n else if (f.contentWindow) d=f.contentWindow.document; // For IE5.5 and IE6\n; d.writeln(sa); d.close();\n\n // read tiddler DIVs from storeArea DOM element \n var sa = d.getElementById("storeArea");\n if (!sa) return null;\n sa.normalize();\n var nodes = sa.childNodes;\n if (!nodes || !nodes.length) return null;\n var tiddlers = [];\n for(var t = 0; t < nodes.length; t++) {\n var title = null;\n if(nodes[t].getAttribute)\n title = nodes[t].getAttribute("tiddler");\n if(!title && nodes[t].id && (nodes[t].id.substr(0,5) == "store"))\n title = nodes[t].id.substr(5);\n if(title && title != "")\n tiddlers.push((new Tiddler()).loadFromDiv(nodes[t],title));\n }\n return tiddlers;\n}\n//}}}
This tiddler incorporates the ImportedTiddlers tiddler that is automatically created by the ImportTiddlersPlugin macro, and that provides a cumulativee log of tiddlers imported from other TiddyWiki pages.\n\n<<tiddler ImportedTiddlers>>'
On 2007.03.17 - Saturday, March 17 5:33:38 PM, Information Habitat imported 5 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\ssandbox\sindex.htm|T:\\ssandbox\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[ExternalLinkPreviewPlugin]] - added\n#[[InlineSlidersPlugin]] - added\n#[[MultiRssPlugin]] - added\n#[[TiddlerPreviewsPlugin]] - added\n#[[contentFooter]] - added\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.11 - Sunday, March 11 8:26:15 PM, Information Habitat imported 3 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm|T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[Climate Change]] - added\n#[[Included TiddlyWikis]] - added\n#[[SideBarTabs]] - added\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.11 - Sunday, March 11 8:07:16 PM, Information Habitat imported 2 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm|T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[DataPerfect]] - skipped after asking\n#[[IncludeList]] - added\n#[[include]] - added\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.08 - Thursday, March 08 7:08:32 AM, Information Habitat imported 2 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\sworkshop\sindex.htm|T:\\sworkshop\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[Armenian Assembly of America]] - added\n#[[Earthwatch Institute]] - added\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.08 - Thursday, March 08 2:48:41 AM, Information Habitat imported 12 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\schallenge\sindex.htm|T:\\schallenge\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[Educating for tomorrow’s world]] - added\n#[[Formatting Text]] - added\n#[[Formatting Tiddlers]] - added\n#[[Headings & Outlines]] - added\n#[[Imported Tiddlers]] - added\n#[[International Implementation Scheme - UNESCO]] - added\n#[[Plugin Macros]] - added\n#[[Software Contributions]] - added\n#[[Templates & Stylesheets]] - added\n#[[Tiddlers]] - added\n#[[TiddlyPerfect]] - added\n#[[Vision & Definition of ESD]] - skipped after asking\n#[[Youth Challenge]] - added\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.07 - Wednesday, March 07 11:04:21 PM, Information Habitat imported 1 tiddler from\n[[T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm|T:\\sclimate-change\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[StyleSheetColors]] - replaces StyleSheetColors - 1/20/2007 18:45:00 by Robert Pollard\n<<<\n\n----\nOn 2007.03.07 - Wednesday, March 07 6:27:55 AM, Information Habitat imported 14 tiddlers from\n[[T:\\schallenge\sindex.htm|T:\\schallenge\sindex.htm]]:\n<<<\n#[[57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] - added\n#[[58/219. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] - added\n#[[59/237. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] - added\n#[[Declaration of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] - added\n#[[Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]] - added\n#[[Key Documents on Education for Sustainable Development]] - added\n#[[Millennium Development Goals]] - added\n#[[StyleSheetColors]] - replaces StyleSheetColors - 2/25/2007 15:26:00 by Information Habitat\n#[[StyleSheetLayout]] - replaces StyleSheetLayout - 12/26/2006 14:38:00 by Grandpa Ruh\n#[[Sustainable Development]] - added\n#[[The Talloires Declaration]] - added\n#[[UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] - replaces UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development - 11/6/2006 10:22:00 by GrandpaRuh\n#[[User Options]] - replaces User Options - 12/26/2006 11:26:00 by Grandpa Ruh\n#[[Vision & Definition of ESD]] - added\n<<<\n
/***\n|''Name:''|abego.IncludePlugin|\n|''Version:''|1.0.0 (2007-02-08)|\n|''Type:''|plugin|\n|''Source:''||\n|''Author:''|Udo Borkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|\n|''Documentation:''|[[IncludePlugin Documentation|]]|\n|''Community:''|([[|]]) ([[Support|]])|\n|''Copyright:''|&copy; 2007 [[abego Software|]]|\n|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|]]|\n|''~CoreVersion:''|2.1.3|\n|''Browser:''|Firefox or better; Internet Explorer 6.0|\n***/\n/***\nThis plugin's source code is compressed (and hidden). Use this [[link|]] to get the readable source code.\n***/\n///%\nif(!window.abego){window.abego={};}var invokeLater=function(_1,_2,_3){return abego.invokeLater?abego.invokeLater(_1,_2,_3):setTimeout(_1,_2);};abego.loadFile=function(_4,_5,_6){var _7=function(_8,_9,_a,_b,_c){return _8?_5(_a,_b,_9):_5(undefined,_b,_9,"Error loading %0".format([_b]));};if(^((http(s)?)|(file)):/)!=0){if(^((.\s:\s\s)|(\s\s\s\s)|(\s/))/)==0){_4="file://"+_4;}else{var _d=document.location.toString();var i=_d.lastIndexOf("/");_4=_d.substr(0,i+1)+_4;}_4=_4.replace(/\s\s/mg,"/");}loadRemoteFile(_4,_7,_6);};abego.loadTiddlyWikiStore=function(_f,_10,_11,_12){var _13=function(_14,_15){if(_12){_12(_14,"abego.loadTiddlyWikiStore",_15,_f,_11);}};var _16=function(_17,_18){var _19=_18.indexOf(startSaveArea);var _1a=_18.indexOf("<!--POST-BODY-END--"+">");var _1b=_18.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea,_1a==-1?_18.length:_1a);if((_19==-1)||(_1b==-1)){return config.messages.invalidFileError.format([_f]);}var _1c="<html><body>"+_18.substring(_19,_1b+endSaveArea.length)+"</body></html>";var _1d=document.createElement("iframe");"none";document.body.appendChild(_1d);var doc=_1d.document;if(_1d.contentDocument){doc=_1d.contentDocument;}else{if(_1d.contentWindow){doc=_1d.contentWindow.document;}};doc.writeln(_1c);doc.close();var _1f=doc.getElementById("storeArea");_17.loadFromDiv(_1f,"store");_1d.parentNode.removeChild(_1d);return null;};var _20=function(_21){_13("Error when loading %0".format([_f]),"Failed");_10(undefined,_f,_11,_21);return _21;};var _22=function(_23){_13("Loaded %0".format([_f]),"Done");_10(_23,_f,_11);return null;};var _24=function(_25,_26,_27,_28){if(_25===undefined){_20(_28);return;}_13("Processing %0".format([_f]),"Processing");var _29=config.messages.invalidFileError;config.messages.invalidFileError="The file '%0' does not appear to be a valid TiddlyWiki file";try{var _2a=new TiddlyWiki();var _2b=_16(_2a,_25);if(_2b){_20(_2b);}else{_22(_2a);}}catch(ex){_20(exceptionText(ex));}finally{config.messages.invalidFileError=_29;}};_13("Start loading %0".format([_f]),"Started");abego.loadFile(_f,_24,_11);};(function(){if(abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder){return;}var _2c="waiting";var _2d="loading";var _2e=1000;var _2f=-200;var _30=-100;var _31=-300;var _32;var _33=[];var _34={};var _35=[];var _36;var _37=[];var _38;var _39=function(){if(_32===undefined){_32=config.options.chkUseInclude===undefined||config.options.chkUseInclude;}return _32;};var _3a=function(url){return "No include specified for %0".format([url]);};var _3c=function(){var _3d=_35;_35=[];if(_3d.length){for(var i=0;i<_37.length;i++){_37[i](_3d);}}};var _3f;var _40=function(){if(_36!==undefined){clearInterval(_36);}_3f=0;var 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_69=abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.getState(_33[i]);if(_69==_2c||_69==_2d){return true;}}return false;};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.getIncludes=function(){return _33.slice();};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.getState=function(url){var s=_34[url];if(!s){return _3a(url);}return typeof s=="string"?s:null;};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.getStore=function(url){var s=_34[url];if(!s){return _3a(url);}return s instanceof TiddlyWiki?s:null;};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.include=function(url,_6f){if(!_39()||_34[url]){return;}var _70=this;_33.push(url);_34[url]=_2c;var _71=function(_72,_73,_74,_75){if(_72===undefined){_34[url]=_75;_70.onError(url,_75);return;}_34[url]=_72;_35.push(url);invokeLater(_3c);};var _76=function(){_34[url]=_2d;abego.loadTiddlyWikiStore(url,_71,null,_38);};if(_6f){invokeLater(_76,_6f);}else{_76();}};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.forReallyEachTiddler=function(_77){var _78=function(){store.forEachTiddler(_77);};_50(_78).call(store);};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.getFunctionUsingForReallyEachTiddler=_50;abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.useForReallyEachTiddler=_5e;abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.addListener=function(_79){_37.push(_79);};abego.TiddlyWikiIncluder.addListener(_40);if(config.options.chkUseInclude===undefined){config.options.chkUseInclude=true;}config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions+="\sn<<option chkUseInclude>> Include ~TiddlyWikis (IncludeList | IncludeState | [[help|]])\sn^^(Reload this ~TiddlyWiki to make changes become effective)^^";config.shadowTiddlers.IncludeState="<<includeState>>";var _7a=function(e,_7c,_7d){if(!anim||!abego.ShowAnimation){"block":"none";return;}anim.startAnimating(new 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Though the use of the {{{<<include>>}}} macro from the IncludePlugin, tiddlers from the following sites are directly accessible from within this TiddlyWiki page.\n\n<<include "workshop/index.htm">>\n<<include "stern-review/index.htm">>\n<<include "challenge/index.htm">>\n<<include "plan-b/index.htm">>\n<<include "">>
''Information ecology'' is a holistic life science for a knowledge-based universe - based on the concept of information and information systems as evolving life forms whose behaviour can best be understood by considering the nature and dynamics of information ecosystems in conjunction with an appreciation of the fundamental nature and properties of information and of a knowledge-based universe and the premise of the existence of 'one light in all of creation'.\n!!Properties of information\nInformation has:\n* has zero mass\n* has zero physical size \n* takes virtually zero time to travel\n* enables common access to properties of the whole\n!!Principles of information\n* value is enhanced by intelligent organization\n* flow is enhanced by intelligent networks\n* management is enhanced by intelligent protocols\n* understanding is enhanced by intelligent practice \nFrom the perspective of economics, the virtually zero marginal cost of information has profound significance, and, in conjunction with the progressive evolution of information and communications technology has given rise to the accelerating development and adoption of open source software, the emergence of a rapidly-growing information commons in the broader context of a cascading global transition to a knowledge-based universe. \n\nThis transition represents no less than an inexorable and progressive transition to a profound new, stable ''Nash equilibrium'' for economic behaviour in which the intelligent adoption of information systems and strategies is the critical factor, accompanied by the emergence of a radically new form of ''free market economics'' for information in which the free exchange of information is free of monetary constraints.\n\nThe concept of "information ecology" has been gaining increasing recognition and usage - e.g. see <<wikipedia "Information ecology">> in Wikipedia. The framework for information ecology that underlies TiddlyPerfect has been progressively developed by [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]], an Non-Governmental Organization in Special Consultative Status with the UN Economic and Social Council, in the course of Information Habitat's support and promotion of broad-based participation and access to and exchnage of information in the series of UN global conferences beginning with preparations for the 1992 Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. through the 1996 Habitat II conference in Istanbul and in the follow-up to these and related conferences.
> From [[Towards Earth Summit II: Recommendations for Actions and Commitments at Earth Summit II|]], June 1997\n!!!Information Ecology\n''We call for'': A major commitment to analyze and explore the opportunities and implications of the rapidly evolving "information and communication ecosystem" and to identify critical information ecology issues relating to sustainability. We call for the design and establishment of, and support for participatory enabling environments - from community and interlocal networks to national and global frameworks - within which information and communications technologies, systems and processes - including traditional and non-electronic forms - can facilitate a transition to more open, equitable and sustainable communities and society.\n\n''Implementation'': The Commission on Sustainable Development - CSD - should convene an Ad Hoc, Open-Ended Working Group on Information Ecology - with participation of non-governmental organizations as well as of member states and from within United Nations agencies, programmes and centres. The mandate of the Working Group should include the following:\n* to conduct a systematic review of the opportunities and implications for sustainability and equity of an ecologically sound approach to information flow;\n* to identify and address critical sustainability issues from a whole systems, full life-cycle costs, perspective regarding the transition from a predominantly material to an increasingly digital economy - including resource and capital cost implications.\n* to examine the development of effective mechanisms to support access to and transfer of ecologically and socially sound technologies;\n* to identify and address actual and prospective, direct and indirect economic, cultural, social and environmental impacts of the introduction of information technology;\n* to consider how information and communication technology can be used to strengthen effective community-based, participatory planning, decision-making and implementation processes relating to sustainability and equitable development, focussing on the use of information exchange mechanisms that are accessible at a grassroots level;\n* to examine the destabilizing potentials of modern information, communication and automation technologies, and to develop provisions to prevent the undermining of traditional and sustainable cultures and practices, or the jeopardizing of human, economic, social cultural and political rights;\n* to undertake an examination of the evolving information ecosystem in terms of equitable access to information in the North and the South, addressing intellectual property rights, trends towards concentration of ownership and control in information and communication technology and electronic media, access to information and communication infrastructure, and democratic, participatory processes, rights and freedoms;\n* to review, in the light of the rapidly increasing proportion of capital formation that is in the realm of intellectual property, and the need for development strategies that enable access to information and communication infrastructure as a critical means of enabling access to resources;\n* to set in process the design of a comprehensive sustainability information and communication environment. This should be designed to facilitate partnership-based integrative coordination of monitoring and implementation of the agreements of the "Rio cluster" series of global conferences;\n''Rationale'': The evolution of information and communication technology - the progressive emergence of an "information age" - has been dramatic in the five years since the first Earth Summit. The integrative power of information technology is increasingly clear, as is its progressively growing capacity to model and map the properties of whole systems, however, the pursuit of a specific trend in technology can become unsustainable. Meanwhile, the increasing scale and role of information and communication technology in the global economy and the increasing impact of automation, the rapid growth in both access and inequities in access confirm that the implications of information technology extend far beyond the role envisioned in [[Chapter 40 of Agenda 21 |]] as a support system for decision-makers and require comprehensive re-assessment by the CSD.
''Information Habitat: Where Information Lives'' - an ''NGO in Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council'' - was founded in May 1990 in the context of preparations for the 1992 Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information Habitat has focused on the transformative opportunties of information and communications technology (ICT) in support of broad-based participation of ~NGOs in the work of the United Nations, and the critical role of ICT in offering a path towards sustainable development.\n\nFor more information on Information Habitat, visit
''Information and Communications Sub-Committee'' of the [[NGO Committee on Education]]\n\n
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> From [[Towards Earth Summit II: Recommendations for Actions and Commitments at Earth Summit II|]], June 1997\n!!!Integrated Monitoring Frameworks\n''We call for'': The establishment through DPCSD (now the Department of Economic and Social Affairs) of an integrated comprehensive framework - making effective use of modern information and communications technology - for systematic monitoring of the implementation of all the Rio agreements as well as the agreements of the other recent global conferences.\n* Information that the UN has available at web-sites and other new information technologies should be made accessible to the public on a no-cost basis\n* The development of indicators and criteria shall in no way undermine obligations incurred under treaties, covenants conventions or commitments made in conference action plans.\n''Implementation'':\n* Develop a comprehensive framework - to be accessible online - to enable the systematic monitoring and implementation of the agreements of the "Rio cluster" of United Nations conferences and proceedings;\n* develop an integrated, fully searchable database that incorporates the text of all these agreements, that documents initiatives - including best practices - taken by intergovernmental agencies, governments and major groups, and that incorporates data and indicators that can help show current status and trends towards sustainability;\n* the use of geographic information systems as a tool to assist in organizing and integrating information on measures; and\n* measures to support capacity-building in the use of information and communications technology - including the strengthening of information and communications infrastructure in developing countries\n''Rationale'': There is currently no systematic framework in place by which it is possible to assess and monitor the extent and specifics of implementation of the Rio agreements. Modern information and communications technology offers a range of powerful tools to organize and integrate a broad base of diverse information, and to make it widely accessible. There are many areas of overlap between the Rio agreements and the other "Rio cluster" agreements - all of which, in one way or another relate to the attainment of a sustainable common future - so there is a need for an integrated process of monitoring implementation of the whole set of agreements.
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Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the [[World Meteorological Organization|http"//]] (WMO) and the [[United Nations Environment Programme|]] (UNEP) established the ''Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change'' (IPCC) in 1988. It is open to all members of the UN and WMO.\n\nThe role of the IPCC is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC does not carry out research nor does it monitor climate related data or other relevant parameters. It bases its assessment mainly on peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature. Its role, organisation, participation and general procedures are laid down in the "Principles Governing IPCC Work".\n\n''Climate Change 2007'' is the [[Fourth Assessment Report|Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007]] published by IPCC, and following the [[Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001]] - organized around a set of [[nine policy-relevant questions|AR3-Synthesis: Nine policy-relevant questions]] - and a number of [[IPCC Special Reports]].\n\nRead more about IPCC on the [[IPCC web site|]]
The ''International Federation of University Women'' (IFUW) is an international, non-profit organization of women graduates working to promote lifelong education, to improve the status of women and girls and to enable women to effect positive change for a peaceful world. IFUW was founded in 1919 after World War I by women graduates who believed in the importance of working together for peace, international understanding and friendship and has 79 national affiliates and has members in more than 120 countries. The International Federation of University Women is an NGO in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council since 1947.\n\nFor more information, visit
Founded in Amsterdam in 1952, the ''International Humanist and Ethical Union'' (IHEU) is the sole world umbrella organisation embracing Humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, Ethical Culture, freethought and similar organisations world-wide. The IHEU represents the views of over three million Humanists organized in over 100 national organizations in 40 countries. The International Humanist and Ethical Union is an NGO in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council.\n\nFor more information, visit
!!International Implementation Scheme (IIS)\nIn December 2002, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted [[resolution 57/254|57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] to put in place a United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), spanning from 2005 to 2014. UNESCO was requested to lead the Decade and develop a draft International Implementation Scheme (IIS) for the Decade. This document fulfils the request for an IIS and is the result of extensive consultations with United Nations agencies, national governments, civil society organizations and NGOs, experts and specialists.\n\nStarting with an initial consultation with United Nations partners in September 2003, UNESCO shared a framework for the IIS worldwide. More than two thousand contributions were received, many of these representing the consolidation of opinions of hundreds. The draft Scheme was widely circulated and eventually reviewed by leading academics and experts in the field, before it was submitted, in July 2004, to the High-Level Panel on the Decade, which advises the Director-General of UNESCO on this topic. It was presented at the 59th session of the United Nations General Assembly (New York, 18-19 October 2004), and then at the 171st and 172nd sessions of the UNESCO Executive Board (Paris, April and September 2005).\n\nThe IIS sets out a broad framework for all partners to contribute to the Decade. It is a strategic document that focuses primarily on what nations have committed to achieve through the DESD and under UNESCO’s leadership. It summarizes the goals and objectives of the Decade, and its relationship to other key education movements. It emphasizes the importance of partnership in the eventual success of the Decade and outlines how these might contribute at all levels – community, national, regional, and international. It outlines UNESCO’s leadership tasks. The IIS also lists key milestones for the DESD. It then lays out seven strategies for moving forward with ESD and describes how this wide range of partners can develop contributions based on their particular contexts.\n\nThe IIS should foster collective ownership of the DESD. The IIS describes pathways forward in the hope that it will stimulate imagination, creativity, and energy to make the DESD a success. It is envisaged that regions and nations will create plans, strategic approaches, and timetables on the basis of the framework provided by this International Implementation Scheme.\n\nThe concept of sustainable development continues to evolve. In pursuing education for sustainable development, therefore, there must be some clarity in what sustainable development means and what it is aiming at. This plan presents three key areas of sustainable development – society, environment and economy with culture as an underlying dimension.\n* Society: an understanding of social institutions and their role in change and development, as well as the democratic and participatory systems which give opportunity for the expression of opinion, the selection of governments, the forging of consensus and the resolution of differences.\n* Environment: an awareness of the resources and fragility of the physical environment and the affects on it of human activity and decisions, with a commitment to factoring environmental concerns into social and economic policy development.\n* Economy: a sensitivity to the limits and potential of economic growth and their impact on society and on the environment, with a commitment to assess personal and societal levels of consumption out of concern for the environment and for social justice.\nESD is fundamentally about values, with respect at the centre: respect for others, including those of present and future generations, for difference and diversity, for the environment, for the resources of the planet we inhabit. Education enables us to understand ourselves and others and our links with the wider natural and social environment, and this understanding serves as a durable basis for building respect. Along with a sense of justice, responsibility, exploration and dialogue, ESD aims to move us to adopting behaviours and practices which enable all to live a full life without being deprived of basics.\n\nESD mirrors the concern for education of high quality, demonstrating characteristics: such as:\n* Interdisciplinary and holistic: learning for sustainable development embedded in the whole curriculum, not as a separate subject;\n* Values-driven: sharing the values and principles underpinning sustainable development;\n* Critical thinking and problem solving: leading to confidence in addressing the dilemmas and challenges of sustainable development;\n* Multi-method: word, art, drama, debate, experience, … different pedagogies which model the processes;\n* Participatory decision-making: learners participate in decisions on how they are to learn;\n* Locally relevant: addressing local as well as global issues, and using the language(s) which learners most commonly use.\nESD will be shaped by a range of perspectives from all fields of human development and including all the acute challenges, which the world faces. ESD cannot afford to ignore their implications for a more just and more sustainable process of change. The plan notes the important perspectives provided by: human rights, peace and human security, gender equality, cultural diversity and intercultural understanding, health, HIV/AIDS, governance, natural resources, climate change, rural development, sustainable urbanisation, disaster prevention and mitigation, poverty reduction, corporate responsibility and accountability, market economy.\n\nESD is for everyone, at whatever stage of life they find themselves. It takes place therefore within a perspective of lifelong learning, engaging all possible spaces of learning, formal, non-formal and informal, from early childhood to adult life. ESD calls for a re-orientation of educational approaches – curriculum and content, pedagogy and examinations. Spaces for learning include non-formal learning, community-based organisations and local civil society, the workplace, formal education, technical and vocational training, teacher training, higher education educational inspectorates, policy-making bodies, …and beyond.\n\nIt is true to say that everyone is a stakeholder in education for sustainable development. All of us will feel the impact of its relative success or failure, and all of us affect the impact of ESD by our behaviour which may be supportive or undermining. Complementary roles and responsibilities devolve to a number of bodies and groups at different levels: local (sub-national), national, regional and international. At each level, stakeholders may be part of government (or intergovernmental at regional and international levels), civil society and non-governmental organisations, or in the private sector. The media and advertising agencies will support broad public awareness. In addition, indigenous peoples have a particular role, having an intimate knowledge of the sustained use of their environments, and being particularly vulnerable to unsustainable development.\n\nSeven interlinked strategies are proposed for the Decade: advocacy and vision building; consultation and ownership; partnership and networks; capacity building and training; research and innovation; information and communication technologies; monitoring and evaluation. Together they form a coherent approach to the incremental increase over the Decade of the promotion and implementation of ESD. They will ensure that change in public attitudes and educational approaches keep pace with the evolving challenges of sustainable development.\n\nDESD implementation will depend on the strength of stakeholder commitment and cooperation at local (sub-national), national, regional and international levels. Networks and alliances will be the crucial element, forging a common agenda in relevant forums. The outcomes of the DESD will be seen in the lives of thousands of communities and millions of individuals as new attitudes and values inspire decisions and actions making sustainable development a more attainable ideal.\n\nIn assessing the need for resources, full account must be taken of existing programmes and available personnel. The need for additional resources should be driven by the need to facilitate action and interaction around specific ESD challenges and issues.\n\n[[Draft International implementation scheme for the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development|]] (pdf)
!!!From our origins to the future\n1. We, the representatives of the peoples of the world, assembled at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2 to 4 September 2002, reaffirm our commitment to sustainable development.\n\n2. We commit ourselves to building a humane, equitable and caring global society, cognizant of the need for human dignity for all.\n\n3. At the beginning of this Summit, the children of the world spoke to us in a simple yet clear voice that the future belongs to them, and accordingly challenged all of us to ensure that through our actions they will inherit a world free of the indignity and indecency occasioned by poverty, environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development.\n\n4. As part of our response to these children, who represent our collective future, all of us, coming from every corner of the world, informed by different life experiences, are united and moved by a deeply felt sense that we urgently need to create a new and brighter world of hope.\n\n5. Accordingly, we assume a collective responsibility to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development - economic development, social development and environmental protection - at the local, national, regional and global levels.\n\n6. From this continent, the cradle of humanity, we declare, through the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] and the present Declaration, our responsibility to one another, to the greater community of life and to our children.\n\n7. Recognizing that humankind is at a crossroads, we have united in a common resolve to make a determined effort to respond positively to the need to produce a practical and visible plan to bring about poverty eradication and human development.\n!!!From Stockholm to Rio de Janeiro to Johannesburg\n8. Thirty years ago, in Stockholm, we agreed on the urgent need to respond to the problem of environmental deterioration.^^[[1|Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]]^^ Ten years ago, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, we agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to sustainable development, based on the Rio Principles. To achieve such development, we adopted the global programme entitled [[Agenda 21]] and the [[Rio Declaration on Environment and Development]], to which we reaffirm our commitment. The Rio Conference was a significant milestone that set a new agenda for sustainable development.\n\n9. Between Rio and Johannesburg, the world's nations have met in several major conferences under the auspices of the United Nations, including the International Conference on Financing for Development, as well as the Doha Ministerial Conference. These conferences defined for the world a comprehensive vision for the future of humanity.\n\n10. At the Johannesburg Summit, we have achieved much in bringing together a rich tapestry of peoples and views in a constructive search for a common path towards a world that respects and implements the vision of sustainable development. The Johannesburg Summit has also confirmed that significant progress has been made towards achieving a global consensus and partnership among all the people of our planet.\n!!!The challenges we face\n11. We recognize that poverty eradication, changing consumption and production patterns and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are overarching objectives of and essential requirements for sustainable development.\n\n12. The deep fault line that divides human society between the rich and the poor and the ever-increasing gap between the developed and developing worlds pose a major threat to global prosperity, security and stability.\n\n13. The global environment continues to suffer. Loss of biodiversity continues, fish stocks continue to be depleted, desertification claims more and more fertile land, the adverse effects of climate change are already evident, natural disasters are more frequent and more devastating, and developing countries more vulnerable, and air, water and marine pollution continue to rob millions of a decent life.\n\n14. Globalization has added a new dimension to these challenges. The rapid integration of markets, mobility of capital and significant increases in investment flows around the world have opened new challenges and opportunities for the pursuit of sustainable development. But the benefits and costs of globalization are unevenly distributed, with developing countries facing special difficulties in meeting this challenge.\n\n15. We risk the entrenchment of these global disparities and unless we act in a manner that fundamentally changes their lives the poor of the world may lose confidence in their representatives and the democratic systems to which we remain committed, seeing their representatives as nothing more than sounding brass or tinkling cymbals.\n!!!Our commitment to sustainable development\n16. We are determined to ensure that our rich diversity, which is our collective strength, will be used for constructive partnership for change and for the achievement of the common goal of sustainable development.\n\n17. Recognizing the importance of building human solidarity, we urge the promotion of dialogue and cooperation among the world's civilizations and peoples, irrespective of race, disabilities, religion, language, culture or tradition.\n\n18. We welcome the focus of the Johannesburg Summit on the indivisibility of human dignity and are resolved, through decisions on targets, timetables and partnerships, to speedily increase access to such basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate shelter, energy, health care, food security and the protection of biodiversity. At the same time, we will work together to help one another gain access to financial resources, benefit from the opening of markets, ensure capacity- building, use modern technology to bring about development and make sure that there is technology transfer, human resource development, education and training to banish underdevelopment forever.\n\n19. We reaffirm our pledge to place particular focus on, and give priority attention to, the fight against the worldwide conditions that pose severe threats to the sustainable development of our people, which include: chronic hunger; malnutrition; foreign occupation; armed conflict; illicit drug problems; organized crime; corruption; natural disasters; illicit arms trafficking; trafficking in persons; terrorism; intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and other hatreds; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable and chronic diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.\n\n20. We are committed to ensuring that women's empowerment, emancipation and gender equality are integrated in all the activities encompassed within [[Agenda 21]], the [[Millennium Development Goals]] and the [[Plan of Implementation of the Summit|]].\n\n21. We recognize the reality that global society has the means and is endowed with the resources to address the challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development confronting all humanity. Together, we will take extra steps to ensure that these available resources are used to the benefit of humanity.\n\n22. In this regard, to contribute to the achievement of our development goals and targets, we urge developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts reach the internationally agreed levels of official development assistance.\n\n23. We welcome and support the emergence of stronger regional groupings and alliances, such as the [[New Partnership for Africa's Development|]], to promote regional cooperation, improved international cooperation and sustainable development.\n\n24. We shall continue to pay special attention to the developmental needs of small island developing States and the least developed countries.\n\n25. We reaffirm the vital role of the indigenous peoples in sustainable development.\n\n26. We recognize that sustainable development requires a long-term perspective and broad-based participation in policy formulation, decision-making and implementation at all levels. As social partners, we will continue to work for stable partnerships with all major groups, respecting the independent, important roles of each of them.\n\n27. We agree that in pursuit of its legitimate activities the private sector, including both large and small companies, has a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies.\n\n28. We also agree to provide assistance to increase income-generating employment opportunities, taking into account the [[Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work|]] of the International Labour Organization.\n\n29. We agree that there is a need for private sector corporations to enforce corporate accountability, which should take place within a transparent and stable regulatory environment.\n\n30. We undertake to strengthen and improve governance at all levels for the effective implementation of [[Agenda 21]], the [[Millennium Development Goals]] and the [[Plan of Implementation of the Summit|]].\n!!!Multilateralism is the future\n31. To achieve our goals of sustainable development, we need more effective, democratic and accountable international and multilateral institutions.\n\n32. We reaffirm our commitment to the [[principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations|Purposes and Principles of the United Nations]] and international law, as well as to the strengthening of multilateralism. We support the leadership role of the United Nations as the most universal and representative organization in the world, which is best placed to promote sustainable development.\n\n33. We further commit ourselves to monitor progress at regular intervals towards the achievement of our sustainable development goals and objectives.\n!!!Making it happen!\n34. We are in agreement that this must be an inclusive process, involving all the major groups and Governments that participated in the historic Johannesburg Summit.\n\n35. We commit ourselves to act together, united by a common determination to save our planet, promote human development and achieve universal prosperity and peace.\n\n36. We commit ourselves to the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] and to expediting the achievement of the time-bound, socio-economic and environmental targets contained therein.\n\n37. From the African continent, the cradle of humankind, we solemnly pledge to the peoples of the world and the generations that will surely inherit this Earth that we are determined to ensure that our collective hope for sustainable development is realized.\n
://From the [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] adopted at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] in [[Jomtien, Thailand]]//\n!!![[Preamble|Jomtien Declaration: Preamble]]\n!!![[Education For All: The Purpose|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Purpose]]\n!!![[Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment]]\n!!![[Education For All: The Requirements|Jomtein Declaration: Education For All: The Requirements]]\n!!Adoption of the Declaration\n//''We, the participants in the World Conference on Education for All, reaffirm the right of all people to education.'' This is the foundation of our determination, singly and together, to ensure education for all.\n\nWe commit ourselves to act cooperatively through our own spheres of responsibility, taking all necessary steps to achieve the goals of education for all. Together we call on governments, concerned organizations and individuals to join in this urgent undertaking.\n\nThe basic learning needs of all can and must be met. There can be no more meaningful way to begin the [[International Literacy Year|]], to move forward the goals of the [[United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons|]] (1983-92), the [[World Decade for Cultural Development|]] (1988-97), the Fourth United Nations Development Decade (1991-2000), of the [[Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women|]] and the [[Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women|]], and of the [[Convention on the Rights of the Child|]]. There has never been a more propitious time to commit ourselves to providing basic learning opportunities for all the people of the world.\n\nWe adopt, therefore, this ''//World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs//'' and agree on the ''[[Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs|]]'', to achieve the goals set forth in this ''//Declaration//''.
://From the [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] adopted at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] in [[Jomtien, Thailand]] in March, 1990.//\n!![[Preamble|Jomtien Declaration: Preamble]]\n!![[Education For All: The Purpose|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Purpose]]\n!!Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment\n!!!Article II - Shaping The Vision\n<<<\n''To serve the basic learning needs of all requires more than a recommitment to basic education as it now exists. What is needed is an "expanded vision" that surpasses present resource levels, institutional structures, curricula, and conventional delivery systems while building on the best in current practices.'' New possibilities exist today which result from the convergence of the increase in information and the unprecedented capacity to communicate. We must seize them with creativity and a determination for increased effectiveness.\n\nAs elaborated in Articles III-VII, the expanded vision encompasses:\n* Universalizing access and promoting equity;\n* Focussing on learning;\n* Broadening the means and scope of basic education;\n* Enhancing the environment for learning;\n* Strengthening partnerships.\nThe realization of an enormous potential for human progress and empowerment is contingent upon whether people can be enabled to acquire the education and the start needed to tap into the ever-expanding pool of relevant knowledge and the new means for sharing this knowledge.\n<<<\n!!!Article III - Universalizing Access and Promoting Equity\n# ''Basic education should be provided to all children, youth and adults.'' To this end, basic education services of quality should be expanded and consistent measures must be taken to reduce disparities.\n# For basic education to be equitable, all children, youth and adults must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning.\n# The most urgent priority is to ensure access to, and improve the quality of, education for girls and women, and to remove every obstacle that hampers their active participation. All gender stereotyping in education should be eliminated.\n# An active commitment must be made to removing educational disparities. Underserved groups: the poor; street and working children; rural and remote populations; nomads and migrant workers; indigenous peoples; ethnic, racial, and linguistic minorities; refugees; those displaced by war; and people under occupation, should not suffer any discrimination in access to learning opportunities.\n# The learning needs of the disabled demand special attention. Steps need to be taken to provide equal access to education to every category of disabled persons as an integral part of the education system.\n!!!Article IV - Focussing on Learning\n:''Whether or not expanded educational opportunities will translate into meaningful development - for an individual or for society - depends ultimately on whether people actually learn as a result of those opportunities, i.e., whether they incorporate useful knowledge, reasoning ability, skills, and values.'' The focus of basic education must, therefore, be on actual learning acquisition and outcome, rather than exclusively upon enrolment, continued participation in organized programmes and completion of certification requirements. Active and participatory approaches are particularly valuable in assuring learning acquisition and allowing learners to reach their fullest potential. It is, therefore, necessary to define acceptable levels of learning acquisition for educational programmes and to improve and apply systems of assessing learning achievement.\n!!!Article V - Broadening the Means and Scope of Basic Education\n<<<\n!!![[Adoption of the Declaration]|Jomtein Declaration: Adoption of the Declaration]]\nThe diversity, complexity, and changing nature of basic learning needs of children, youth and adults necessitates broadening and constantly redefining the scope of basic education to include the following components:\n* ''//Learning begins at birth.//'' This calls for early childhood care and initial education . These can be provided through arrangements involving families, communities, or institutional programmes, as appropriate.\n* ''//The main delivery system for the basic education of children outside the family is primary schooling.//'' Primary education must be universal, ensure that the basic learning needs of all children are satisfied, and take into account the culture, needs, and opportunities of the community. Supplementary alternative programmes can help meet the basic learning needs of children with limited or no access to formal schooling, provided that they share the same standards of learning applied to schools, and are adequately supported.\n* ''//The basic learning needs of youth and adults are diverse and should be met through a variety of delivery systems.//'' Literacy programmes are indispensable because literacy is a necessary skill in itself and the foundation of other life skills. Literacy in the mother-tongue strengthens cultural identity and heritage. Other needs can be served by: skills training, apprenticeships, and formal and non-formal education programmes in health, nutrition, population, agricultural techniques, the environment, science, technology, family life, including fertility awareness, and other societal issues.\n* ''//All available instruments and channels of information, communications, and social action could be used to help convey essential knowledge and inform and educate people on social issues.//'' In addition to the traditional means, libraries, television, radio and other media can be mobilized to realize their potential towards meeting basic education needs of all.\nThese components should constitute an integrated system - complementary, mutually reinforcing, and of comparable standards, and they should contribute to creating and developing possibilities for lifelong learning.\n<<<\n!!!Article VI - Enhancing the Environment for Learning\n:''Learning does not take place in isolation. Societies, therefore, must ensure that all learners receive the nutrition, health care, and general physical and emotional support they need in order to participate actively in and benefit from their education.'' Knowledge and skills that will enhance the learning environment of children should be integrated into community learning programmes for adults. The education of children and their parents or other caretakers is mutually supportive and this interaction should be used to create, for all, a learning environment of vibrancy and warmth.\n!!!Article VII - Strengthening Partnerships\n:''National, regional, and local educational authorities have a unique obligation to provide basic education for all, but they cannot be expected to supply every human, financial or organizational requirement for this task. New and revitalized partnerships at all levels will be necessary: ''partnerships among all sub-sectors and forms of education, recognizing the special role of teachers and that of administrators and other educational personnel; partnerships between education and other government departments, including planning, finance, labour, communications, and other social sectors; partnerships between government and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, local communities, religious groups, and families. The recognition of the vital role of both families and teachers is particularly important. In this context, the terms and conditions of service of teachers and their status, which constitute a determining factor in the implementation of education for all, must be urgently improved in all countries in line with the joint ILO/ UNESCO Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers (1966). Genuine partnerships contribute to the planning, implementing, managing and evaluating of basic education programmes. When we speak of "an expanded vision and a renewed commitment", partnerships are at the heart of it.
://From the [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] adopted at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] in [[Jomtien, Thailand]]//\n!![[Preamble|Jomtien Declaration: Preamble]]\n!!Education For All: The Purpose\n!!!Article I - Meeting Basic Learning Needs\n# ''Every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs.'' These needs comprise both essential learning tools (such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, and problem solving) and the basic learning content (such as knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes) required by human beings to be able to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning. The scope of basic learning needs and how they should be met varies with individual countries and cultures, and inevitably, changes with the passage of time.\n# The satisfaction of these needs empowers individuals in any society and confers upon them a responsibility to respect and build upon their collective cultural, linguistic and spiritual heritage, to promote the education of others, to further the cause of social justice, to achieve environmental protection, to be tolerant towards social, political and religious systems which differ from their own, ensuring that commonly accepted humanistic values and human rights are upheld, and to work for international peace and solidarity in an interdependent world.\n# Another and no less fundamental aim of educational development is the transmission and enrichment of common cultural and moral values. It is in these values that the individual and society find their identity and worth.\n# Basic education is more than an end in itself. It is the foundation for lifelong learning and human development on which countries may build, systematically, further levels and types of education and training.\n!![[Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment]]\n!![[Education For All: The Requirements|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Requirements]]
://From the [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] adopted at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] in [[Jomtien, Thailand]]//\n!!![[Preamble|Jomtien Declaration: Preamble]]\n!!![[Education For All: The Purpose|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Purpose]]\n!!![[Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment]]\n!!Education For All: The Requirements\n!!!Article VIII - Developing a Supportive Policy Context\n# ''Supportive policies in the social, cultural, and economic sectors are required in order to realize the full provision and utitlization of basic education for individual and societal improvement. ''The provision of basic education for all depends on political commitment and political will backed by appropriate fiscal measures and reinforced by educational policy reforms and institutional strengthening. Suitable economic, trade, labour, employment and health policies will enhance learners' incentives and contributions to societal development.\n# Societies should also insure a strong intellectual and scientific environment for basic education. This implies improving higher education and developing scientific research. Close contact with contemporary technological and scientific knowledge should be possible at every level of education.\n!!!Article IX - Mobilizing Resources\n# ''If the basic learning needs of all are to be met through a much broader scope of action than in the past, it will be essential to mobilize existing and new financial and human resources, public, private and voluntary.'' All of society has a contribution to make, recognizing that time, energy and funding directed to basic education are perhaps the most profound investment in people and in the future of a country which can be made.\n# Enlarged public-sector support means drawing on the resources of all the government agencies responsible for human development, through increased absolute and proportional allocations to basic education services with the clear recognition of competing claims on national resources of which education is an important one, but not the only one. Serious attention to improving the efficiency of existing educational resources and programmes will not only produce more, it can also be expected to attract new resources. The urgent task of meeting basic learning needs may require a reallocation between sectors, as, for example, a transfer from military to educational expenditure. Above all, special protection for basic education will be required in countries undergoing structural adjustment and facing severe external debt burdens. Today, more than ever, education must be seen as a fundamental dimension of any social, cultural, and economic design.\n!!!Article X - Strengthening International Solidarity\n# ''Meeting basic learning needs constitutes a common and universal human responsibility. It requires international solidarity and equitable and fair economic relations in order to redress existing economic disparities. ''All nations have valuable knowledge and experiences to share for designing effective educational policies and programmes.\n# Substantial and long-term increases in resources for basic education will be needed. The world community, including intergovernmental agencies and institutions, has an urgent responsibility to alleviate the constraints that prevent some countries from achieving the goal of education for all. It will mean the adoption of measures that augment the national budgets of the poorest countries or serve to relieve heavy debt burdens. Creditors and debtors must seek innovative and equitable formulae to resolve these burdens, since the capacity of many developing countries to respond effectively to education and other basic needs will be greatly helped by finding solutions to the debt problem.\n# Basic learning needs of adults and children must be addressed wherever they exist. Least developed and low-income countries have special needs which require priority in international support for basic education in the 1990s.\n# All nations must also work together to resolve conflicts and strife, to end military occupations, and to settle displaced populations, or to facilitate their return to their countries of origin, and ensure that their basic learning needs are met. Only a stable and peaceful environment can create the conditions in which every human being, child and adult alike, may benefit from the goals of this Declaration.\n!!![[Adoption of the Declaration|Jomtein Declaration: Adoption of the Declaration]]\n
://From the [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] adopted at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] in [[Jomtien, Thailand]]//\n!!Preamble\nMore than 40 years ago, the nations of the world, speaking through the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights|]], asserted that "everyone has a right to education". Despite notable efforts by countries around the globe to ensure the right to education for all, the following realities persist:\n* More than 100 million children, including at least 60 million girls, have no access to primary schooling;\n* More than 960 million adults, two-thirds of whom are women, are illiterate, and functional illiteracy is a significant problem in all countries, industrialized and developing;\n* More than one-third of the world's adults have no access to the printed knowledge, new skills and technologies that could improve the quality of their lives and help them shape, and adapt to, social and cultural change; and\n* More than 100 million children and countless adults fail to complete basic education programmes; millions more satisfy the attendance requirements but do not acquire essential knowledge and skills.\nAt the same time, the world faces daunting problems: notably mounting debt burdens, the threat of economic stagnation and decline, rapid population growth, widening economic disparities among and within nations, war, occupation, civil strife, violent crime, the preventable deaths of millions of children and widespread environmental degradation. These problems constrain efforts to meet basic learning needs, while the lack of basic education among a significant proportion of the population prevents societies from addressing such problems with strength and purpose.\n\nThese problems have led to major setbacks in basic education in the 1980s in many of the least developed countries. In some other countries, economic growth has been available to finance education expansion, but even so, many millions remain in poverty and unschooled or illiterate. In certain industrialized countries too, cutbacks in government expenditure over the 1980s have led to the deterioration of education.\n\nYet the world is also at the threshold of a new century, with all its promise and possibilities. Today, there is genuine progress toward peaceful //détente// and greater cooperation among nations. Today, the essential rights and capacities of women are being realized. Today, there are many useful scientific and cultural developments. Today, the sheer quantity of information available in the world - much of it relevant to survival and basic well-being - is exponentially greater than that available only a few years ago, and the rate of its growth is accelerating. This includes information about obtaining more life-enhancing knowledge - or learning how to learn. A synergistic effect occurs when important information is coupled with another modern advance - our new capacity to communicate.\n\nThese new forces, when combined with the cumulative experience of reform, innovation, research and the remarkable educational progress of many countries, make the goal of basic education for all - for the first time in history - an attainable goal.\n\nTherefore, we participants in the World Conference on Education for All, assembled in Jomtien, Thailand, from 5 to 9 March, 1990:\n<<<\n''//Recalling//'' that education is a fundamental right for all people, women and men, of all ages, throughout our world;\n\n''//Understanding//'' that education can help ensure a safer, healthier, more prosperous and environmentally sound world, while simultaneously contributing to social, economic, and cultural progress, tolerance, and international cooperation;\n\n''//Knowing //''that education is an indispensable key to, though not a sufficient condition for, personal and social improvement;\n\n''//Recognizing//'' that traditional knowledge and indigenous cultural heritage have a value and validity in their own right and a capacity to both define and promote development;\n\n''//Acknowledging//'' that, overall, the current provision of education is seriously deficient and that it must be made more relevant and qualitatively improved, and made universally available;\n\n''//Recognizing//'' that sound basic education is fundamental to the strengthening of higher levels of education and of scientific and technological literacy and capacity and thus to self-reliant development; and\n\n''//Recognizing//'' the necessity to give to present and coming generations an expanded vision of, and a renewed commitment to, basic education to address the scale and complexity of the challenge;\n\n''//Proclaim//'' the following [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]]\n<<<\n!!![[Education For All: The Purpose|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Purpose]]\n!!![[Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment]]\n!!![[Education For All: The Requirements|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Requirements]]\n!!![[Adoption of the Declaration|Jomtein Declaration: Adoption of the Declaration]]
* ''United Nations Conference on the Human Environment'' - Stockholm, Sweden, June 1972\n** [[Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]]\n** [[Action Plan for the Human Environment|]]\n* ''Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education'' - Tbilisi, Georgia, October, 1977\n** [[Declaration of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n** [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n* ''World Commission on Environment & Development''\n** [[Our Common Future||]] - Geneva, Switzerland, June 1987\n* ''World Conference on Education for All''. Jomtien, Thailand, March, 1990\n** [[World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]]\n* ''Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change'' - New York, NY, May 1992\n** [[Framework Convention on Climate Change|]]\n** [[Article 2: Objective|UNFCCC, Article 2: Objective]]\n* ''United Nations Conference on Environment & Development'' - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1992\n** [[Rio Declaration on Environment and Development]]\n** [[Agenda 21]]\n*** [[Chapter 36: Promoting Education, Public Awareness And Training|]]\n*** [[Education in Agenda 21|]]\n*** [[Access, Participate and Participation in Agenda 21|]]\n*** [[Information, Data and Communication in Agenda 21|]]\n* ''World Education Forum'' - Dakar, Senegal, April, 2000\n** [[Dakar Framework for Education For All]]\n* ''World Summit on Sustainable Development'' - Johannesburg, South Africa, September 2002\n** [[Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development]]\n** [["Education" in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation]]\n** [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] \n* ''United Nations General Assembly'' - New York, NY, December 2002\n** [[Resolution 57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development|57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]]\n* ''World Summit on the Information Society'' - Geneva, Switzerland, December 2003\n** [[Planetary Sustainability in the Age of the Information and Knowledge Society|]] - UNESCO contribution\n** [["Capacity building" in the World Summit on the Information Society Plan of Action]]\n
Lester R. Brown is President of Earth Policy Institute - - a nonprofit, interdisciplinary research organization based in Washington, D.C., which he founded in May 2001. The purpose of the Earth Policy Institute is to provide a vision of an environmentally sustainable economy and a roadmap of how to get from here to there.\n\nBrown has been described as "one of the world's most influential thinkers" by the //Washington Post//. The //Telegraph// of Calcutta called him "the guru of the environmental movement." In 1986, the Library of Congress requested his papers for their archives.\n\nSome 30 years ago, Brown helped pioneer the concept of environmentally sustainable development, a concept he uses in his design of an eco-economy. He was the Founder and President of the Worldwatch Institute during its first 26 years. During a career that started with tomato farming, Brown has authored or coauthored many books and been awarded over 20 honorary degrees. His books have appeared in more than 40 languages.\n\nBrown is a MacArthur Fellow and the recipient of countless prizes and awards, including the 1987 United Nations Environment Prize, the 1989 World Wide Fund for Nature Gold Medal, and the 1994 Blue Planet Prize for his "exceptional contributions to solving global environmental problems." In 1995, Marquis //Who's Who//, on the occasion of its fiftieth edition, selected Lester Brown as one of 50 Great Americans. Most recently he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Italy and the Borgström Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, and he was appointed an honorary professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He lives in Washington, D.C.
* Since the IPCC Third Assessment, many additional studies, particularly in regions that previously had been little researched, have enabled a more systematic understanding of how the timing and magnitude of impacts may be affected by changes in climate and sea level associated with differing amounts and rates of change in global average temperature.\n* Examples of this new information are presented in Table SPM-1. Entries have been selected which are judged to be relevant for people and the environment and for which there is high confidence in the assessment13. All entries of impact are drawn from chapters of the Assessment, where more detailed information is available.\n* Depending on circumstances, some of these impacts could be associated with 'key vulnerabilities', based on a number of criteria in the literature (magnitude, timing, persistence/reversibility, the potential for adaptation, distributional aspects, likelihood and "importance" of the impacts). Assessment of potential key vulnerabilities is intended to provide information on rates and levels of climate change to help decision-makers make appropriate responses to the risks of climate change. [19.ES]\n* The 'reasons for concern' identified in the Third Assessment remain a viable framework for considering key vulnerabilities. Recent research has updated some of the findings from the Third Assessment. [19.3.7]
|[img[Climate Change 2.0 logo|]]|\n|@@[[Climate Change]]@@ +++ [[Climate Change 2.0]] -<br>[[A Manhattan Project]] -<br>[[Climate Change 2.0 - Elements]] -<br>[[Knowledge-based Universe]] -<br>[[Economics of Climate Change|Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review]] -<br>[[Economics of Information]] -<br>[[Rescuing a Planet|Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble: Plan B 3.0 (beta)]] -<br>[[Confronting Climate Change]] -<br>[[IPCC Reports]] - ===|\n|[[Creative Commons]] +++ [[Information Ecology]] -<br>[[The Wealth of Networks]] -<br>[[Open Source Software]] -<br>[[Web 2.0]] -<br>[[Economics of Information]] -<br>[[Software Contributions]] - ===|\n|[[Education for Sustainable Development]] +++ [[United Nations Decade|United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] -<br>[[Vision & Definition of ESD]] -<br>[[Key Documents|Key Documents on Education for Sustainable Development]] - +++ [[Human Environment, 1972]] -+++ [[Stockholm Declaration|Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]] -<br>[[Action Plan|Action Plan for the Human Environment|United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]] - === <br>[[Environmental Education, 1977|Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] +++ [[Tbilisi Declaration|Declaration of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] -<br>[[Tbilisi Recommendations|Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] - === <br>[[Earth Summit, 1992]] +++ [[Rio Declaration|Rio Declaration on Environment and Development]] -<br>[[Agenda 21]] +++ -[[Chapter 36]] -<br>[[Education References|Education References in Agenda 21]] -<br>[[Information and Communication|Information and Communication in Agenda 21]] -<br>[[Access and Participation|Access and Participation in Agenda 21]] - === === <br>[[Sustainable Development, 2002|World Summit on Sustainable Development]] +++ [[Johannesburg Declaration|Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development]] -<br>[[Education|"Education" in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation]] === <br>[[Women]] +++ [[Declaration of Mexico]] -<br>[[Forward Looking Strategies|Forward Looking Strategies, Nairobi, 1985]] -<br>[[Peace, Development and Security|Fifth World Conference on Women]] - +++ [[Beijing Declaration]] - === === <br>[[Education For All, 1990]] +++ [[Jomtein Declaration|World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs]] - === <br>[[Dakar Framework for Action|Dakar Framework for Education For All]] -<br>[[Amman Affirmation]] - === ===|\n|[[Youth & Technology Challenge]]|\n|[[The Conference Of NGOs|Conference Of NGOs]]|\n|[img[CONGO - the Conference Of NGOs|congo.jpg]]|\n|@@[[NGO Committee on Education]]@@ +++ [[Meetings]] -<br>[[Executive Committee]] -<br>[[Information and Communications|Information and Communications Sub-Committee]] -<br>[[By-laws]] -<br>[[DPI/NGO Workshop]] - ===|\n|@@color:#ffffff;line-height:1%;mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm@@|\n<<tiddler "Administrative Menu">>
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<!--{{{-->\n<meta name="description" content="For ideal learning opportunities: patience, curiosity, and a discerning, open mind to the transformative opportunities of a new civilization in a free, and expanding knowledge-based universe">\n<meta name="keywords" content="climate change, climate, change, global warming, global, warming, melting cryosphere, ice, glacier, ice cap, ice sheet, polar bears, small islands, extreme weather, economics, energy, political economy, participation, truth, civilization, convenience, tiddlyperfect, tiddlywiki, dataperfect, ngo, non-governmental organizations, education, common future, youth, sustainbility, sustainable development, tiddlywiki, tiddlyperfect, dataperfect">\n<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml'/>\n<style type="text/css">#contentWrapper {display:none;}</style>\n<div id="SplashScreen" style="border: 3px solid #ccc; display: block; text-align: center; width: 750px; margin: 50px auto; padding: 25px; color:#000; font-family:comic sans ms; background-color:#eee;">\n<img src="light-cube-1-075.png"> <img src="light-cube-0-075.png">\n<br>\n<span style="font-size: 24px;"><b>Climate Change 2007:<br>Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.<br>Summary for Policy Makers</b> </span>\n<br>\n<b>A TiddlyWiki Translation of IPCC' Working Group II Report</b>.\n<br>\nAn element of Climate Change 2.0: Responding to Dangerous Climate Change \n<br>\nin an Evolving Creative Commons, Open Source Climate\n<br>\n<img src="light-cube-0-075.png"> <img src="light-cube-1-075.png">\n<br>\nis loading<blink> ...</blink>\n<br>\n<span style="font-size: 13px; color:red;">Requires Javascript.</span>\n<br>\nFor ideal learning opportunities: patience, persistence and an open mind to the transformative opportunities offered by a sustainable civilization in a free, and expanding knowledge-based universe.\n<br>\n<img src="congo.jpg">\n<br>\nInformation and Communications Sub-Committee ,\n<br>\nNGO Committee on Education,\n<br>\nConference Of Non-Governmental Organizations\n<br>\nin Consultative Relations with the United Nations\n<br>\nand the\n<br>\nNGO Networking Committee,\n<br>\nPlanning Committee,\n<br>\n60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference\n<br>\nSeptember 5-7, 2007\n</div>\n<!--}}}-->
The ''NGO Committee on Education'' has been invited to join the ''NGO Committee on Human Rights'' on Thursday, March 15 from 11:30 am to 3:30 pm for the meeting described below. This will take the place of the normal meeting of the ''NGO Committee on Education''.\n\n----\n!!!The Future of our Global Agenda - Human Rights,\n!!!Social and Economic Justice for Development,\n!!!The United Nations and the Responsibilities of Civil Society \n!!!!The NY NGO Committee on Human Rights\nInvites\n!!!!the New York NGO Community\nTo introduce the newly-appointed\n''Director of the New York Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights''\n!!!!Mr. Ngonlardje Mbaidjol\nand to present a report from\n''Mr. Peter Prove'', Chair of the Geneva NGO Committee on Human Rights.\n\n|Date: |''Thursday, March 15th''|\n|Place: |7th floor conference room. ''Church Center'', 44th and 1st Ave, New York, NY|\n|11:30am-12:45pm |Formal presentation and discussion |\n|12:45pm-1:15pm |Lunch will be served |\n|1:15pm–3:30pm |Strategy meeting on institutionalization of coordination and cooperation between the NY and the Geneva Human Rights NGO committees |\n\nThis is an important opportunity to join in coordinating and optimizing our work in promoting all aspects of social and economic justice concerns as human rights issues, both with the OHCHR and the NGO community.\n\nThe report from Mr. Prove will brief us on the NGO experience in Geneva with the Human Rights Council, civil society, the OHCHR and governments. Together we will develop an Action Plan to further expand and extend our presence and influence on related global policies presenting the holistic vision of human rights as a focus of United Nations discourse \n\nAll our activities as NGOs relate to our shared vision of human rights\n\nLet us join forces to achieve the realization of human rights as a societal reality. \n\nPlease make all the arrangements to join us for the full duration of the meeting.\n\nIt is an opportunity we should not miss
The ''NGO Committee on Education'' normally holds its meetings on the third Thursday of each month between September and June. Please contact the Co-Chairs at [[|]] for information on upcoming meetings, or to be added to the email list for the Committee.\n* ''March 15 2007'': we will be joining with the ''NGO Committee on Human Rights'' from 11:30 am to 3:30 pm, at the Church Center for the United Nations, 44th Street & First Avenue, New York, NY. For details, see [[Meeting: March 15, 2007]]\n* ''April 19 2007'': ''Sarbuland Khan'', Executive Coordinator of the Global Alliance for ICT - - will be the quest speaker. Location: To be arranged.\n\n
''Menus'' - and the versatility of menus - - if understood and used creatively and systematically - play a key role in TiddlyPerfect site - and open up a plethora of opportunities to organize, present, and find the wealth of information that can live in the structured tiddlers of a TiddlyPerfect world. In a digital knowledge-based universe, the use of digital tools that offer you clear and simple hierarchical user-defined menus can play an invaluable role in easing one's journey in a digital world.\n\nThe [[NestedSlidersPlugin]], written by [[Udo Borkowski]] plays a vital role in [[TiddlyPerfect Menus]] - allowing the easy expansion or collapsing of multi-level menus.\n\n* [[Main Menu|MainMenu]] \n* [[Administrative Menus]]\n** [[Head Menu]]\n** [[Hover Menu|HoverMenu]] \n** [[Nesting Menus]]\n* [[Changing Menus]]\n* [[DataPerfect Menus]] \n* [[Browser Menus]] \n* [[Designing Menus]]\n* [[Building Menus]]\n* [[Desktop Menus]] \n* [[Digital Navigation]]\n* [[Learning Menus]]
[[TiddlyWiki|]] says:\n\n<<<\nMicroContent being a fashionable word for self-contained fragments of content that are typically smaller than entire pages. Often MicroContent is presented via some kind of aggregation that reduces the perceptual shock and resource cost of context switching (eg Blogs aggregating several entries onto a page or Flickr presenting photos in an album). This TiddlyWiki aggregates MicroContent items that I call 'tiddlers' into pages that are loaded in one gulp and progressively displayed as the user clicks hypertext links to read them.\n
By the year 2015, all 191 UN Member States have pledged to meet these goals.\n# ''Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger''\n** Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day.\n** Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger\n# ''Achieve universal primary education''\n** Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling\n# ''Promote gender equality and empower women''\n** Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015\n# ''Reduce child mortality''\n** Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five\n# ''Improve maternal health''\n** Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio\n# ''Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases''\n** Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS\n** Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases\n# ''Ensure environmental sustainability''\n** Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources\n** Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water\n** Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020\n# ''Develop a global partnership for development''\n** Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction-nationally and internationally\n** Address the least developed countries' special needs. This includes tariff- and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction\n** Address the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States\n** Deal comprehensively with developing countries' debt problems through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term\n** In cooperation with the developing countries, develop decent and productive work for youth\n** In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries\n** In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies - especially information and communications technologies
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/***\n| Name:|''monkeyTagger''|\n| Created by:|SaqImtiaz|\n| Location:||\n| Version:|0.9 (08-Apr-2006)|\n| Requires:|~TW2.07|\n\n!About:\n*an adaptation of TagAdderMacro for monkeyGTD and tagglytagging user, but could be useful to just about anyone!\n*{{{<<monkeyTagger Project>>}}} gives a drop down list of all tags, tagged with Project.\n*The list allows toggling of tags on the current tiddler.\n*logging options for task management.\n\n!Demo:\n<<monkeyTagger Status>>\n\n!Installation:\n*Copy this tiddler to your TW with the systemConfig tag\n*either copy the following to your ViewTemplate:\n{{{<div class='tagged' macro='monkeyTagger tagToTrack'></div>}}}\nor\n*better yet, define your own toolbar class and add as many as you need to create a nice toolbar.\nEg:\n{{{<div class='toolbar' >\n<span style="padding-right:0.15em;" macro='monkeyTagger Project'></span>\n<span style="padding-right:0.15em;" macro='monkeyTagger Status'></span>\n<span macro='toolbar -closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler permalink references jump'></span>\n</div>}}}\n (adjust padding to taste)\n\n!Usage:\n\n''Syntax:''\n|>|{{{<<monkeyTagger source:"sourcetag" label:"customlabel" logging:"true/false" anchor:"anchortext" arrow:"true/false">>}}}|\n|label:|quoted text to use as a customlabel|\n|arrow:|add arrow to custom label, values are "true" or "false"|\n|anchor:|quoted text to specify where to add logging text|\n|logging:|enable logging of tags added (for task management), values are "true" or "false"|\n\nthe only parameter you ''have'' to pass is the source. When passing only one parameter, you can write either something like:\n{{{<<monkeyTagger "Project">>}}} or {{{<<monkeyTagger source:"Project">>}}} for <<monkeyTagger Project>>\nAll other parameters are optional, and can be written in any order.\n\n''Defaults:''\n|label:|default label if not specified = source tag + arrow|\n|arrow:|true |\n|logging:|false |\n|anchor:|none used by default, logging text added to end of tiddler |\n\n''Examples:''\n|custom label| {{{<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" label:"customlabel">>}}} |<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" label:"customlabel">>|\n|custom label without arrow| {{{<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" label:"customlabel" arrow:"false">>}}} |<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" label:"customlabel" arrow:"false">>|\n|logging enabled| {{{<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" logging:"true"}}} |<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" logging:"true">>|\n|logging enabled with anchor text|{{{<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" logging:"true" anchor:"anchortext"}}} |<<monkeyTagger source:"Project" logging:"true" anchor:"anchortext">>|\n\n''Tips:''\n*Make sure your anchor text doesn't occur more than once in every tiddler, as the first instance will be used.\n*I recommend using something like {{{/%StatusLog%/}}} as an invisible anchor.\n*Use a tag based template, and add monkeyTagger macro's with logging enabled to the toolbar in just your taskmanagement templates.\n\n!To Do:\n*add sorting options if requested.\n*''add exclude tag feature''!\n\n!History\n*Version 0.9: \n**changed to named parameters to make it more user friendly\n**added option to disable/enable dropdown arrow in custom labels\n**added logging option with anchor text.\n\n!CODE\n***/\n//{{{\n\nconfig.macros.monkeyTagger= {};\n//config.macros.monkeyTagger.dropdownchar = (document.all?"▼":"▾"); // the fat one is the only one that works in IE\nconfig.macros.monkeyTagger.dropdownchar = "▼"; // uncomment previous line and comment this for smaller version in FF\nconfig.macros.monkeyTagger.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n var nAV = paramString.parseParams('test', null, true);\n\n if ((nAV[0].arrow)&&(nAV[0].arrow[0])=='false')\n var arrow=': ';\n else\n var arrow=': '+ config.macros.monkeyTagger.dropdownchar;\n\n if((nAV[0].source)&&(nAV[0].source[0])!='.')\n {var tagToTrack = nAV[0].source[0]}\n else if(params[0]&&(params[0]!='.'))\n {var tagToTrack = params[0]}\n else\n {return false;};\n var monkeylabel = ((nAV[0].label)&&(nAV[0].label[0])!='.')?nAV[0].label[0]+arrow: tagToTrack+arrow;\n var logmode = ((nAV[0].logging)&&(nAV[0].logging[0])!='.')?nAV[0].logging[0]: "false";\n if ((nAV[0].anchor)&&(nAV[0].anchor[0])!='.')\n var anchor = nAV[0].anchor[0];\n var monkeytooltip=tagToTrack + ' :';\n\n\n if(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)\n {var title = tiddler.title;\n \n var addcomment = function(tiddler,newTag){\n var now = new Date();\n var timeFormat= 'DD/0MM/YY 0hh:0mm';\n var formattednow= now.formatString(timeFormat);\n var txt="\sn*''"+tagToTrack+"'' set as ''"+newTag+"'' on "+formattednow;\n if (anchor && anchor!='.')\n {var pos=tiddler.text.indexOf(anchor);\n if (pos!=-1) {pos=pos + anchor.length}\n else if (pos==-1) {pos=tiddler.text.length}}\n else if (!anchor){var pos = tiddler.text.length;};\n\n tiddler.set(null,tiddler.text.substr(0,pos)+txt+tiddler.text.substr(pos));\n story.refreshTiddler(tiddler.title,null,true);\n return false;\n}\n\n var ontagclick = function(e) {\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var tag = this.getAttribute("tag");\n var t=store.getTiddler(title);\n if (!t || !t.tags) return;\n if (t.tags.find(tag)==null)\n {t.tags.push(tag)\n if (logmode=="true"){addcomment(t,tag);}}\n else\n {t.tags.splice(t.tags.find(tag),1)};\n story.saveTiddler(title);\n story.refreshTiddler(title,null,true);\n return false;\n };\n var onclick = function(e) {\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var popup = Popup.create(this);\n var thistiddler=store.getTiddler(title);\n\n var taggedarray = new Array();\n var tagslabel = new Array();\n\n var taggedtiddlers = store.getTaggedTiddlers(tagToTrack);\n for (var t=0; t<taggedtiddlers.length; t++){\n var taggedtitle= ((taggedtiddlers[t]).title);\n taggedarray.push(taggedtitle);}\n\n for (var t=0; t<taggedarray.length; t++){\n var temptag = taggedarray[t];\n if (thistiddler.tags.find(temptag)==null)\n {var temptag='[ ] '+ temptag;\n tagslabel.push(temptag);}\n else\n {var temptag ='[x] '+ temptag;\n tagslabel.push(temptag);}\n }\n\n if(tagslabel.length == 0)\n createTiddlyText(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),('no '+tagToTrack));\n for (var t=0; t<tagslabel.length; t++)\n {\n var theTag = createTiddlyButton(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),tagslabel[t],("toggle '"+ ([taggedarray[t]]))+"'",ontagclick);\n theTag.setAttribute("tag",taggedarray[t]);\n }\n,false);\n e.cancelBubble = true;\n if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();\n return(false);\n};\n //createTiddlyButton(place,monkeylabel,monkeylabel,onclick);\n\nvar createdropperButton = function(place){\nvar sp = createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"monkeytaggerbutton");\nvar theDropDownBtn = createTiddlyButton(sp,monkeylabel,monkeytooltip,onclick);\n};\n\ncreatedropperButton(place);\n }\n};\nsetStylesheet(\n ".toolbar .monkeytaggerbutton {margin-right:0em; border:0px solid #fff; padding:0px; padding-right:0px; padding-left:0px;}\sn"+\n ".monkeytaggerbutton a.button {padding:2px; padding-left:2px; padding-right:2px;}\sn"+\n// ".monkeytaggerbutton {font-size:130%;}\sn"+\n//".monkeytaggerbutton .button {color:#703;}\sn"+\n "",\n"MonkeyTaggerStyles");\n\n//}}}
//{{{\nconfig.macros.saveRss = {};\nconfig.macros.saveRss.handler = function(place)\n{\n if(!readOnly)\n createTiddlyButton(place,'save rss','save rss',function(e){saveMultiRss();return false;});\n}\n\nwindow.getRssMarkers = function()\n{\n var s = [];\n myregexp=/\s|(?:.*?)\s|(?:.*?)\s|(.*?)\s|(?:.*?)\s|(.*?)\s|/g;\n while((m = myregexp.exec(store.getTiddlerText("MultiRssConfig"))) != null)\n s.push("<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='%0' href='%1'>".format([m[1].trim(),m[2].trim()]));\n return s.splice(1,s.length).join("\sn");\n}\n\nupdateMarkupBlock_old_multirss = window.updateMarkupBlock;\nwindow.updateMarkupBlock = function (s,blockName,tiddlerName)\n{\n s = updateMarkupBlock_old_multirss.apply(this,arguments);\n if (blockName == "PRE-HEAD")\n s = lewcidRSSAddToMarkupBlock(s);\n return s;\n}\n\nwindow.lewcidRSSAddToMarkupBlock = function (s)\n{\n var pos = s.indexOf("<!--PRE-HEAD-END-->");\n return ( s.substring(0,pos).replace("<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml'>","") + "\sn" + getRssMarkers() + "\sn" + s.substring(pos) );\n}\n\nTiddlyWiki.prototype.rssgetTiddlers = function(field,includeTag,excludeTag)\n{\n var results = [];\n this.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler)\n {\n if(excludeTag == undefined || excludeTag == '' || tiddler.tags.find(excludeTag) == null)\n if(includeTag == undefined || includeTag == '' || tiddler.tags.find(includeTag)!=null)\n results.push(tiddler);\n });\n if(field)\n results.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[field] == b[field]) return(0); else return (a[field] < b[field]) ? -1 : +1; });\n return results;\n}\n\nwindow.generateRss = function (tiddlers,title,subtitle)\n{\n var s = [];\n var d = new Date();\n var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl");\n s.push("<" + "?xml version=\s"1.0\s"?" + ">");\n s.push("<rss version=\s"2.0\s">");\n s.push("<channel>");\n s.push("<title" + ">" + ((title && title != '') ? wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode()+ " | "+ title: wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode()) + "</title" + ">");\n if(u)\n s.push("<link>" + u.htmlEncode() + "</link>");\n s.push("<description>" + ((subtitle && subtitle != '')? subtitle : wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode()) + "</description>");\n s.push("<language>en-us</language>");\n s.push("<copyright>Copyright " + d.getFullYear() + " " + config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode() + "</copyright>");\n s.push("<pubDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");\n s.push("<lastBuildDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");\n s.push("<docs></docs>");\n s.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki " + version.major + "." + version.minor + "." + version.revision + "</generator>");\n if (!tiddlers)\n var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers("modified","excludeLists");\n var n = config.numRssItems > tiddlers.length ? 0 : tiddlers.length-config.numRssItems;\n for (var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=n; t--)\n s.push(tiddlers[t].saveToRss(u));\n s.push("</channel>");\n s.push("</rss>");\n return s.join("\sn");\n}\n\n\nold_multiRss_saveChanges = window.saveChanges;\nwindow.saveChanges = function(onlyIfDirty)\n{\n var rssStatus = config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed;\n config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed = false;\n old_multiRss_saveChanges.apply(this,arguments);\n config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed = rssStatus;\n if(config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed)\n saveMultiRss();\n}\n\nwindow.saveMultiRss = function()\n{\n var rssIndex = store.getTiddlerText("MultiRssConfig").split("\sn");\n rssIndex = rssIndex.splice(1,rssIndex.length);\n for (var i=0; i<rssIndex.length; i++)\n {\n var rss = rssIndex[i].split("|");\n var localPath = getLocalPath(document.location.toString());\n var rssPath = getRssPath(localPath)+ (rss[5].trim());\n var rssSave = saveFile(rssPath,convertUnicodeToUTF8(generateRss(store.rssgetTiddlers("modified",rss[1].trim(),rss[2].trim()),rss[3].trim(),rss[4].trim())));\n if(rssSave)\n displayMessage(config.messages.rssSaved,"file://" + rssPath);\n else\n alert(config.messages.rssFailed);\n }\n}\n\nwindow.getRssPath = function(str) {\n var slash = (str.indexOf('/')!=-1)? '/':'\s\s';\n return str.substring(0,str.lastIndexOf(slash) + 1);\n}\n\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.MultiRssConfig = "| !includeTag | !excludeTag | !title | !description | !filename |\sn| rss | |rss only| this feed has rss tiddlers only | rss.xml |\sn| lewcidExtension| |plugins| plugins only |plugins.xml|\sn| | systemConfig| excludetest | everything but plugins | exclude.xml|";\n//}}}
The ''NGO Committee on Education'' is a New York-based Substantive Committee of [[CONGO|Conference Of NGOs]] - the ''C''onference ''O''f ''N''on-''G''overnmental ''O''rganizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations - and was founded in November 2000.\n\nThe Committee normally holds its meetings on the third Thursday of each month between September and June. Please contact the Co-Chairs at [[|]], or use the [[contact form|Contact form]] if you would like to receive information on upcoming meetings, and/or to be added to the email list for the Committee.\n\nThe ''NGO Committee on Education'' has made a priority commitment to the [[United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] (2005-2014) throughout the Decade. This commitment was launched with our co-sponsorship of a workshop on ''Education, Youth & Technology for Sustainable Development'' at the ''59th Annual DPI/NGO Conference'' on September 9, 2007. For more details on the workshop, please visit\n* [[Meetings]]\n* [[By-laws]]\n* [[Executive Committee]]\n* [[Information and Communications Sub-Committee]]\n** [[Web sites|Committee web sites]]\n*** [[UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements]] - [[|]]\n*** [[The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom]] - [[|]]\n*** [[Education, Youth & Technology for Sustainable Development]] - [[|]]\n*** [[Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review]] - [[|]]\n*** [[Plan B 3.0 (beta): Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble]] - [[|]]\n*** [[Climate Change 2.0: Information Ecology of Climate Change]] - [[|]]\n*** [[TiddlyPerfect: An emerging hybrid information species]] - [[|]]
/***\n|''Name:''|NestedSlidersPlugin|\n|''Source:''||\n|''Author:''|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|\n|''License:''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|]]|\n|''~CoreVersion:''|2.0.10|\n\nQuickly make any tiddler content into an expandable 'slider' panel, without needing to create a separate tiddler to contain the slider content. Optional syntax allows ''default to open'', ''custom button label/tooltip'' and ''automatic blockquote formatting.''\n\nYou can also 'nest' these sliders as deep as you like (see complex nesting example below), so that expandable 'tree-like' hierarchical displays can be created. This is most useful when converting existing in-line text content to create in-line annotations, footnotes, context-sensitive help, or other subordinate information displays.\n\nFor more details, please click on a section headline below:\n++++!!!!![Configuration]>\nDebugging messages for 'lazy sliders' deferred rendering:\n<<option chkDebugLazySliderDefer>> show debugging alert when deferring slider rendering\n<<option chkDebugLazySliderRender>> show debugging alert when deferred slider is actually rendered\n===\n++++!!!!![Usage and Options]>\nWhen installed, this plugin adds new wiki syntax for embedding 'slider' panels directly into tiddler content. Use {{{+++}}} and {{{===}}} to delimit the slider content. Additional optional syntax elements let you specify\n*default to open\n** closed {{{+++}}} and {{{===}}}\n** open {{{++++}}} and {{{===}}}\n>> mark the start and end of the slider definition, respectively. When the extra {{{+}}} is used, the slider will be open when initially displayed.\n*cookiename: {{{(cookiename)}}} - saves the slider opened/closed state, and restores this state whenever the slider is re-rendered.\n*heading level\n*floater: (with optional CSS width value)\n*mouse auto rollover: {{{*}}} ^^ automatically opens/closes slider on "rollover" as well as when clicked^^\n*custom class/label/tooltip/accesskey: {{{{{class{[label=key|tooltip]}}}}}} ^^uses custom label/tooltip/accesskey. {{{{{class{...}}}}}}, {{{=key}}} and {{{|tooltip}}} are optional. 'class' is any valid CSS class name, used to style the slider label text. 'key' must be a ''single letter only''. Default labels/tootips are: ">" (more) and "<" (less), with no default access key assignment.^^\n*automatic blockquote: {{{">"}}} //(without the quotes)// ^^automatically adds blockquote formatting to slider content^^\n*deferred rendering\nThe complete syntax, using all options, is:\n//{{{\n++++(cookiename)!!!!!^width^*{{class{[label=key|tooltip]}}}>...\ncontent goes here\n===\n//}}}\n\n* {{{!}}} through {{{!!!!!}}}^^\ndisplays the slider label using a formatted headline (Hn) style instead of a button/link style^^\n* {{{^width^}}} (or just {{{^}}})^^\nmakes the slider 'float' on top of other content rather than shifting that content downward. 'width' must be a valid CSS value (e.g., "30em", "180px", "50%", etc.). If omitted, the default width is "auto" (i.e., fit to content)^^\n\n* \n*\n* {{{"..."}}} //(without the quotes)//^^\ndefers rendering of closed sliders until the first time they are opened. //Note: deferred rendering may produce unexpected results in some cases. Use with care.//^^\n\n//Note: to make slider definitions easier to read and recognize when editing a tiddler, newlines immediately following the {{{+++}}} 'start slider' or preceding the {{{===}}} 'end slider' sequence are automatically suppressed so that excess whitespace is eliminated from the output.//\n===\n++++!!!!![Examples]>\nsimple in-line slider: \n{{{\n+++\n content\n===\n}}}\n+++\n content\n===\n----\nuse a custom label and tooltip: \n{{{\n+++[label|tooltip]\n content\n===\n}}}\n+++[label|tooltip]\n content\n===\n----\ncontent automatically blockquoted: \n{{{\n+++>\n content\n===\n}}}\n+++>\n content\n===\n----\nall options combined //(default open, cookie, heading, sized floater, rollover, class, label/tooltip/key, blockquoted, deferred)//\n{{{\n++++(testcookie)!!!^30em^*{{big{[label=Z|click or press Alt-Z to open]}}}>...\n content\n===\n}}}\n++++(testcookie)!!!^30em^*{{big{[label=Z|click or press Alt-Z to open]}}}>...\n content\n===\n----\ncomplex nesting example:\n{{{\n+++^[get info...=I|click for information or press Alt-I]\n put some general information here, plus a floating slider with more specific info:\n +++^10em^[view details...|click for details]\n put some detail here, which could include a rollover with a +++^25em^*[glossary definition]explaining technical terms===\n ===\n===\n}}}\n+++^[get info...=I|click for information or press Alt-I]\n put some general information here, plus a floating slider with more specific info:\n +++^10em^[view details...|click for details]\n put some detail here, which could include a rollover with a +++^25em^*[glossary definition]explaining technical terms===\n ===\n===\n===\n!!!!!Installation\n<<<\nimport (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:\n''NestedSlidersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)\n<<<\n!!!!!Revision History\n<<<\n''2006.07.28 - 2.0.0'' added custom class syntax around label/tip/key syntax: {{{{{classname{[label=key|tip]}}}}}}\n''2006.07.25 - 1.9.3'' when parsing slider, save default open/closed state in button element, then in onClickNestedSlider(), if slider state matches saved default, instead of saving cookie, delete it. Significantly reduces the 'cookie overhead' when default slider states are used.\n''2006.06.29 - 1.9.2'' in onClickNestedSlider(), when setting focus to first control, skip over type="hidden"\n''2006.06.22 - 1.9.1'' added panel.defaultPanelWidth to save requested panel width, even after resizing has changed the style value\n''2006.05.11 - 1.9.0'' added optional '^width^' syntax for floating sliders and '=key' syntax for setting an access key on a slider label\n''2006.05.09 - 1.8.0'' in onClickNestedSlider(), when showing panel, set focus to first child input/textarea/select element\n''2006.04.24 - 1.7.8'' in adjustSliderPos(), if floating panel is contained inside another floating panel, subtract offset of containing panel to find correct position\n''2006.02.16 - 1.7.7'' corrected deferred rendering to account for use-case where show/hide state is tracked in a cookie\n''2006.02.15 - 1.7.6'' in adjustSliderPos(), ensure that floating panel is positioned completely within the browser window (i.e., does not go beyond the right edge of the browser window)\n''2006.02.04 - 1.7.5'' add 'var' to unintended global variable declarations to avoid FireFox crash bug when assigning to globals\n''2006.01.18 - 1.7.4'' only define adjustSliderPos() function if it has not already been provided by another plugin. This lets other plugins 'hijack' the function even when they are loaded first.\n''2006.01.16 - 1.7.3'' added adjustSliderPos(place,btn,panel,panelClass) function to permit specialized logic for placement of floating panels. While it provides improved placement for many uses of floating panels, it exhibits a relative offset positioning error when used within *nested* floating panels. Short-term workaround is to only adjust the position for 'top-level' floaters.\n''2006.01.16 - 1.7.2'' added button property to slider panel elements so that slider panel can tell which button it belongs to. Also, re-activated and corrected animation handling so that nested sliders aren't clipped by hijacking Slider.prototype.stop so that "overflow:hidden" can be reset to "overflow:visible" after animation ends\n''2006.01.14 - 1.7.1'' added optional "^" syntax for floating panels. Defines new CSS class, ".floatingPanel", as an alternative for standard in-line ".sliderPanel" styles.\n''2006.01.14 - 1.7.0'' added optional "*" syntax for rollover handling to show/hide slider without requiring a click (Based on a suggestion by tw4efl)\n''2006.01.03 - 1.6.2'' When using optional "!" heading style, instead of creating a clickable "Hn" element, create an "A" element inside the "Hn" element. (allows click-through in SlideShowPlugin, which captures nearly all click events, except for hyperlinks)\n''2005.12.15 - 1.6.1'' added optional "..." syntax to invoke deferred ('lazy') rendering for initially hidden sliders\nremoved checkbox option for 'global' application of lazy sliders\n''2005.11.25 - 1.6.0'' added optional handling for 'lazy sliders' (deferred rendering for initially hidden sliders)\n''2005.11.21 - 1.5.1'' revised regular expressions: if present, a single newline //preceding// and/or //following// a slider definition will be suppressed so start/end syntax can be place on separate lines in the tiddler 'source' for improved readability. Similarly, any whitespace (newlines, tabs, spaces, etc.) trailing the 'start slider' syntax or preceding the 'end slider' syntax is also suppressed.\n''2005.11.20 - 1.5.0'' added (cookiename) syntax for optional tracking and restoring of slider open/close state\n''2005.11.11 - 1.4.0'' added !!!!! syntax to render slider label as a header (Hn) style instead of a button/link style\n''2005.11.07 - 1.3.0'' removed alternative syntax {{{(((}}} and {{{)))}}} (so they can be used by other\nformatting extensions) and simplified/improved regular expressions to trim multiple excess newlines\n''2005.11.05 - 1.2.1'' changed name to NestedSlidersPlugin\nmore documentation\n''2005.11.04 - 1.2.0'' added alternative character-mode syntax {{{(((}}} and {{{)))}}}\ntweaked "eat newlines" logic for line-mode {{{+++}}} and {{{===}}} syntax\n''2005.11.03 - 1.1.1'' fixed toggling of default tooltips ("more..." and "less...") when a non-default button label is used\ncode cleanup, added documentation\n''2005.11.03 - 1.1.0'' changed delimiter syntax from {{{(((}}} and {{{)))}}} to {{{+++}}} and {{{===}}}\nchanged name to EasySlidersPlugin\n''2005.11.03 - 1.0.0'' initial public release\n<<<\n!!!!!Credits\n<<<\nThis feature was implemented by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/]] with initial research and suggestions from RodneyGomes, GeoffSlocock, and PaulPetterson.\n<<<\n!!!!!Code\n***/\n//{{{\nversion.extensions.nestedSliders = {major: 2, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2006,7,28)};\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\n// options for deferred rendering of sliders that are not initially displayed\nif (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer==undefined) config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer=false;\nif (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender==undefined) config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender=false;\n\n// default styles for 'floating' class\nsetStylesheet(".floatingPanel { position:absolute; z-index:10; padding:0.5em; margin:0em; \s\n background-color:#eee; color:#000; border:1px solid #000; text-align:left; }","floatingPanelStylesheet");\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\nconfig.formatters.push( {\n name: "nestedSliders",\n match: "\s\sn?\s\s+{3}",\n terminator: "\s\ss*\s\s={3}\s\sn?",\n lookahead: "\s\sn?\s\s+{3}(\s\s+)?(\s\s([^\s\s)]*\s\s))?(\s\s!*)?(\s\s^(?:[^\s\s^\s\s*\s\s[\s\s>]*\s\s^)?)?(\s\s*)?(?:\s\s{\s\s{([\s\sw]+[\s\ss\s\sw]*)\s\s{)?(\s\s[[^\s\s]]*\s\s])?(?:\s\s}{3})?(\s\s>)?(\s\s.\s\s.\s\s.)?\s\ss*",\n handler: function(w)\n {\n // defopen=lookaheadMatch[1]\n // cookiename=lookaheadMatch[2]\n // header=lookaheadMatch[3]\n // panelwidth=lookaheadMatch[4]\n // rollover=lookaheadMatch[5]\n // class=lookaheadMatch[6]\n // label=lookaheadMatch[7]\n // blockquote=lookaheadMatch[8]\n // deferred=lookaheadMatch[9]\n\n lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");\n lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;\n var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)\n if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart)\n {\n // location for rendering button and panel\n var place=w.output;\n\n // default to closed, no cookie, no accesskey\n var show="none"; var title=">"; var tooltip="show"; var cookie=""; var key="";\n\n // extra "+", default to open\n if (lookaheadMatch[1])\n { show="block"; title="<"; tooltip="hide"; }\n\n // cookie, use saved open/closed state\n if (lookaheadMatch[2]) {\n cookie=lookaheadMatch[2].trim().slice(1,-1);\n cookie="chkSlider"+cookie;\n if (config.options[cookie]==undefined)\n { config.options[cookie] = (show=="block") }\n if (config.options[cookie])\n { show="block"; title="<"; tooltip="hide"; }\n else\n { show="none"; title=">"; tooltip="show"; }\n }\n\n // parse custom label/tooltip/accesskey: [label=X|tooltip]\n if (lookaheadMatch[7]) {\n title = lookaheadMatch[7].trim().slice(1,-1);\n var pos=title.indexOf("|");\n if (pos!=-1) { tooltip = title.substr(pos+1,title.length); title=title.substr(0,pos); }\n if (title.substr(title.length-2,1)=="=") { key=title.substr(title.length-1,1); title=title.slice(0,-2); }\n if (pos==-1) tooltip += " "+title; // default tooltip: "show/hide <title>"\n }\n\n // create the button\n if (lookaheadMatch[3]) { // use "Hn" header format instead of button/link\n var lvl=(lookaheadMatch[3].length>6)?6:lookaheadMatch[3].length;\n var btn = createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(place,"h"+lvl,null,null,null),"a",null,lookaheadMatch[6],title);\n btn.onclick=onClickNestedSlider;\n btn.setAttribute("href","javascript:;");\n btn.setAttribute("title",tooltip);\n }\n else\n var btn = createTiddlyButton(place,title,tooltip,onClickNestedSlider,lookaheadMatch[6]);\n\n // set extra button attributes\n btn.sliderCookie = cookie; // save the cookiename (if any) in the button object\n btn.defOpen=lookaheadMatch[1]!=null; // save default open/closed state (boolean)\n btn.keyparam=key; // save the access key letter ("" if none)\n if (key.length) {\n btn.setAttribute("accessKey",key); // init access key\n btn.onfocus=function(){this.setAttribute("accessKey",this.keyparam);}; // **reclaim** access key on focus\n }\n\n // "non-click" MouseOver open/close slider\n if (lookaheadMatch[5]) btn.onmouseover=onClickNestedSlider;\n\n // create slider panel\n var panelClass=lookaheadMatch[4]?"floatingPanel":"sliderPanel";\n var panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"div",null,panelClass,null);\n panel.button = btn; // so the slider panel know which button it belongs to\n panel.defaultPanelWidth=(lookaheadMatch[4] && lookaheadMatch[4].length>2)?lookaheadMatch[4].slice(1,-1):""; // save requested panel size\n btn.sliderPanel=panel;\n = show;\n;\n\n // render slider (or defer until shown) \n w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;\n if ((show=="block")||!lookaheadMatch[9]) {\n // render now if panel is supposed to be shown or NOT deferred rendering\n w.subWikify(lookaheadMatch[8]?createTiddlyElement(panel,"blockquote"):panel,this.terminator);\n // align slider/floater position with button\n adjustSliderPos(place,btn,panel,panelClass);\n }\n else {\n var src = w.source.substr(w.nextMatch);\n var endpos=findMatchingDelimiter(src,"+++","===");\n panel.setAttribute("raw",src.substr(0,endpos));\n panel.setAttribute("blockquote",lookaheadMatch[8]?"true":"false");\n panel.setAttribute("rendered","false");\n w.nextMatch += endpos+3;\n if (w.source.substr(w.nextMatch,1)=="\sn") w.nextMatch++;\n if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer) alert("deferred '"+title+"':\sn\sn"+panel.getAttribute("raw"));\n }\n }\n }\n }\n)\n\n// TBD: ignore 'quoted' delimiters (e.g., "{{{+++foo===}}}" isn't really a slider)\nfunction findMatchingDelimiter(src,starttext,endtext) {\n var startpos = 0;\n var endpos = src.indexOf(endtext);\n // check for nested delimiters\n while (src.substring(startpos,endpos-1).indexOf(starttext)!=-1) {\n // count number of nested 'starts'\n var startcount=0;\n var temp = src.substring(startpos,endpos-1);\n var pos=temp.indexOf(starttext);\n while (pos!=-1) { startcount++; pos=temp.indexOf(starttext,pos+starttext.length); }\n // set up to check for additional 'starts' after adjusting endpos\n startpos=endpos+endtext.length;\n // find endpos for corresponding number of matching 'ends'\n while (startcount && endpos!=-1) {\n endpos = src.indexOf(endtext,endpos+endtext.length);\n startcount--;\n }\n }\n return (endpos==-1)?src.length:endpos;\n}\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\nwindow.onClickNestedSlider=function(e)\n{\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);\n var theLabel =;\n var theSlider = theTarget.sliderPanel\n var isOpen =!="none";\n // if using default button labels, toggle labels\n if (theLabel==">") = "<";\n else if (theLabel=="<") = ">";\n // if using default tooltips, toggle tooltips\n if (theTarget.getAttribute("title")=="show")\n theTarget.setAttribute("title","hide");\n else if (theTarget.getAttribute("title")=="hide")\n theTarget.setAttribute("title","show");\n if (theTarget.getAttribute("title")=="show "+theLabel)\n theTarget.setAttribute("title","hide "+theLabel);\n else if (theTarget.getAttribute("title")=="hide "+theLabel)\n theTarget.setAttribute("title","show "+theLabel);\n // deferred rendering (if needed)\n if (theSlider.getAttribute("rendered")=="false") {\n if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender)\n alert("rendering '"+theLabel+"':\sn\sn"+theSlider.getAttribute("raw"));\n var place=theSlider;\n if (theSlider.getAttribute("blockquote")=="true")\n place=createTiddlyElement(place,"blockquote");\n wikify(theSlider.getAttribute("raw"),place);\n theSlider.setAttribute("rendered","true");\n }\n // show/hide the slider\n if(config.options.chkAnimate)\n anim.startAnimating(new Slider(theSlider,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));\n else\n = isOpen ? "none" : "block";\n // reset to default width (might have been changed via plugin code)\n;\n // align slider/floater position with target button\n if (!isOpen) adjustSliderPos(theSlider.parentNode,theTarget,theSlider,theSlider.className);\n // if showing panel, set focus to first 'focus-able' element in panel\n if (!="none") {\n var ctrls=theSlider.getElementsByTagName("*");\n for (var c=0; c<ctrls.length; c++) {\n var t=ctrls[c].tagName.toLowerCase();\n if ((t=="input" && ctrls[c].type!="hidden") || t=="textarea" || t=="select")\n { ctrls[c].focus(); break; }\n }\n }\n if (this.sliderCookie && this.sliderCookie.length) {\n config.options[this.sliderCookie]=!isOpen;\n if (config.options[this.sliderCookie]!=this.defOpen)\n saveOptionCookie(this.sliderCookie);\n else { // remove cookie if slider is in default display state\n var ex=new Date(); ex.setTime(ex.getTime()-1000);\n document.cookie = this.sliderCookie+"=novalue; path=/; expires="+ex.toGMTString();\n }\n }\n return false;\n}\n\n// hijack animation handler 'stop' handler so overflow is visible after animation has completed\nSlider.prototype.coreStop = Slider.prototype.stop;\nSlider.prototype.stop = function() { this.coreStop(); = "visible"; }\n\n// adjust panel position based on button position\nif (window.adjustSliderPos==undefined) window.adjustSliderPos=function(place,btn,panel,panelClass) {\n if (panelClass=="floatingPanel") {\n var left=0;\n var top=btn.offsetHeight; \n if (!="relative") {\n var left=findPosX(btn);\n var top=findPosY(btn)+btn.offsetHeight;\n var p=place; while (p && p.className!='floatingPanel') p=p.parentNode;\n if (p) { left-=findPosX(p); top-=findPosY(p); }\n }\n if (left+panel.offsetWidth > getWindowWidth()) left=getWindowWidth()-panel.offsetWidth-10;\n"px";"px";\n }\n}\n\nfunction getWindowWidth() {\n if(document.width!=undefined)\n return document.width; // moz (FF)\n if(document.documentElement && ( document.documentElement.clientWidth || document.documentElement.clientHeight ) )\n return document.documentElement.clientWidth; // IE6\n if(document.body && ( document.body.clientWidth || document.body.clientHeight ) )\n return document.body.clientWidth; // IE4\n if(window.innerWidth!=undefined)\n return window.innerWidth; // IE - general\n return 0; // unknown\n}\n//}}}
The goal of the ''Networking Sub-Committee'' of the [[Planning Committee]] for the [[60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference]] is to explore, discover and promote networking by and among NGOs in support of the preparation for, participation in and follow-up to the Conference, and the broad-based mobilization of civil society in addressing the dangers of climate change and the opportunities for viable, creative, remedial and mitigating responses.\n!!''Co-Chairs''\n* William Gellermann, ''Communications Coordination Committee for the United Nations''\n* Moses Williams, ''Olof Palme Peace Foundation''\n!! ''Members''\n* Pauline Cantwell, ''Peace Action''\n* Loretta Dumas, ''NJ Haiti Partners of the Americas''\n* Barbara Horne, ''Training At My Desk''\n* Ani Kalayjian, ''Armenian International Women's Association''\n* Moki Kokoris, ''90 North''\n* Pamela Kraft, ''Tribal Link Foundation''\n* Judy Lerner, ''Peace Action''\n* Kathy Liepe-Levinson, ''Institute of General Semantics''\n* Isobel Lowther, ''Kaleidoscope Experience''\n* Linda Misek-Falkoff, ''National Disability Party, Chronic Pain Caucus''\n* Gwen Moten, ''City of Newark, Cultural Affairs''\n* Jim Nelson, ''Unitarian Universalist Association''\n* Robert Pollard, ''Information Habitat: Where Information Lives''\n* Joann Robinson, ''Peace Action''\n* Joan Russow, ''Global Compliance Research Project''\n* George Weinstein, ''Jewish War Veterans''\n* Anne Zanes, ''Peace Links''\nIf you would like to participate in the vision and work of the ''Networking Committee'', please join the committee's Google Group: [[|]], or send an email to [[|]]
<<<\n"''//Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs//''. It contains within it two key concepts:\n* the concept of 'needs', in particular the ''//essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given//''; and\n* the idea of ''//limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization//'' on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."\n>> //From [[Our Common Future: Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development|]]// (emphasis added)\n<<<\nIt was ''Our Common Future'' - formally known as the ''Report of the World Commission on Environment & Development'', and also known as the ''Brundtland Report'' after the Chair of the Commission, ''Gro Harlem Brundtland'' - that put the concept of sustainable development on the global agenda. ''Our Common Future'' broke new ground in several key areas:\n* it brought into focus the extent of the interrelationships between economic development and the natural environment and the need to adopt a holistic perspective\n* it emphasized the critical importance of the participation of all major groups in society into deliberations on policies and the the implementation of sustainable development;\n* it articulated the critical need for a global transition to a new model of economic development and the transition to a sustainable development path.\n<<<\n"''The Interlocking Crises''\n\nUntil recently, the planet was a large world in which human activities and their effects were neatly compartmentalized within nations, within sectors (energy, agriculture, trade), and within broad areas of concern (environment, economics, social). These compartments have begun to dissolve. This applies in particular to the various global 'crises' that have seized public concern, particularly over the past decade. These are not separate crises: an environmental crisis, a development crisis, an energy crisis. They are all one."\n>> //From [[Our Common Future, From One Earth to One World|]]//\n<<<\n[[Our Common Future]] served as a key foundation for the 1992 ''United Nations Conference on Environment and Development'' - also known as the ''Earth Summit'' - that was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992, and that led to the adoption of the [[Rio Declaration on Environment and Development]], [[Agenda 21]], the [[Convention on Biodiversity]] and the [[Framework Convention on Climate Change]]. Since the ''Earth Summit'', the concept and vision of sustainable development has come to play a central role in both international negotiations and in the development and implementation of national and local policies and practices relating to economic and social development and to the environment.\n\nThe ''Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development'' was transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document [[A/42/427 - Development and International Co-operation: Environment|]] \n!!Table of Contents\n<<<\n!!![[Chairman's Foreword|]]\n!!![[From One Earth to One World|]]\n<<<\n!!Part I. Common Concerns\n<<<\n!!![[1. A Threatened Future|]] +++\n> [[Symptoms and Causes|]]\n> [[New Approaches to Environment and Development|]]\n===\n\n!!![[2. Towards Sustainable Development|]] +++\n> [[The Concept of Sustainable Development|]]\n> [[Equity and the Common Interest|]]\n> [[Strategic Imperatives|]]\n> [[Conclusion|]]\n===\n\n!!![[3. The Role of the International Economy|]] +++\n> [[The International Economy, the Environment, and Development|]]\n> [[Decline in the 1980s|]]\n> [[Enabling Sustainable Development|]]\n> [[A Sustainable World Economy|]]\n===\n\n<<<\n!!Part II. Common Challenges\n<<<\n!!![[4. Population and Human Resources|]] +++\n> [[The Links with Environment and Development|]]\n> [[The Population Perspective|]] \n> [[A Policy Framework|]]\n===\n\n!!!5. Food Security: Sustaining the Potential +++\n> Achievements\n> Signs of Crisis\n> The Challenge\n> Strategies for Sustainable Food Security\n> Food for the Future\n===\n\n!!!6. Species and Ecosystems: Resources for Development +++\n> The Problem: Character and Extent\n> Extinction Patterns and Trends\n> Some Causes of Extinction\n> Economic Values at Stake\n> New Approach: Anticipate and Prevent\n> International Action for National Species*\n> Scope for National Action\n> The Need for Action\n===\n\n!!![[7. Energy: Choices for Environment and Development|]] +++\n> [[Energy, Economy, and Environment|]]\n> [[Fossil Fuels: The Continuing Dilemma|]]\n> [[Nuclear Energy: Unsolved Problems|]]\n> [[Wood Fuels: The Vanishing Resource|]]\n> [[Renewable Energy: The Untapped Potential|]]\n> [[Energy Efficiency: Maintaining the Momentum|]]\n> [[Energy Conservation Measures|]]\n> [[Conclusion|]]\n===\n\n!!![[8. Industry: Producing More With Less|]] +++\n> [[Industrial Growth and its Impact|]]\n> [[Sustainable Industrial Development in a Global Context|]]\n> [[Strategies for Sustainable Industrial Development|]]\n===\n\n!!![[9. The Urban Challenge|]] +++\n> [[The Growth of Cities|]]\n> [[The Urban Challenge in Developing Countries|]]\n> [[International Cooperation|]]\n===\n\n<<<\n!!Part III. Common Endeavours\n<<<\n!!![[10. Managing The Commons|]] +++\n> [[Oceans: The Balance of Life|]]\n> [[Space: A Key to Planetary Management|]]\n> [[Antarctica: Towards Global Cooperation|]]\n===\n\n!!![[11. Peace, Security, Development, and the Environment|]] +++\n> [[Environmental Stress as a Source of Conflict|]]\n> [[Conflict as a Cause of Unsustainable Development|]]\n===\n\n> [[Towards Security and Sustainable Development|]]\n!!![[12. Towards Common Action: Proposals For Institutional and Legal Change|]] +++\n> [[The Challenge for Institutional and Legal Change|]]\n> [[Proposals for Institutional and Legal Change|]]\n> [[A Call for Action|]]\n===\n\n<<<\n!!Annexes \n<<<\n!!![[Annexe 1: Summary of Proposed Legal Principles for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Adopted by the WCED Experts Group on Environmental Law|]]\n!!![[Annexe 2: The Commission and its Work|]]\n!!![[Acronyms and Note on Terminology|]]\n<<<
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The ''Plugin Manager'' tiddler uses the ''<html>&lt;&lt;plugins&gt;&gt;</html>'' built-in macro that displays all the plugin macros - tiddlers marked with the ''systemConfig'' tag - with links to the plugins and an indication of their status.\n\n<<plugins>>
!!United Nations Charter\n!!Chapter I: Purposes and Principles\n!!!Article 1\nThe Purposes of the United Nations are:\n# To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;\n# To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;\n# To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and\n# To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.\n!!!Article 2\nThe Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.\n# The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.\n# All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.\n# All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.\n# All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.\n# All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.\n# The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.\n# Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under [[Chapter VII|]].
''What can scientific, technical, and socio-economic analyses contribute to the determination of what constitutes dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system as referred to in Article 2 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change?''\n<<<\n//Framework Convention on Climate Change, Article 2//\n>"The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.<br>\n>Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient\n** to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change,\n** to ensure that food production is not threatened and\n** to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner."\n<<<
''What is the evidence for, causes of, and consequences of changes in the Earth's climate since the pre-industrial era?''\n* Has the Earth's climate changed since the pre-industrial era at the regional and/or global scale? If so, what part, if any, of the observed changes can be attributed to human influence and what part, if any, can be attributed to natural phenomena? What is the basis for that attribution?\n* What is known about the environmental, social, and economic consequences of climate changes since the pre-industrial era with an emphasis on the last 50 years?
What is known about the regional and global climatic, environmental, and socio-economic consequences in the next 25, 50, and 100 years associated with a range of greenhouse gas emissions arising from scenarios used in the TAR (projections which involve no climate policy intervention)?\n\nTo the extent possible evaluate the:\n* Projected changes in atmospheric concentrations, climate, and sea level\n* Impacts and economic costs and benefits of changes in climate and atmospheric composition on human health, diversity and productivity of tecological systems, and socio-economic sectors (particularly agriculture and water)\n* The range of options for adaptation, including the costs, benefits, and challenges\n* Development, sustainability, and equity issues associated with impacts and adaptation at a regional and global level
''What is known about the influence of the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the projected human-induced change in climate regionally and globally on'':\n* The frequency and magnitude of climate fluctuations, including daily, seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal variability, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles and others?\n* The duration, location, frequency, and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, floods, heavy precipitation, avalanches, storms, tornadoes, and tropical cyclones?\n* The risk of abrupt/non-linear changes in, among others, the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, ocean circulation, and the extent of polar ice and permafrost? If so, can the risk be quantified?\n* The risk of abrupt or non-linear changes in ecological systems?\n
What is known about the inertia and time scales associated with the changes in the climate system, ecological systems, and socio-economic sectors and their interactions?
# How does the extent and timing of the introduction of a range of emissions reduction actions determine and affect the rate, magnitude, and impacts of climate change, and affect the global and regional economy, taking into account the historical and current emissions?\n# What is known from sensitivity studies about regional and globa climatic, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of stabilizing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (in carbon dioxide equivalents), at a range of levels from today's to double that level or more, taking into account to the extent possible the effects of aerosols? For each stabilization scenario, including different pathways to stabilization, evaluate the range of costs and benefits, relative to the range of scenarios considered in Question 3, in terms of:\n** Projected changes in atmospheric concentrations, climate, and sea level, including changes beyond 100 years\n** Impacts and economic costs and benefits of changes in climate and atmospheric composition on human health, diversity and productivity of ecological systems, and socio-economic sectors (particularly agriculture and water)\n** The range of options for adaptation, including the costs, benefits, and challenges\n** The range of technologies, policies, and practices that could be used to achieve each of the stabilization levels, with an evaluation of the national and global costs and benefits, and an assessment of how these costs and benefits would compare, either qualitatively or quantitatively, to the avoided environmental harm that would be achieved by the emissions reductions\n** Development, sustainability, and equity issues associated with impacts, adaptation, and mitigation at a regional and global level.\n
What is known about the potential for, and costs and benefits of, and time frame for reducing greenhouse gas emissions?\n* What would be the economic and social costs and benefits and equity implications of options for policies and measures, and the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, that might be considered to address climate change regionally and globally?\n* What portfolios of options of research and development, investments, and other policies might be considered that would be most effective to enhance the development and deployment of technologies that address climate change?\n* What kind of economic and other policy options might be considered to remove existing and potential barriers and to stimulate private- and public sector technology transfer and deployment among countries, and what effect might these have on projected emissions?\n* How does the timing of the options contained in the above affect associated economic costs and benefits, and the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases over the next century and beyond?\n
* What is known about the interactions between projected human-induced changes in climate and other environmental issues (e.g., urban air pollution, regional acid deposition, loss of biological diversity, stratospheric ozone depletion, and desertification and land degradation)?\n* What is known about environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits and implications of these interactions for integrating climate change response strategies in an equitable manner into broad sustainable development strategies at the local, regional, and global scales?
What are the most robust findings and key uncertainties regarding attribution of climate change and regarding model projections of:\n* Future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols?\n* Future concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols?\n* Future changes in regional and global climate?\n* Regional and global impacts of climate change?\n* Costs and benefits of mitigation and adaptation options?\n
/***\n| Name:|QuickOpenTagPlugin|\n| Description:|Changes tag links to make it easier to open tags as tiddlers|\n| Version:|6.1.1|\n| Date:|01-Oct-2006|\n| Source:||\n| Author:|Simon Baird <>|\n| CoreVersion:|2.1.x|\n***/\n//{{{\nconfig.quickOpenTag = {\n\n dropdownChar: (document.all ? "\su25bc" : "\su25be"), // the little one doesn't work in IE\n\n createTagButton: function(place,tag,excludeTiddler) {\n // little hack so we can to <<tag PrettyTagName|RealTagName>>\n var splitTag = tag.split("|");\n var pretty = tag;\n if (splitTag.length == 2) {\n tag = splitTag[1];\n pretty = splitTag[0];\n }\n \n var sp = createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"quickopentag");\n createTiddlyText(createTiddlyLink(sp,tag,false),pretty);\n \n var theTag = createTiddlyButton(sp,config.quickOpenTag.dropdownChar,\n config.views.wikified.tag.tooltip.format([tag]),onClickTag);\n theTag.setAttribute("tag",tag);\n if (excludeTiddler)\n theTag.setAttribute("tiddler",excludeTiddler);\n return(theTag);\n },\n\n miniTagHandler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {\n var tagged = store.getTaggedTiddlers(tiddler.title);\n if (tagged.length > 0) {\n var theTag = createTiddlyButton(place,config.quickOpenTag.dropdownChar,\n config.views.wikified.tag.tooltip.format([tiddler.title]),onClickTag);\n theTag.setAttribute("tag",tiddler.title);\n theTag.className = "miniTag";\n }\n },\n\n allTagsHandler: function(place,macroName,params) {\n var tags = store.getTags();\n var theDateList = createTiddlyElement(place,"ul");\n if(tags.length == 0)\n createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li",null,"listTitle",this.noTags);\n for (var t=0; t<tags.length; t++) {\n var theListItem = createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li");\n var theLink = createTiddlyLink(theListItem,tags[t][0],true);\n var theCount = " (" + tags[t][1] + ")";\n theLink.appendChild(document.createTextNode(theCount));\n var theDropDownBtn = createTiddlyButton(theListItem," " +\n config.quickOpenTag.dropdownChar,this.tooltip.format([tags[t][0]]),onClickTag);\n theDropDownBtn.setAttribute("tag",tags[t][0]);\n }\n },\n\n // todo fix these up a bit\n styles: \n"/*{{{*/\sn"+\n"/* created by QuickOpenTagPlugin */\sn"+\n".tagglyTagged .quickopentag, .tagged .quickopentag \sn"+\n" { margin-right:1.2em; border:1px solid #eee; padding:2px; padding-right:0px; padding-left:1px; }\sn"+\n".quickopentag .tiddlyLink { padding:2px; padding-left:3px; }\sn"+\n".quickopentag a.button { padding:1px; padding-left:2px; padding-right:2px;}\sn"+\n"/* extra specificity to make it work right */\sn"+\n"#displayArea .viewer .quickopentag a.button, \sn"+\n"#displayArea .viewer .quickopentag a.tiddyLink, \sn"+\n"#mainMenu .quickopentag a.tiddyLink, \sn"+\n"#mainMenu .quickopentag a.tiddyLink \sn"+\n" { border:0px solid black; }\sn"+\n"#displayArea .viewer .quickopentag a.button, \sn"+\n"#mainMenu .quickopentag a.button \sn"+\n" { margin-left:0px; padding-left:2px; }\sn"+\n"#displayArea .viewer .quickopentag a.tiddlyLink, \sn"+\n"#mainMenu .quickopentag a.tiddlyLink \sn"+\n" { margin-right:0px; padding-right:0px; padding-left:0px; margin-left:0px; }\sn"+\n"a.miniTag {font-size:150%;} \sn"+\n"#mainMenu .quickopentag a.button \sn"+\n" /* looks better in right justified main menus */\sn"+\n" { margin-left:0px; padding-left:2px; margin-right:0px; padding-right:0px; }\sn" + \n"#topMenu .quickopentag { padding:0px; margin:0px; border:0px; }\sn" +\n"#topMenu .quickopentag .tiddlyLink { padding-right:1px; margin-right:0px; }\sn" +\n"#topMenu .quickopentag .button { padding-left:1px; margin-left:0px; border:0px; }\sn" +\n"/*}}}*/\sn"+\n "",\n\n init: function() {\n // we fully replace these builtins. can't hijack them easily\n window.createTagButton = this.createTagButton;\n config.macros.allTags.handler = this.allTagsHandler;\n config.macros.miniTag = { handler: this.miniTagHandler };\n config.shadowTiddlers["QuickOpenTagStyles"] = this.styles;\n if (store)\n store.addNotification("QuickOpenTagStyles",refreshStyles);\n else\n config.notifyTiddlers.push({name:"QuickOpenTagStyles", notify: refreshStyles});\n }\n\n}\n\nconfig.quickOpenTag.init();\n\n//}}}\n
!!![[Role, Objectives and Guiding Principles of Environmental Education|Tbilisi Recommendations: Role, Objectives and Guiding Principles of Environmental Education]]\n!!![[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]]\n* [[Organizational structure|Tbilisi Recommendations: Organizational structure]]\n* [[Target populations for environmental education|Tbilisi Recommendations: Target populations for environmental education]]\n* [[Environmental education for the general public|Tbilisi Recommendations: Environmental education for the general public]]\n* [[Environmental education of professionals|Tbilisi Recommendations: Environmental education of professionals]]\n* [[Content and methods|Tbilisi Recommendations: Content and methods]]\n* [[Training of personnel|Tbilisi Recommendations: Training of personnel]]\n* [[Teaching - learning materials|Tbilisi Recommendations: Teaching - learning materials]]\n* [[Dissemination of information|Tbilisi Recommendations: Dissemination of information]]\n* [[Research|Tbilisi Recommendations: Research]]\n!!![[International and regional co-operation|Tbilisi Recommendations: International and regional co-operation]]\n* [[General Recommendations|Tbilisi Recommendations: General Recommendations]]\n* [[Recommendations on regional co-operation|Tbilisi Recommendations: Recommendations on regional co-operation]]
/***\n|Macro|redirect (alias)|\n|Author|[[Clint Checketts]] and Paul Petterson|\n|Version|1.1 Jan 26, 2006|\n|Location||\n|Description|This macro tells TW to find all instances of a word and makes it point to a different link. For example, whenever I put the word 'Clint' in a tiddler I want TiddlyWiki to turn it into a link that points to a tiddler titled 'Clint Checketts' Or the word 'TW' could point to a tiddler called 'TiddlyWiki' It even matches clint (which is lowercase) [[Clint]] leet lEEt LEET|\n|Usage|{{{<<redirect TW TiddlyWiki>>}}} |\n|Example|<<redirect TW "TiddlyWiki">> <<redirect Clint "Clint Checketts">> (Nothing should appear, its just setting it all up)<<redirectExact lEEt Elite>>|\n\n!Revisions\n1.1- Fixed tiddler refresh so a tiddler declaring a redirect will also render the redirect\n1.0- Updated to work with TiddlyWiki 2.0 (thanks to Udo Borkowski)\n0.9- Original release October 2005\n\n!Code\n***/\n//{{{\nversion.extensions.redirectExact = {major: 1, minor: 2, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,10,24)};\nconfig.macros.redirectExact = {label: "Pickles Rock!"};\nconfig.macros.redirectExact.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler){\n config.macros.redirect.handler(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);\n}\n\nversion.extensions.redirect = {major: 1, minor: 2, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,10,24)};\nconfig.macros.redirect = {label: "Pickles Rock!"};\n\nconfig.macros.redirect.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler){\n\nvar redirectExists = false\n// Check to see if the wikifier exists\nfor (var i=0;i<config.formatters.length;i++)\n if (config.formatters[i].name == "redirect"+params[0])\n redirectExists = true;\n\n//If it doesn't exist, add it!\nif (!redirectExists){\n for( var i=0; i<config.formatters.length; i++ )\n if ( config.formatters[i].name=='wikiLink') break ;\n\n if ( i >= config.formatters.length ) {\n var e = "Can't find formatter for wikiLink!" ;\n displayMessage( e ) ;\n throw( e ) ;\n }\n\nvar pattern;\n if (macroName == 'redirect'){pattern=params[0].escapeRegExp().replace(/([A-Z])/img, function($1) {return("["+$1.toUpperCase()+$1.toLowerCase()+"]");});\n } else {\n pattern=params[0].escapeRegExp();\n }\n\n config.formatters.splice( i, 0, {\n name: "redirect"+params[0],\n match: "(?:\s\sb)(?:\s\s[\s\s[)?"+pattern+"(?:\s\s]\s\s])?(?:\s\sb)",\n subst: params[1],\n handler: function(w) {\n var link = createTiddlyLink(w.output,this.subst,false);\n w.outputText(link,w.matchStart,w.nextMatch);\n }\n });\n formatter = new Formatter(config.formatters); //update the tiddler\n if(tiddler) story.refreshTiddler(tiddler.title,null,true); //refresh tiddler so the new rule is applied\n} // End if\n}\n//}}}
''Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble: Plan B 3.0'' //(beta)// is a TiddlyPerfect "translation" of ''Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble'' by [[Lester Brown]] of the [[Earth Policy Institute]], and is one of the key initial elements of [[Climate Change 2.0: Information Ecology of Climate Change]].\n\n''Plan B 2.0'' is a brilliant and easy-to-read book that not offers an insightful, down-to-earth perspective on the planetary crisis but also provides an outline of a roadmap of what is needed to address and resolve the current crisis - a crisis whose significance is gaining much needed attention in the face of growing evidence of catastrophic climate change.\n\n''Plan 3.0'' //(beta)// is designed to harness the powers of a free knowledge universe in support of the development of a new economy called for by Lester Brown, and to affirm the vital role of information & communications technology in that new economy It is also the intention of ''Plan B 3.0'' to make the contents of Lester Brown's brilliant book more readily available and its contents more readily searchable. ''Plan B 3.0'' is still in a //beta // version; a more extensive elaboration of the role of information and communications in the addition of a structured set of key words / tags remains among the unfinished tasks.\n\n
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,\n\n//Having met// at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,\n\n//Reaffirming// the [[Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]], adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, and seeking to build upon it,\n\n//With the goal// of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people,\n\n//Working towards// international agreements which respect the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental system,\n\n//Recognizing// the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our home,\n\n//Proclaims// that:\n\n''Principle 1''\n\nHuman beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.\n\n''Principle 2''\n\nStates have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.\n\n''Principle 3''\n\nThe right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.\n\n''Principle 4''\n\nIn order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.\n\n''Principle 5''\n\nAll States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.\n\n''Principle 6''\n\nThe special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International actions in the field of environment and development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.\n\n''Principle 7''\n\nStates shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.\n\n''Principle 8''\n\nTo achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.\n\n''Principle 9''\n\nStates should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies.\n\n''Principle 10''\n\nEnvironmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.\n\n''Principle 11''\n\nStates shall enact effective environmental legislation. Environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply. Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries.\n\n''Principle 12''\n\nStates should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.\n\n''Principle 13''\n\nStates shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. States shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction.\n\n''Principle 14''\n\nStates should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to human health.\n\n''Principle 15''\n\nIn order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.\n\n''Principle 16''\n\nNational authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.\n\n''Principle 17''\n\nEnvironmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.\n\n''Principle 18''\n\nStates shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help States so afflicted.\n\n''Principle 19''\n\nStates shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult with those States at an early stage and in good faith.\n\n''Principle 20''\n\nWomen have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.\n\n''Principle 21''\n\nThe creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all.\n\n''Principle 22''\n\nIndigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.\n\n''Principle 23''\n\nThe environment and natural resources of people under oppression, domination and occupation shall be protected.\n\n''Principle 24''\n\nWarfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development, as necessary.\n\n''Principle 25''\n\nPeace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.\n\n''Principle 26''\n\nStates shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.\n\n''Principle 27''\n\nStates and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development.
Robert Pollard, Chair of the Information and Communications Sub-Committee of the NGO Committee on Education, is Professor of Information Ecology at [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]], an organization he founded in 1990 shortly after becoming involved in the preparations for the 1992 ''Earth Summit'' / ''UN Conference on Environment and Development'' (UNCED), and that was granted Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council in 1995. Through Information Habitat - and through NGO Committees, Networks and Caucuses he has worked with - he was a pioneer in the adoption, promotion and support of systematic and innovative use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of broad-based, informed and collaborative participation of non-governmental organizations in the series of United Nations global conferences during the 1990s - culminating with Habitat II, for which he was the architect and developer of the information and communications strategy for the conference, managing key email lists and databases and building the official Habitat II web site.\n\nSince Habitat II, he has been actively involved in the NGO follow-up to the global conferences, while increasingly focusing on the development of information ecology as a holistic life science for the information age and on the critical contribution of ICT that he is convinced holds a key to a successful transition to a sustainable development path. Building on his earlier experience and inclinations as a librarian, he has devoted considerable attention to gathering and organizing extensive archives of documents relating to sustainable development and to the United Nations, and has generated a unique hyperlinked collection of more than five hundred such documents at [[|]].\n\nBefore becoming involved with the United Nations NGO community, he had been active with environmental, peace and community development organizations in Baltimore for more than twenty years, and in 1981 had been a co-founder of the ''Baltimore Information Cooperative'' that provided support to grassroots and progressive organizations in the use of microcomputers. He served as Librarian at Baltimore City Jail for more than eight years and as Administrative Analyst for an additional five years, for much of that time using his microcomputer as an administrative tool. He was educated at Whitgift School and Cambridge University, where he read Mathematics and Political Economy, having received an Open Exhibition (scholarship) in Mathematics at Corpus Christi College and moved to the U.S. in 1996 for a Research Assistantship on a Quantitative Analysis of the French Revolution and to The Johns Hopkins University on a Graduate Fellowship in Social Relations, where he focused on methodology, research design, data analysis and mathematical sociology and on small group dynamics. He left academia in 1972 in the context of his involvement with the Vietnam Peace movement and his concern with the ties between academia and the military-industrial complex.\n\nA passionate organic gardener, he had to give up his large - third of an acre - garden when he moved to New York in 1993; however he has recently discovered a nearby community garden where he has reconnected to the earth and where he manages the compost piles, fed with a steady stream of kitchen 'waste'.\n
''Rotary International'' promotes world peace and understanding through local and global service projects. Rotary is a worldwide organization of business and professional leaders that provides humanitarian service, encourages high ethical standards in all vocations, and helps build goodwill and peace in the world. Approximately 1.2 million Rotarians belong to more than 32,000 clubs in more than 200 countries and geographical areas. Rotary celebrated its 100th anniversary on February 23, 2005.\n\nFor more informationon Rotary International, visit
TiddlyWiki offers a number of powerful features for searching within a TiddlyWiki site. The built-in search features in TiddlyPerfect are enhance with the installation of [[SearchOptions plugin]] and [[YourSearchPlugin macro]]. The options you select will be saved in a cookie, and will remain in effect when you re-visit this site.\n!!!Search Options\n<<option chkSearchTitles>> Search in tiddler titles\n<<option chkSearchText>> Search in tiddler text\n<<option chkSearchTags>> Search in tiddler tags\n<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>> Search results show title matches first\n<<option chkSearchList>> Search results show list of matching tiddlers\n<<option chkSearchIncremental>> Incremental searching\n!!!~YourSearch Options\n<<option chkUseYourSearch>> Use 'Your Search' \n<<option chkPreviewText>> Show Text Preview\n<<option chkSearchAsYouType>> 'Search As You Type' Mode (No RETURN required to start search)\nDefault Search Filter: <<option chkSearchInTitle>>Titles ('!') <<option chkSearchInText>>Texts ('%') <<option chkSearchInTags>>Tags ('#') <html><br><font size="-2">The parts of a tiddlers that are searched when you don't explicitly specify a filter in the search text (using a '!', '%' or '#' prefix).</font></html>\nNumber of items on search result page: <<option txtItemsPerPage>>\nNumber of items on search result page with preview text: <<option txtItemsPerPageWithPreview>>
/***\n|Name|''SearchOptions''|h\n|Author|[[Eric Shulman]]|\n|Version|2.2.1 (2006.02.03)|\n|Description|Allows modification of search criteria.|\n|Source||\n|Licence|[[Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 Licence]]|\n***/\n/***\nThe TiddlyWiki search function normally looks in both tiddler titles and tiddler body content ('text'). However, narrowing the search so that it examines only titles or only text, or expanding the search to include text contained in tiddler tags can be very helpful, especially when searching on common words or phrases. In addition, it is often useful for the search results to show tiddlers with matching titles before tiddlers that contain matching text or tags.\n\n!!!!!Usage\n<<<\nThis plugin adds checkboxes (see below and in AdvancedOptions) to let you selectively configure the TiddlyWiki search function to just examine any combination of tiddler titles, text, or tags. It also provides an option to switch the search results order between 'titles mixed in' (default) and 'titles shown first', as well as an option display the search results as a list of links (in an auto-generated "SearchResults" tiddler), rather than actually displaying all matching tiddlers. You can also enable/disable the "incremental search" (key-by-key searching), so that a search is only initiated when you press the ENTER key or click on the "search:" prompt text.\n<<<\n!!!!!Configuration\n<<<\nIn additional to the checkboxes in AdvancedOptions, a self-contained control panel is included here for your convenience:\n<<option chkSearchTitles>> Search tiddler titles\n<<option chkSearchText>> Search tiddler text\n<<option chkSearchTags>> Search in tiddler tags\n<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>> Show title matches first\n<<option chkSearchList>> Show list of matching tiddlers\n<<option chkSearchIncremental>> Incremental searching\n<<<\n!!!!!Installation\n<<<\nimport (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:\n''SearchOptionsPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)\n^^documentation and javascript for SearchOptionsPlugin handling^^\n\nWhen installed, this plugin automatically adds checkboxes in the AdvancedOptions shadow tiddler so you can enable/disable the extended search behavior. However, if you have customized your AdvancedOptions, you will need to manually add {{{<<option chkSearchTitles>>}}}, {{{<<option chkSearchText>>}}} and {{{<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>>}}} (with suitable prompt text) to your customized tiddler.\n<<<\n!!!!!Revision History\n<<<\n''2006.02.03 [2.2.1]''\nrewrite timeout clearing code and blank search text handling to match 2.0.4 core release changes. note that core no longer permits "blank=all" searches, so neither does this plugin. To search for all, use "." with text patterns enabled.\n''2006.02.02 [2.2.0]''\nin search.handler(), KeyHandler() function clears 'left over' timeout when search input is < 3 chars. Prevents searching on shorter text when shortened by rapid backspaces (<500msec)\n''2006.02.01 [2.1.9]''\nin, correct inverted logic for using/not using regular expressions when searching\nalso, blank search text now presents "No search text. Continue anyway?" confirm() message box, so search on blank can still be processed if desired by user.\n''2006.02.01 [2.1.8]''\nin doSearch(), added alert/return if search text is blank\n''2006.01.20 [2.1.7]''\nfixed setting of so that Tweaks can override it.\n''2006.01.19 [2.1.6]''\nimproved SearchResults formatting, added a "search again" form to the report (based on a suggestion from MorrisGray)\ndefine results report title using instead of hard-coding the tiddler title\n''2006.01.18 [2.1.5]''\nCreated separate functions for reportSearchResults(text,matches) and discardSearchResults(), so that other developers can create alternative report generators.\n''2006.01.17 [2.1.4]''\nUse instead of regExp.test() to scan for matches. Correctd the problem where only half the matching tiddlers (the odd-numbered ones) were being reported.\n''2006.01.15 [2.1.3]''\nAdded information (date/time, username, search options used) to SearchResults output\n''2006.01.10 [2.1.2]''\nuse displayTiddlers() to render matched tiddlers. This lets you display multiple matching tiddlers, even if SinglePageModePlugin is enabled.\n''2006.01.08 [2.1.1]''\ncorrected invalid variable reference, "txt.value" to "text" in\n''2006.01.08 [2.1.0]''\nre-write to match new, and functions.\n''2005.12.30 [2.0.0]''\nUpgraded to TW2.0\nwhen rendering SearchResults tiddler, closeTiddler() first to ensure display is refreshed.\n''2005.12.26 [1.4.0]''\nadded option to search for matching text in tiddler tags\n''2005.12.21 [1.3.7]''\nuse \s\s to 'escape' single quotes in tiddler titles when generating "Open all matching tiddlers" link. Also, added access key: "O", to trigger "open all" link.\nBased on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski.\n''2005.12.18 [1.3.6]''\ncall displayMessage() AFTER showing matching tiddlers so message is not cleared too soon\n''2005.12.17 [1.3.5]''\nif no matches found, just display message and delete any existing SearchResults tiddler.\n''2005.12.17 [1.3.4]''\nuse """{{{""" and """}}}""" to 'escape' display text in SearchResults tiddler to ensure that formatting contained in search string is not rendered \nBased on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski.\n''2005.12.14 [1.3.3]''\ntag SearchResults tiddler with 'excludeSearch' so it won't list itself in subsequent searches\nBased on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski.\n''2005.12.14 [1.3.2]''\nadded "open all matching tiddlers..." link to search results output.\nBased on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski.\n''2005.12.10 [1.3.1]''\nadded "discard search results" link to end of search list tiddler output for quick self-removal of 'SearchResults' tiddler.\n''2005.12.01 [1.3.0]''\nadded chkSearchIncremental to enable/disable 'incremental' searching (i.e., search after each keystroke) (default is ENABLED).\nadded handling for Enter key so it can be used to start a search.\nBased on a suggestion by LyallPearce\n''2005.11.25 [1.2.1]''\nrenamed from SearchTitleOrTextPlugin to SearchOptionsPlugin\n''2005.11.25 [1.2.0]''\nadded chkSearchList option\nBased on a suggestion by RodneyGomes\n''2005.10.19 [1.1.0]''\nadded chkSearchTitlesFirst option.\nBased on a suggestion by ChristianHauck\n''2005.10.18 [1.0.0]''\nInitial Release\n<<<\n!!!!!Credits\n<<<\nThis feature was developed by [[Eric Shulman]] from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/]].\nBased on a suggestion by Lyall Pearce.\n<<<\n!!!!!Code\n***/\n//{{{\nversion.extensions.SearchTitleOrText = {major: 2, minor: 2, revision: 1, date: new Date(2006,2,3)};\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\nif (config.options.chkSearchTitles==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTitles=true;\nif (config.options.chkSearchText==undefined) config.options.chkSearchText=true;\nif (config.options.chkSearchTags==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTags=true;\nif (config.options.chkSearchTitlesFirst==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTitlesFirst=false;\nif (config.options.chkSearchList==undefined) config.options.chkSearchList=false;\nif (config.options.chkSearchIncremental==undefined) config.options.chkSearchIncremental=true;\n\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchTitles>> Search in tiddler titles";\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchText>> Search in tiddler text";\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchTags>> Search in tiddler tags";\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>> Search results show title matches first";\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchList>> Search results show list of matching tiddlers";\nconfig.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\sn<<option chkSearchIncremental>> Incremental searching";\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\nif (\"SearchResults";\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\ = function(place,macroName,params)\n{\nvar lastSearchText = "";\nvar searchTimeout = null;\nvar doSearch = function(txt)\n{\nif (txt.value.length>0)\n{\,config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch,config.options.chkRegExpSearch);\nlastSearchText = txt.value;\n}\n};\nvar clickHandler = function(e)\n{\ndoSearch(this.nextSibling);\nreturn false;\n};\nvar keyHandler = function(e)\n{\nif (!e) var e = window.event;\nswitch(e.keyCode)\n{\ncase 13: // ELS: handle enter key\ndoSearch(this);\nbreak;\ncase 27:\nthis.value = "";\nclearMessage();\nbreak;\n}\nif (config.options.chkSearchIncremental)\n{\nif(this.value.length > 2)\n{\nif(this.value != lastSearchText)\n{\nif(searchTimeout) clearTimeout(searchTimeout);\nvar txt = this;\nsearchTimeout = setTimeout(function() {doSearch(txt);},500);\n}\n}\nelse\nif(searchTimeout) clearTimeout(searchTimeout);\n}\n};\nvar focusHandler = function(e)\n{\;\n};\nvar btn = createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,clickHandler);\nvar txt = createTiddlyElement(place,"input",null,null,null);\nif(params[0])\ntxt.value = params[0];\ntxt.onkeyup = keyHandler;\ntxt.onfocus = focusHandler;\ntxt.setAttribute("size",this.sizeTextbox);\ntxt.setAttribute("accessKey",this.accessKey);\ntxt.setAttribute("autocomplete","off");\nif(config.browser.isSafari)\n{\ntxt.setAttribute("type","search");\ntxt.setAttribute("results","5");\n}\nelse\ntxt.setAttribute("type","text");\n}\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\ = function(text,useCaseSensitive,useRegExp)\n{\nhighlightHack = new RegExp(useRegExp ? text : text.escapeRegExp(),useCaseSensitive ? "mg" : "img");\nvar matches =,"title","excludeSearch");\nvar q = useRegExp ? "/" : "'";\nclearMessage();\nif (!matches.length) {\nif (config.options.chkSearchList) discardSearchResults();\ndisplayMessage([q+text+q]));\n} else {\nif (config.options.chkSearchList) \nreportSearchResults(text,matches);\nelse {\nvar titles = []; for(var t=0; t<matches.length; t++) titles.push(matches[t].title);\nthis.closeAllTiddlers(); story.displayTiddlers(null,titles);\ndisplayMessage([matches.length, q+text+q]));\n}\n}\nhighlightHack = null;\n}\n//}}}\n\n//{{{\ = function(searchRegExp,sortField,excludeTag)\n{\nvar candidates = this.reverseLookup("tags",excludeTag,false,sortField);\n\n// scan for matching titles\nvar title_results = [];\nif (config.options.chkSearchTitles)\nfor(var t=0; t<candidates.length; t++)\nif(candidates[t]!=-1)\ntitle_results.push(candidates[t]);\n\n// scan for matching text\nvar text_results = [];\nif (config.options.chkSearchText)\nfor(var t=0; t<candidates.length; t++)\nif(candidates[t]!=-1)\ntext_results.push(candidates[t]);\n\n// scan for matching tags\nvar tag_results = [];\nif (config.options.chkSearchTags)\nfor(var t=0; t<candidates.length; t++)\nif(candidates[t].tags.join(" ").search(searchRegExp)!=-1)\ntag_results.push(candidates[t]);\n\n// merge the results, eliminating redundant matches\nvar results = [];\nfor(var t=0; t<title_results.length; t++) results.pushUnique(title_results[t]);\nfor(var t=0; t<text_results.length; t++) results.pushUnique(text_results[t]);\nfor(var t=0; t<tag_results.length; t++) results.pushUnique(tag_results[t]);\n\n// if not 'titles first', re-sort results to so titles, text and tag matches are mixed together\nif(!sortField) sortField = "title";\nvar bySortField=function (a,b) {if(a[sortField] == b[sortField]) return(0); else return (a[sortField] < b[sortField]) ? -1 : +1; }\nif (!config.options.chkSearchTitlesFirst) results.sort(bySortField);\nreturn results;\n}\n//}}}\n\n// // ''REPORT GENERATOR''\n//{{{\nif (!window.reportSearchResults) window.reportSearchResults=function(text,matches)\n{\nvar\nvar q = config.options.chkRegExpSearch ? "/" : "'";\nvar body="";\n\n// summary: nn tiddlers found matching '...', options used\nbody+="''"[matches.length,q+"{{{"+text+"}}}"+q])+"''\sn";\nbody+="^^//searched in:// ";\nbody+=(config.options.chkSearchTitles?"''titles'' ":"");\nbody+=(config.options.chkSearchText?"''text'' ":"");\nbody+=(config.options.chkSearchTags?"''tags'' ":"");\nif (config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch||config.options.chkRegExpSearch) {\nbody+=" //with options:// ";\nbody+=(config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch?"''case sensitive'' ":"");\nbody+=(config.options.chkRegExpSearch?"''text patterns'' ":"");\n}\nbody+="^^";\n\n// numbered list of links to matching tiddlers\nbody+="\sn<<<";\nfor(var t=0;t<matches.length;t++) body+="\sn# [["+matches[t].title+"]]";\nbody+="\sn<<<\sn";\n\n// open all matches button\nbody+="<html><input type=\s"button\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" ";\nbody+="onclick=\s"story.displayTiddlers(null,["\nfor(var t=0;t<matches.length;t++)\nbody+="'"+matches[t].title.replace(/\s'/mg,"\s\s'")+"'"+((t<matches.length-1)?", ":"");\nbody+="],1);\s" ";\nbody+="accesskey=\s"O\s" ";\nbody+="value=\s"open all matching tiddlers\s"></html> ";\n\n// discard search results button\nbody+="<html><input type=\s"button\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" ";\nbody+="onclick=\s"story.closeTiddler('"+title+"'); store.deleteTiddler('"+title+"');\s" ";\nbody+="value=\s"discard "+title+"\s"></html>";\n\n// search again\nbody+="\sn\sn----\sn";\nbody+="<<search \s""+text+"\s">> ";\nbody+="<<option chkSearchTitles>>titles ";\nbody+="<<option chkSearchText>>text ";\nbody+="<<option chkSearchTags>>tags";\nbody+="<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>>case-sensitive ";\nbody+="<<option chkRegExpSearch>>text patterns";\n\n// create/update the tiddler\nvar tiddler=store.getTiddler(title); if (!tiddler) tiddler=new Tiddler();\ntiddler.set(title,body,config.options.txtUserName,(new Date()),"excludeLists excludeSearch");\nstore.addTiddler(tiddler); story.closeTiddler(title);\n\n// use alternate "search again" label in <<search>> macro\nvar;\"search again";\n\n// render tiddler\nstory.displayTiddler(null,title,1); // force refresh\n\n// restore standard search label\;\n\n}\n\nif (!window.discardSearchResults) window.discardSearchResults=function()\n{\n// remove the tiddler\nstory.closeTiddler(;\nstore.deleteTiddler(;\n}\n//}}}\n\n\n
/***\n|Name|''SettingsPlugin''|h\n|Author|[[Udo Borkowski]]|\n|Version|1.1.0 (2006.07.30)|\n|Description||\n|Source||\n|Licence|[[BSD open source licence]]|\n|TW Version|2.0.7|\n***/\n/***\n|''Documentation:''|[[SettingsPlugin Documentation]]|\n|''~SourceCode:''|[[SettingsPlugin SourceCode]]|\n|''Browser:''|Firefox or better; Internet Explorer 6.0|\n^^This tiddler contains compressed source code. [[Full Source Code|SettingsPlugin SourceCode]].^^\n***/\n// /%\nif(!version.extensions.SettingsPlugin){if(version.major<2){(function(){var s="Use TiddlyWiki 2.0 or better to run the Settings Plugin.";alert(s);throw s;})();}version.extensions.SettingsPlugin={major:1,minor:1,revision:0,date:new Date(2006,6,30),type:"plugin",source:"",documentation:"[[SettingsPlugin Documentation]]",sourcecode:"[[SettingsPlugin SourceCode]]",author:"Udo Borkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)",licence:"[[BSD open source license (abego Software)]]",coreVersion:"2.0.7",browser:"Firefox or better; Internet Explorer 6.0"};if(!window.abego){window.abego={};}if(!abego.setTiddlerText){abego.setTiddlerText=function(_2,_3,_4,_5,_6,_7){var _8=_2.getTiddler(_3);if(_8&&(_8.text==_4)){return;}var _9=config.options.chkForceMinorUpdate;var _a=!_8?_5:_8.tags;_2.suspendNotifications();try{_2.saveTiddler(_3,_3,_4,_9?undefined:config.options.txtUserName,_9?undefined:new Date(),_a);}finally{_2.resumeNotifications();}if(_7){_2.notify(_3,true);}if(!_6&&config.options.chkAutoSave){saveChanges();}};}(function(){var _b="PrivateSettings";var _c="chkUsePrivateSettings";var _d="chkMakeSettingPrivateWhenChanged";var _e=null;var _f=false;var _10=function(_11,s){var _13=s.split(";");var _14={};for(var c=0;c<_13.length;c++){var p=_13[c].indexOf("=");if(p!=-1){var _17=_13[c].substr(0,p).trim();var _18=_13[c].substr(p+1).trim();_11[_17]=unescape(_18);_14[_17]=true;}}return _14;};var _19=function(_1a){var s=store.getTiddlerText(_b);_e=s?_10(_1a,s):{};};var _1c=function(_1d){_10(_1d,document.cookie);};var _1e=function(){var _1f={};_1c(_1f);return _1f;};var _20=function(){var _21={};_19(_21);return _21;};var _22=function(_23,_24){document.cookie=_23+"="+escape(_24)+"; expires=Fri, 1 Jan 2038 12:00:00 UTC; path=/";};var _25=function(_26,s,_28){var _29=_20();if(s===null){if(!_e[_26]){return;}delete _29[_26];delete _e[_26];}else{var _2a=_29[_26];if(_2a!==undefined&&_2a==s){return;}_29[_26]=s;_e[_26]=true;}var t="";for(var i in _29){if(t){t+="; ";}t+=i+"="+escape(_29[i]);}abego.setTiddlerText(store,_b,t,["excludeLists","excludeSearch"],_28);if(!_28&&config.options.chkAutoSave){saveChanges();}};config.shadowTiddlers["BSD open source license (abego Software)"]="See [[Licence|]].";config.shadowTiddlers["SettingsPlugin Documentation"]="[[Documentation on abego Software website|]].\sn\sn^^You may copy the documentation tiddler from the website to your TiddlyWiki.\snThen you don't need to access the internet to read the documentation.^^";config.shadowTiddlers["SettingsPlugin SourceCode"]="Rightclick this [[link|]] and choose 'Save target/link as...' to get the plugin source code from the abego Software website.";config.shadowTiddlers["Show Settings"]="<<showSettings>>";if(config.options[_c]===undefined){config.options[_c]=false;}if(config.options[_d]===undefined){config.options[_d]=false;}config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions+="\sn''Private Settings: ''<<option "+_c+">> Use private settings. <<option "+_d+">> Make setting private when changed.&#160;&#160;&#160;[[Show Settings]].\sn^^(Private settings are stored in this ~TiddlyWiki, shared settings are stored as cookies. For more information see the [[Settings documentation|SettingsPlugin Documentation]].)^^";abego.usePrivateSettings=function(){return _f;};abego.setUsePrivateSettings=function(f){if(f!=abego.usePrivateSettings()){_f=f;loadOptionsCookie();}};abego.isUsePrivateSettingsOption=function(_2e){return _2e==_c;};abego.makeSettingPrivateWhenChanged=function(){return config.options[_d];};abego.setMakeSettingPrivateWhenChanged=function(f){config.options[_d]=f;};abego.getSettings=function(){var _30={};_1c(_30);_f=_30[_c]=="true";if(abego.usePrivateSettings()){_19(_30);}return _30;};abego.getSetting=function(_31){var s=abego.getSettings()[_31];return !s?"":s;};abego.saveSetting=function(_33,_34){if(abego.isUsePrivateSettingsOption(_33)){_22(_33,_34);abego.setUsePrivateSettings(_34=="true");loadOptionsCookie();window.alert("You changed the 'Use private settings' option.\snPlease reload your TiddlyWiki to update the settings.\sn");return;}if(abego.usePrivateSettings()&&(abego.isSettingPrivate(_33)||abego.makeSettingPrivateWhenChanged())){_25(_33,_34);}else{_22(_33,_34);}};abego.isSettingPrivate=function(_35){if(abego.isUsePrivateSettingsOption(_35)){return false;}if(!_e){_20();}return !!_e[_35];};abego.isPasswordSetting=function(_36){return (_36.substr(0,3)=="pas")||(_36.substr(0,6)=="chkpas");};abego.makeSettingPrivate=function(_37,_38,_39){if(abego.isPasswordSetting(_37)){_25(_37,null,_39);return;}var _3a=_20();var _3b=_3a[_37]!==undefined;if(_38==_3b){return;}var _3c=_1e();if(_38){_25(_37,_3c[_37],_39);}else{if(_3c[_37]===undefined){_22(_37,_3a[_37]);}_25(_37,null,_39);}};abego.setAllSettingsPrivate=function(_3d,_3e){var _3f=abego.getSettings();for(var s in _3f){abego.makeSettingPrivate(s,_3d,true);}if(config.options.chkAutoSave){saveChanges();}if(_3e){story.refreshTiddler(_3e,1,true);}return false;};})();config.macros.showSettings={label:"showSettings",prompt:"Display the current TiddlyWiki settings"};config.macros.showSettings.handler=function(_41,_42,_43,_44,_45,_46){var _47=function(a){var s=a.substr(0,3);return s=="txt"||s=="chk";};var _4a=function(a,b){var s1=a.toLowerCase();var s2=b.toLowerCase();return (s1<s2)?-1:(s1==s2)?0:1;};var _4f=function(a,b){var _52=_47(a);var _53=_47(b);if(_52){if(!_53){return -1;}else{return _4a(a.substr(3),b.substr(3));}}else{if(_53){return 1;}else{return _4a(a,b);}}};var s="<html><table><tr align=\s"left\s"><th>Private</th><th>Name</th><th>Value</th></tr>";var c=abego.getSettings();var _56=[];for(var i in c){if(!abego.isPasswordSetting(i)){_56.push(i);}}_56.sort(_4f);for(i=0;i<_56.length;i++){var _58=_56[i];var _59=_47(_58)?_58.substr(3)+" ("+_58.substr(0,3)+"...)":_58;var _5a=abego.isUsePrivateSettingsOption(_58)?"":"<input name=\s""+_58+"\s" type=\s"checkbox\s" onclick=\s"abego.onPrivateSettingClick(this)\s""+(abego.isSettingPrivate(_58)?" checked":"")+"/>";s+="<tr><td align=\s"right\s">"+_5a+"</td><td>"+_59+"</td><td>"+c[_58]+"</td></tr>\sn";}s+="</table>";s+="<a class=\s"button\s" title=\s"Make all current settings private\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" onclick=\s"abego.setAllSettingsPrivate(true,'"+_46.title+"',1);\s">Make all private</a>";s+="<a class=\s"button\s" title=\s"Make all current settings shared\s" href=\s"javascript:;\s" onclick=\s"abego.setAllSettingsPrivate(false,'"+_46.title+"',1);\s">Make all shared</a>";s+="</html>";wikify(s,_41);};abego.onPrivateSettingClick=function(_5b){abego.makeSettingPrivate(,_5b.checked);return false;};this.loadOptionsCookie=function(){if(safeMode){return;}var _5c=abego.getSettings();for(var _5d in _5c){var _5e=_5c[_5d];switch(_5d.substr(0,3)){case "txt":config.options[_5d]=unescape(_5e);break;case "chk":config.options[_5d]=_5e=="true";break;}}};this.saveOptionCookie=function(_5f){if(safeMode){return;}var v="";switch(_5f.substr(0,3)){case "txt":v=config.options[_5f].toString();break;case "chk":v=config.options[_5f]?"true":"false";break;}abego.saveSetting(_5f,v);};loadOptionsCookie();}\n// %/\n\n
This set of shadowed tiddlers contain, and display key items for visitors, browsers and search engines. For convenience of reference, the concurrent contents of some of these tiddlers is also displayed using the built in {{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro.\n* SiteTitle - the short title for the site; displayed by the browser and at the head of the page and included in the page's "title tag"\n>> ''<<tiddler SiteTitle>>''\n* SiteSubtitle - a subtitle for the site, also displayed by the browser and at the head of the page and included in the page's "title tag"\n>> ''<<tiddler SiteSubtitle>>''\n* SiteUrl - the Url where the page is hosted; be sure to define this correctly if you will be generating an XML page\n>> <<tiddler SiteUrl>>\n* DefaultTiddlers - list of tiddlers displayed when the page is opened\n>> <<tiddler DefaultTiddlers>>\n* MainMenu - the Main Menu, displayed here in the left sidebar, and a key to effective navigation - makes extensive use of sub-menus using the NestedSlidersPlugin\n** [[Administrative Menu]] - a component of the Main Menu, it includes common site tools & a nested set of [[Tiddler Administration]] menus for modifying and reconfiguring the appearance and organization of the page \n* MarkupPreHead - "meta tags" for browsers & search engines & to define the opening ''Splash Screen''\n\n* [[More Menus|Menus]]
This tiddler uses the syntax {{{<<list shadowed>>}}} to display a list of "shadow tiddlers" - tiddlers that are automatically generated with default values by TiddlyWiki, or by installed [[Plugin Macros]], if the tiddler has not been edited. These shadow tiddlers can be edited, but remain classified as shadow tiddlers.\n\n<<list shadowed>>
When your browser reads a [[TiddlyWiki Page]] a set of built-in ''Shadowed Tiddlers'' is automatically generated, with shadow default values if the [[Shadowed Tiddler]]. Note that a "Shadowed Tiddlers'' is not the same as a "[[Missing Tiddlers]]; the latter is an as-yet undefined Tiddler that has been referred to in another Tiddler. For those who are familiar with WikiPedia, a Shadow Tiddler is the equivalent of red link.\n\nThere are several different [[Shadowed Tiddler Groups]], that you can to address different aspects of your TiddlyWiki experiences,\n\n!!Page Layour\n* ColorPalette\n* StyleSheetLayout\n\n<<tiddler SideBarTabs>>\n
<<tabs txtMainTab Timeline Timeline TabTimeline All 'All tiddlers' TabAll Tags 'All tags' TabTags More 'More lists' TabMore>>
/*{{{*/\n#sidebar {\nposition: absolute;\nright: 3px;\nwidth: 16em;\nfont-size: .9em;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions {\npadding-top: 0.3em;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions a {\nmargin: 0em 0.2em;\npadding: 0.2em 0.3em;\ndisplay: block;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions input {\nmargin: 0.4em 0.5em;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {\nmargin-left: 1em;\npadding: 0.5em;\nfont-size: .85em;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {\nfont-weight: bold;\ndisplay: inline;\npadding: 0;\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {\nmargin: 0 0 .3em 0;\n}\n\n#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {\n font-weight: bold;\n font-style: normal;\n}\n\n#sidebarTabs .tabContents {\nwidth: 15em;\noverflow: hidden;\n}\n/*}}}*/
<meta name="copyright" content="TiddlyWiki, ©2005,, 2006, 2007, Osmosoft, Ltd. BSD Open Source License">\n<meta name="copyright" content="abego extensions: ©2006. 2007, abego Software, BSD Open Source License">\n<meta name="copyright" content="Lewcid TW Extensions: ©2006, Saq Imtiaz & Simon Baird">\n<meta name="copyright" content="Plan B 2.0: 2006, Earthwatch Institute; Fair use">\n<meta name="copyright" content="wikipedia plugin: ©2006, Frank Dellaert">\n<meta name="copyright" content="IPCC Reviews: ©2001, 2007, United Nations Environmental Programme & World Meteorological ; Fair use">\n<meta name="copyright" content="UN Documents: ©1945-2007, United Nations, Fair use">\n<meta name="copyright" content="UNESCO Documents: ©1945-2007, United Nations Education, Scientific & Cultuiral Organization">
<meta name="keywords" content="climate change, climate, change, global warming, global, warming, melting cryosphere, ice, glacier, ice cap, ice sheet, polar bears, small islands, extreme weather, economics, energy, political economy, participation, truth, civilization, convenience, tiddlyperfect, tiddlywiki, dataperfect, ngo, non-governmental organizations, education, common future, youth, sustainability, sustainable development, tiddlywiki, tiddlyperfect, dataperfect">\n
<div id="SplashScreen" style="border: 3px solid #ccc; display: block; text-align: center; width: 600px; margin: 100px auto; padding: 50px; color:#000; font-family:comic sans ms; background-color:#eee;">\n<img src="light-cube-1.jpg"> <img src="light-cube-0.jpg">\n<br>\n<span style="font-size: 28px;"><b>Climate Change 2.0</b> </span>\n<br>\nA Convenient, TiddlyPerfect Response to Truth \n<br>\nin an Evolving Creative Commons, Open Source Climate\n<br>\n<img src="light-cube-0.jpg"> <img src="light-cube-1.jpg">\n<br>\nis loading<blink> ...</blink>\n<br>\n<span style="font-size: 14px; color:red;">Requires Javascript.</span></div>\n<br>\nFor ideal learning opportunities: patience, curiosity, and a discerning, open mind to the transformative opportunities of a new civilization in a free, and expanding knowledge-based universe.\n<br>\n<img src="congo.jpg">\n<br>
\nA ~TiddlyWiki Rendition of IPCC's Working Group II Report for Climate Change 2007
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
While TiddlyWiki and Data Perfect are the primary software engines of TiddlyPerfect, the design and development of [[Youth Challenge]] has been made possible by contributions from numerous software languages, applications and platforms. among those that have played a vital role are:\n!!!Languages\n* [[World Wide Web]] - [[World Wide Web Consortium]]\n** [[HTML]] - the //lingua franca// of the Web \n* [[Cascading Styles]] - the principal language of style and format - see <<wikipedia "Cascading Styles">>\n* [[Javascript]]\n!!!Platforms\n* [[Wikimedia]] - the platform that powers [[Wikipedia]]\n!!!Search Engines\n* [[Google]] - the pre-eminent search engine +++\n** ''Advanced Search''\n** ''Personalized Search'' - keep track of your search history\n===\n\n** ''Google Tools'' +++\n** ''Google Maps '' -\n** ''Google News'' -\n** ''Google Alerts'' - http://alerts,\n** ''Google Groups'' -\n** ''Google Earth''\n** ''Google Scholar'' - \n** ''Cooperative Search Engine''\n** ''Google Labs'' - discover new Google tools \n===\n\n!!!Web browsers\n* [[Netscape]] - \n* ''Firefox'' - recommended web browser -\n** ''Firefox Extensions'' - a multitude of add-on / extensions that provide a variety of valuable features - +++ \n*** ''Googlebar'' - adds an array of Google search options to Firefox -\n*** ''DownThemAll'' -\n*** '' Bookmarks'' - tagging and organizing '''' bookmarks -\n*** ''Blue Dot'' - tagging and organizing ''Blue Dot'' bookmarks -\n*** ''Firefox Showcase'' - displays thumbnails of open tabs -\n===\n\n!!!Social bookmarking sites\nMake your bookmarks available online; network and exchange bookmarks with others -\n* [[]] -\n* [[Blue Dot]] -
/***\n\n''Inspired by [[TiddlyPom|]]''\n\n|Name|SplashScreenPlugin|\n|Created by|SaqImtiaz|\n|Location||\n|Version|0.21 |\n|Requires|~TW2.08+|\n!Description:\nProvides a simple splash screen that is visible while the TW is loading.\n\n!Installation\nCopy the source text of this tiddler to your TW in a new tiddler, tag it with systemConfig and save and reload. The SplashScreen will now be installed and will be visible the next time you reload your TW.\n\n!Customizing\nOnce the SplashScreen has been installed and you have reloaded your TW, the splash screen html will be present in the MarkupPreHead tiddler. You can edit it and customize to your needs.\n\n!History\n* 20-07-06 : version 0.21, modified to hide contentWrapper while SplashScreen is displayed.\n* 26-06-06 : version 0.2, first release\n\n!Code\n***/\n//{{{\nvar old_lewcid_splash_restart=restart;\n\nrestart = function()\n{ if (document.getElementById("SplashScreen"))\n document.getElementById("SplashScreen").style.display = "none";\n if (document.getElementById("contentWrapper"))\n document.getElementById("contentWrapper").style.display = "block";\n \n old_lewcid_splash_restart();\n \n if (splashScreenInstall)\n {if(config.options.chkAutoSave)\n {saveChanges();}\n displayMessage("TW SplashScreen has been installed, please save and refresh your TW.");\n }\n}\n\n\nvar oldText = store.getTiddlerText("MarkupPreHead");\nif (oldText.indexOf("SplashScreen")==-1)\n {var siteTitle = store.getTiddlerText("SiteTitle");\n var splasher='\sn\sn<style type="text/css">#contentWrapper {display:none;}</style><div id="SplashScreen" style="border: 3px solid #ccc; display: block; text-align: center; width: 320px; margin: 100px auto; padding: 50px; color:#000; font-size: 28px; font-family:Tahoma; background-color:#eee;"><b>'+siteTitle +'</b> is loading<blink> ...</blink><br><br><span style="font-size: 14px; color:red;">Requires Javascript.</span></div>';\n if (! store.tiddlerExists("MarkupPreHead"))\n {var myTiddler = store.createTiddler("MarkupPreHead");}\n else\n {var myTiddler = store.getTiddler("MarkupPreHead");}\n myTiddler.set(myTiddler.title,oldText+splasher,config.options.txtUserName,null,null);\n store.setDirty(true);\n var splashScreenInstall = true;\n}\n//}}}
/*{{{*/\nbody {\n background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n}\n\na.externalLink {\n color: #007700;\n}\na {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\na:hover {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n}\na img {\n border: 0;\n}\n\nh1,h2,h3,h4,h5 {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.button {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n}\n\n.button:hover {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];\n border-color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n}\n\n.button:active {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];\n}\n\n.header {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n.headerShadow {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n}\n\n.headerShadow a {\n font-weight: normal;\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n}\n\n.headerForeground {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n}\n\n.headerForeground a {\n font-weight: normal;\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];\n}\n\n.tabSelected{\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n}\n\n.tabUnselected {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n}\n\n.tabContents {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n}\n\n.tabContents .button {\n border: 0;}\n\n#sidebar {\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions input {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {\n border: none;\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n}\n\n.wizard {\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];\n border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n}\n\n.wizard h1 {\n color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];\n}\n\n.wizard h2 {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n}\n\n.wizardStep {\n background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n}\n\n.wizard .button {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n}\n\n.wizard .button:hover {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n}\n\n.wizard .button:active {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n border-right: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n}\n\n#messageArea {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n#messageArea .button {\n padding: 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n}\n\n.popup {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n.popup hr {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n border-bottom: 1px;\n}\n\n.listBreak div{\n border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.popup li.disabled {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n border: none;\n}\n\n.popup li a:hover {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];\n border: none;\n}\n\n.tiddler .defaultCommand {\n font-weight: bold;\n}\n\n.shadow .title {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n}\n\n.title {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.subtitle {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n}\n\n.toolbar {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n.tagging, .tagged {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n background-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n}\n\n.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {\n background-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n}\n\n.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.tagging .button, .tagged .button {\n border: none;\n}\n\n.footer {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];\n}\n\n.selected .footer {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n}\n\n.sparkline {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];\n border: 0;\n}\n\n.sparktick {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.error, .errorButton {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::Error]];\n}\n\n.warning {\n color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];\n}\n\n.cascade {\n background: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n}\n\n.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {\n background: transparent;\n}\n\n.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type: none; margin-left: -2em;}\n\n.viewer .button {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];\n}\n\n.viewer blockquote {\n [[ColorPalette::Foeground]];\n}\n\n.viewer table {\n border: 2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n}\n\n.viewer th, thead td {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];\n}\n\n.viewer td, .viewer tr {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n}\n\n.viewer pre {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];\n}\n\n.viewer code {\n color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];\n}\n\n.viewer hr {\n border: 0;\n border-top: solid2px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\n}\n\ {\n background: #ccecff;\n border; 1px;\n}\n\n#mainMenu .highlight, #mainMenu .marked {\n background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];\n}\n\n.highlight, .marked {\n background: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];\n}\n\n.editor input {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n}\n\n.editor textarea {\n border: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];\n width: 100%;\n}\n\n.editorFooter {\n color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];\n}\n\n/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/\n* html .tiddler {\n height: 1%;\n}\n\n[[TagglyTaggingStyles]]\n[[MainMenuStyles]]\n\nbody {\nfont-size: .75em;\nfont-family: bookman old style, garamond antigua, arial, helvetica;\nmargin: 0;\npadding: 0;\n}\n\n#displayArea {\nmargin-left: 205px;\nmargin-right: 3em;\n}\n\nh1, h2, h3, h4, h5 {\nfont-weight: bold;\ntext-decoration: none;\n}\n\nh1 {font-size: 1.35em;}\nh2 {font-size: 1.25em;}\nh3 {font-size: 1.1em;}\nh4 {font-size: 1em;}\nh5 {font-size: .9em;}\n\nhr {\nheight: 1px;\n}\n\na {\ntext-decoration: none;\n}\n\ndt {font-weight: bold;}\n\nol { list-style-type: decimal }\nol ol { list-style-type: lower-alpha }\nol ol ol { list-style-type: lower-roman }\nol ol ol ol { list-style-type: decimal }\nol ol ol ol ol { list-style-type: lower-alpha }\nol ol ol ol ol ol { list-style-type: lower-roman }\nol ol ol ol ol ol ol { list-style-type: decimal }\n\n.txtOptionInput {\nwidth: 11em;\n}\n\n#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {\nborder: 0;\n}\n\n.externalLink {\ntext-decoration: none;\nfont-weight: bold;\n}\n\n.indent {\nmargin-left: 0.5em;\npadding-left: 1.5em;\n}\n\n.outdent {\nmargin-left:3em;\ntext-indent:-3em;\n}\n\ncode.escaped {\nwhite-space:nowrap;\n}\n\n.tiddlyLinkExisting {\nfont-weight: bold;\n}\n\n.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {\nfont-style: italic;\n}\n\n/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler a bold */\na.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {\nfont-weight: bold;\n}\n\n.header {\nposition: relative;\n}\n\n.header a:hover {\n background: transparent;\n}\n\n.headerShadow {\n position: relative;\n padding: 1.5em 0em 1em 1em;\n left: -1px;\n top: -1px;\n}\n\n.headerForeground {\nposition: absolute;\npadding: 1.5em 0em 1em 1em;\nleft: 0px;\ntop: 0px;\n}\n\n.siteTitle {\nfont-size: 3em;\n}\n\n.siteSubtitle {\nfont-size: 1.2em;\n}\n\n.wizard {\npadding: 0.1em 0em 0em 2em;\n}\n\n.wizard h1 {\nfont-size: 2em;\nfont-weight: bold;\nbackground: none;\npadding: 0em 0em 0em 0em;\nmargin: 0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;\n}\n\n.wizard h2 {\nfont-size: 1.2em;\nfont-weight: bold;\nbackground: none;\npadding: 0em 0em 0em 0em;\nmargin: 0.2em 0em 0.2em 0em;\n}\n\n.wizardStep {\npadding: 1em 1em 1em 1em;\n}\n\n.wizard .button {\nmargin: 0.5em 0em 0em 0em;\nfont-size: 1.2em;\n}\n\n#messageArea {\nposition:absolute; top:0; right:0; margin: 0.5em; padding: 0.5em;\n}\n\n*[id='messageArea'] {\nposition:fixed !important; z-index:99;}\n\n.messageToolbar {\ndisplay: block;\ntext-align: right;\n}\n\n#messageArea a{\ntext-decoration: underline;\n}\n\n.popup {\nfont-size: .9em;\npadding: 0.2em;\nlist-style: none;\nmargin: 0;\n}\n\n.popup hr {\ndisplay: block;\nheight: 1px;\nwidth: auto;\npadding: 0;\nmargin: 0.2em 0em;\n}\n\n.listBreak {\nfont-size: 1px;\nline-height: 1px;\n}\n\n.listBreak div {\nmargin: 2px 0;\n}\n\n.popup li.disabled {\npadding: 0.2em;\n}\n\n.popup li a{\ndisplay: block;\npadding: 0.2em;\n}\n\n.tabset {\npadding: 1em 0em 0em 0.5em;\n}\n\ {\nmargin: 0em 0em 0em 0.25em;\npadding: 2px;\n}\n\n.tabContents {\npadding: 0.5em;\n}\n\n.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {\nmargin: 0;\npadding: 0;\n}\n\n.txtMainTab .tabContents li {\nlist-style: none;\n}\n\n.tabContents li.listLink {\n margin-left: .75em;\n}\n\n.toolbar {\ntext-align: right;\nfont-size: .9em;\nvisibility: hidden;\n}\n\n.selected .toolbar {\nvisibility: visible;\n}\n\n.tiddler {\npadding: 1em 1em 0em 1em;\n}\n\n.missing .viewer,.missing .title {\nfont-style: italic;\n}\n\n.title {\nfont-size: 1.6em;\nfont-weight: bold;\npadding-left: 1px;\n}\n\n.missing .subtitle {\ndisplay: none;\n}\n\n.subtitle {\nfont-size: 1.1em;\npadding-left: 2px;\n}\n\n.tiddler .button {\npadding: 0.2em 0.4em;\n}\n\n.tagging {\nmargin: 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0;\nfloat: right;\ndisplay: none;\n}\n\n.isTag .tagging {\ndisplay: block;\n}\n\n.tagged {\nmargin: 0.5em;\n}\n\n.tagging, .tagged {\nfont-size: 0.9em;\npadding: 0.25em;\n}\n\n.tagging ul, .tagged ul {\nlist-style: none;margin: 0.25em;\npadding: 0;\n}\n\n.tagClear {\nclear: both;\n}\n\n.footer {\nfont-size: .9em;\n}\n\n.footer li {\ndisplay: inline;\n}\n\n* html .viewer pre {\nwidth: 99%;\npadding: 0 0 1em 0;\n}\n\n.viewer {\nline-height: 1.4em;\npadding-left: 1em;\n}\n\n.viewer .button {\nmargin: 0em 0.25em;\npadding: 0em 0.25em;\n}\n\n.viewer blockquote {\nmargin-left: 0.5em;\npadding-left: 1.5em;\n}\n\n.viewer ul, .viewer ol{\nmargin-left: 0.5em;\npadding-left: 1.5em;\n}\n\n.viewer li {\nmargin-top: 0.8em;\n}\n\n.viewer table {\nborder-collapse: collapse;\nmargin: 0.5em 0.5em;\n}\n\n.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption{\nvertical-align: top;\npadding: 1px;\n}\n\n.viewer table.listView {\nfont-size: 0.85em;\nmargin: 0.8em 1.0em;\n}\n\n.viewer table.listView th, .viewer table.listView td, .viewer table.listView tr {\npadding: 0px 2px 0px 2px;\n}\n\n.viewer pre {\npadding: 0.2em;\nfont-size: 0.9em;\nline-height: 110%;\noverflow: auto;\n}\n\n.viewer code {\nfont-size: 90%;\n}\n\n.editor {\nfont-size: 1.1em;\n}\n\n.editor input, .editor textarea {\ndisplay: block;\nwidth: 100%;\nfont: inherit;\n}\n\n.editorFooter {\npadding: 0.25em 0em;\nfont-size: .9em;\n}\n\n.editorFooter .button {\npadding-top: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px;}\n\n.fieldsetFix {border: 0;\npadding: 0;\nmargin: 1px 0px 1px 0px;\n}\n\n.sparkline {\nline-height: 1em;\n}\n\n.sparktick {\noutline: 0;\n}\n\n.zoomer {\nfont-size: 1.1em;\nposition: absolute;\npadding: 1em;\n}\n\n.cascade {\nfont-size: 1.1em;\nposition: absolute;\noverflow: hidden;\n}\n/*}}}*/\n
<<<\n"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:\n* the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and\n* the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."\n>> //From [[Our Common Future: Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development|]]//\n<<<\nIt was [[Our Common Future]] - formally known as the ''Report of the World Commission on Environment & Development'', and also known as the ''Brundtland Report'' after the Chair of the Commission, ''Gro Harlem Brundtland'' - that put the concept of sustainable development on the global agenda. ''Our Common Future'' broke new ground in several key areas:\n* it brought into focus the extent of the interrelationships between economic development and the natural environment and the need to adopt a holistic perspective\n* it emphasized the critical importance of the participation of all major groups in society into deliberations on policies and the the implementation of sustainable development;\n* it articulated the critical need for a global transition to a new model of economic development and the transition to a sustainable development path.\n<<<\n"''The Interlocking Crises''\n\nUntil recently, the planet was a large world in which human activities and their effects were neatly compartmentalized within nations, within sectors (energy, agriculture, trade), and within broad areas of concern (environment, economics, social). These compartments have begun to dissolve. This applies in particular to the various global 'crises' that have seized public concern, particularly over the past decade. These are not separate crises: an environmental crisis, a development crisis, an energy crisis. They are all one."\n>> //From [[Our Common Future, From One Earth to One World|]]//\n<<<\n[[Our Common Future]] served as a key foundation for the 1992 ''United Nations Conference on Environment and Development'' - also known as the ''Earth Summit'' - that was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992, and that led to the adoption of the [[Rio Declaration on Environment and Development]], [[Agenda 21]], the [[Convention on Biodiversity]] and the [[Framework Convention on Climate Change]]. Since the ''Earth Summit'', the concept and vision of sustainable development has come to play a central role in both international negotiations and in the development and implementation of national and local policies and practices relating to economic and social development and to the environment.\n
Sylvan M. Barnet, Jr. has had 60 years of experience in international communications in the fields of publishing, public relations, advertising and government. He is a graduate of Yale University and the U. S. Naval War College. In publishing, he was at the U.S. News & World Report and was Publisher of the International Herald Tribune in Paris and New York. In public relations, Mr. Barnet was Chairman of International Public Relations and Vice President of Public Relations for American Airlines. He was Director of the U.S. Travel Service, Department of Commerce and Executive Director of the International Advertising Association. \n\nMr. Barnet had been the representative for Rotary International since 1988. At Rotary International he has served as Vice Chair, Rhode Island Committee for U. N. Delegation and Diplomatic Relations and a member of the Rhode Island Diplomatic Protocol Committee. His United Nations experience includes Past Chair of the ~Non-Governmental Organizations Executive Committee, DPI, of the NGO Committees on Sustainable Development and Population and Development. He is the founder of the NGO Committee on Education, Chair of the Advisory Council, United Nations Association, NY, and a member of the National Council, ~UNA-USA.
/***\n|Name|''TabEdit''|h\n|Author|[[Saq Imtiaz]]|\n|Version|0.32|\n|Description|Makes editing of tabs easier.|\n|Source||\n|TW Version|2.x|\n***/\n/***\n!Usage\n*Double click a tab to edit the source tiddler\n*Double click outside the tabset to edit the containing tiddler. \n\n!Demo\nTestTabs\n\n!History\n*28-04-06, v0.32 - fixed previous bug fix!\n*27-04-06, v0.31 - fixed conflicts with tabs created using PartTiddler.\n*26-04-06, v0.30 - first public release\n\n***/\n\n//{{{\n\n//tab on double click event handler\nStory.prototype.onTabDblClick = function(e){\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);\n var title= this.getAttribute("source");\n if ((version.extensions.PartTiddlerPlugin)&&(title.indexOf("/")!=-1))\n {if (!, [title]))\n {return false;}} \n story.displayTiddler(theTarget,title,2,false,null)\n e.cancelBubble = true;\n if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();\n return false;\n }\n\nconfig.macros.tabs.switchTab = function(tabset,tab)\n{\nvar cookie = tabset.getAttribute("cookie");\nvar theTab = null\nvar nodes = tabset.childNodes;\nfor(var t=0; t<nodes.length; t++)\nif(nodes[t].getAttribute && nodes[t].getAttribute("tab") == tab)\n{\ntheTab = nodes[t];\ntheTab.className = "tab tabSelected";\n}\nelse\nnodes[t].className = "tab tabUnselected"\nif(theTab)\n{\nif(tabset.nextSibling && tabset.nextSibling.className == "tabContents")\ntabset.parentNode.removeChild(tabset.nextSibling);\nvar tabContent = createTiddlyElement(null,"div",null,"tabContents",null);\ntabset.parentNode.insertBefore(tabContent,tabset.nextSibling);\nvar contentTitle = theTab.getAttribute("content");\n\n //set source attribute equal to title of tiddler displayed in tab\ntabContent.setAttribute("source",contentTitle);\n//add dbl click event\ntabContent.ondblclick = story.onTabDblClick;\n\nwikify(store.getTiddlerText(contentTitle),tabContent,null,store.getTiddler(contentTitle));\nif(cookie)\n{\nconfig.options[cookie] = tab;\nsaveOptionCookie(cookie);\n}\n}\n}\n\n//}}}
<<tabs txtMoreTab Missing 'Missing tiddlers' TabMoreMissing Orphans 'Orphaned tiddlers' TabMoreOrphans Shadowed 'Shadowed tiddlers' TabMoreShadowed>>
<<list shadowed>>
|''Phenomena^^a^^ and direction of trend'' [WGI SPM] |''Likelihood of future trend based on projections for 21st century using SRES scenarios'' [WGI SPM] |>|>|>| ''Examples of major projected impacts by sector'' |\n| | |''Agriculture, forestry and ecosystems'' [4.4, 5.4] |''Water resources'' [3.4] |''Human health'' [8.2] |''Industry/settlement/ Society'' [7.4] |\n|Warmer and fewer cold days and nights; warmer/more frequent hot days and nights over most land areas |Virtually certain^^b^^ |Increased yields in colder environments; decreased yields in warmer environments; increased insect outbreaks |Effects on water resources relying on snow melt; increased evapotranspiration rates |Reduced human mortality from decreased cold exposure |Reduced energy demand for heating; increased demand for cooling; declining air quality in cities; reduced disruption to transport due to snow, ice; effects on winter tourism |\n|Warm spells/heat waves: frequency increases over most land areas |Very likely |Reduced yields in warmer regions due to heat stress; wild fire danger increase |Increased water demand; water quality problems, e.g., algal blooms |Increased risk of heat-related mortality, especially for the elderly, chronically sick, very young and socially-isolated |Reduction in quality of life for people in warm areas without appropriate housing; impacts on elderly, very young and poor. |\n|Heavy precipitation events: frequency increases over most areas |Very likely |Damage to crops; soil erosion, inability to cultivate land due to water logging of soils |Adverse effects on quality of surface and groundwater; contamination of water supply; water scarcity may be relieved |Increased risk of deaths, injuries, infectious, respiratory and skin diseases, post-traumatic stress disorders |Disruption of settlements, commerce, transport and societies due to flooding; pressures on urban and rural infrastructures |\n|Area affected by drought: increases |Likely |Land degradation, lower yields/crop damage and failure; increased livestock deaths; increased risk of wildfire |More widespread water stress |Increased risk of food and water shortage; increased risk of malnutrition; increased risk of water- and food-borne diseases |Water shortages for settlements, industry and societies; reduced hydropower generation potentials; potential for population migration |\n|Intense tropical cyclone activity increases |Likely |Damage to crops; windthrow (uprooting) of trees; damage to coral reefs |Power outages cause disruption of public water supply |Increased risk of deaths, injuries, water- and food-borne diseases; post-traumatic stress disorders |Disruption by flood and high winds; withdrawal of risk coverage in vulnerable areas by private insurers, potential for population migrations |\n|Increased incidence of extreme high sea level (excludes tsunamis)^^c^^ |Likely^^d^^ |Salinisation of irrigation water, estuaries and freshwater systems |Decreased freshwater availability due to saltwater intrusion |Increased risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods; migration-related health effects |Costs of coastal protection versus costs of land-use relocation; potential for movement of populations and infrastructure; also see tropical cyclones above|\n<<<\na See Working Group I Fourth Assessment Table 3.7 for definitions\n\nb Warming of the most extreme days and nights each year\n\nc Extreme high sea level depends on average sea level and on regional weather systems. It is defined as the highest 1% of hourly values of observed sea level at a station for a given reference period\n\nd In all scenarios, the projected global average sea level at 2100 is higher than in the reference period [Working Group I Fourth Assessment 10.6]. The effect of changes in regional weather systems on sea level extremes has not been assessed.\n<<<
/***\n| Name:|''tagAdder''|\n| Created by:|SaqImtiaz|\n| Location:||\n| Version:|0.61 (07 Apr-2006)|\n| Requires:|~TW2.07|\n!About\n*provides a drop down list for toggling tags \n*you can specify which tags to list, and have multiple drop downs with different tag lists.\n\n!Demonstration\n<<tagAdder>>\n{{{<<tagAdder>>}}}\n\n''I recommend using either tagAdder or monkeyTagger, with dropTags and dropTagging in the toolbar:''\n\n\n!Installation:\n*Copy this tiddler to your TW with the systemConfig tag\n* copy the following to your ViewTemplate:\n#either {{{\n<div class='tagged' macro='tagAdder'></div>\n}}} to add to next to the tags macro in the viewer area, or\n#{{{<div class='toolbar' >\n<span style="padding-right:1.75em;" macro='tagAdder'></span>\n<span macro='toolbar -closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler permalink references jump'></span></div>}}} to add to the toolbar.\n(adjust padding to taste)\n\n!Usage:\n*by default {{{<<tagAdder>>}}} will display drop down list of all tags, with tags present on the tiddler grouped together.\n*to sort alphabetically (ignoring the [x]), use {{{<<tagAdder 'nogroup'>>}}}\n*to specify what tags to list, use {{{<<tagAdder 'group/nogroup' 'tiddler'>>}}} where tiddler is a tiddler that is tagged with the tags you want to list. (use one of either group or no group, not both!)\nEg: TagDataBase is my tiddler that is tagged with the tags I want to list, so I will use {{{<<tagAdder 'group' 'TagDataBase'>>}}}\n for a list like this: <<tagAdder 'group' 'TagDataBase'>>\n*you can specify a custom label by giving the macro an additional parameter.\nEg: {{{<<tagAdder 'group' 'TagDataBase' 'custom label'>>}}} gives <<tagAdder 'group' 'TagDataBase' 'custom label'>>\n\n!Tips:\n*On the tiddler you want to use as your TagsDataBase, add {{{<<tagAdder>>}}} for a drop down list of all tags, so you can easily toggle tags on it!\n*You can have as many TagDataBases as you like.\n\n!Notes:\n*use css to style to taste\n*tags to be removed are preceded by [x]\n\n!To Do:\n*Combine with features of normal tags drop down list.(drop tag macro)\n*TagsDB manager\n*''add exclude tag feature''\n\n!History\n*07 Apr-2006, version 0.61\n**fixed IE bug with not returning false \n\n!CODE\n***/\n//{{{\n\nconfig.macros.tagAdder= {};\n//config.macros.tagAdder.dropdownchar = (document.all?"▼":"▾"); // the fat one is the only one that works in IE\nconfig.macros.tagAdder.dropdownchar = "▼"; // uncomment previous line and comment this for smaller version in FF\nconfig.macros.tagAdder.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)\n{\n var arrow=': '+ config.macros.tagAdder.dropdownchar;\n var tAsort = (params[0] && params[0] !='.') ? params[0]: 'group';\n if (params[1]){var tAsource=params[1]};\n if ((tAsource)&&(!store.getTiddler(tAsource)))\n return false;\n var tAlabel= (params[2] && params[2] !='.')? params[2]: 'toggle tags'+arrow;\n var tAtooltip= (params[2] && params[2] !='.')? params[2]: 'toggle tags on this tiddler';\n\n if(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)\n {\n var title = tiddler.title;\n var lingo = config.views.editor.tagChooser;\n \n var ontagclick = function(e) {\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var tag = this.getAttribute("tag");\n\n var t=store.getTiddler(title);\n if (!t || !t.tags) return;\n if (t.tags.find(tag)==null)\n {t.tags.push(tag)}\n else\n {t.tags.splice(t.tags.find(tag),1)};\n story.saveTiddler(title);\n story.refreshTiddler(title,null,true);\n return false;\n };\n\n var onclick = function(e) {\n if (!e) var e = window.event;\n var popup = Popup.create(this);\n var t=store.getTiddler(title);\n if (!t) return false;\n var tagsarray = store.getTags();\n var tagsvalue=new Array();\n\n for (var i=0; i<tagsarray.length; i++){\n var thetagonly= (tagsarray[i][0]);\n tagsvalue.push(thetagonly);}\n\n if (tAsource)\n {var sourcetiddler=store.getTiddler(tAsource);\n var tagsvalue=sourcetiddler.tags;\n }\n var tagslabel=new Array();\n var tagssorted=new Array();\n\n for (var i=0;i<tagsvalue.length;i++){\n var temptag=(tagsvalue[i]);\n if (t.tags.find(temptag)==null)\n {var temptagx = '[ ] '+temptag;\n tagslabel.push(temptagx);\n tagssorted.push(temptag);\n }\n else\n {var temptagx ='[x] '+temptag;\n if (tAsort=='group'){\n tagslabel.unshift(temptagx);\n tagssorted.unshift(temptag);}\n else if (tAsort=='nogroup'){\n tagslabel.push(temptagx);\n tagssorted.push(temptag);} }\n ;}\n\n\n if(tagsvalue.length == 0)\n createTiddlyText(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),lingo.popupNone);\n for (var t=0; t<tagsvalue.length; t++)\n {\n var theTag = createTiddlyButton(createTiddlyElement(popup,"li"),tagslabel[t],"toggle '"+([tagssorted[t]])+"'",ontagclick);\n theTag.setAttribute("tag",tagssorted[t]);\n }\n,false);\n e.cancelBubble = true;\n if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();\n return(false);\n };\n //createTiddlyButton(place,tAlabel,tAtooltip,onclick);\nvar createdropperButton = function(place){\nvar sp = createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"tagadderbutton");\nvar theDropDownBtn = createTiddlyButton(sp,tAlabel,tAtooltip,onclick);\n};\n\ncreatedropperButton(place);\n}\n};\nsetStylesheet(\n ".toolbar .tagadderbutton { margin-right:0em; border:0px solid #eee; padding:0px; padding-right:0px; padding-left:0px; }\sn"+\n ".tagadderbutton a.button { padding:2px; padding-left:2px; padding-right:2px;}\sn"+\n// ".tagadderbutton {font-size:150%;}\sn"+\n "",\n"TagAdderStyles");\n\n//}}}\n\n
/***\n| Name:|TagglyTaggingPlugin|\n| Description:|tagglyTagging macro is a replacement for the builtin tagging macro in your ViewTemplate|\n| Version:|6.1.5|\n| Date:|05-Oct-2006|\n| Source:||\n| Author:|Simon Baird <>|\n| CoreVersion:|2.1.x|\n!!See also:\n* [[1. What is TagglyTagging?]] \n* [[2. What's different about TagglyTagging?]] \n* [[3. Why use TagglyTagging?]] \n* [[4. How do I install it?]]\n* [[5. Where did it come from?]] \n!!Notes\nSee\n***/\n//{{{\nconfig.taggly = {\n\n // for translations\n lingo: {\n labels: {\n asc: "\su2191", // down arrow\n desc: "\su2193", // up arrow\n title: "title",\n modified: "modified",\n created: "created",\n show: "+",\n hide: "-",\n normal: "normal",\n group: "group",\n commas: "commas",\n sitemap: "sitemap",\n numCols: "cols\su00b1", // plus minus sign\n label: "Tagged as '%0':"\n },\n\n tooltips: {\n title: "Click to sort by title",\n modified: "Click to sort by modified date",\n created: "Click to sort by created date",\n show: "Click to show tagging list",\n hide: "Click to hide tagging list",\n normal: "Click to show a normal ungrouped list",\n group: "Click to show list grouped by tag",\n sitemap: "Click to show a sitemap style list",\n commas: "Click to show a comma separated list",\n numCols: "Click to change number of columns"\n }\n },\n\n config: {\n showTaggingCounts: true,\n listOpts: {\n // the first one will be the default\n sortBy: ["title","modified","created"],\n sortOrder: ["asc","desc"],\n hideState: ["show","hide"],\n listMode: ["normal","group","sitemap","commas"],\n numCols: ["1","2","3","4","5","6"]\n },\n valuePrefix: "taggly."\n },\n\n getTagglyOpt: function(title,opt) {\n var val = store.getValue(title,this.config.valuePrefix+opt);\n return val ? val : this.config.listOpts[opt][0];\n },\n\n setTagglyOpt: function(title,opt,value) {\n if (!store.tiddlerExists(title))\n // create it silently\n store.saveTiddler(title,title,config.views.editor.defaultText.format([title]),config.options.txtUserName,new Date(),null);\n // if value is default then remove it to save space\n return store.setValue(title,\n this.config.valuePrefix+opt,\n value == this.config.listOpts[opt][0] ? null : value);\n },\n\n getNextValue: function(title,opt) {\n var current = this.getTagglyOpt(title,opt);\n var pos = this.config.listOpts[opt].indexOf(current);\n // a little usability enhancement. actually it doesn't work right for grouped or sitemap\n var limit = (opt == "numCols" ? store.getTaggedTiddlers(title).length : this.config.listOpts[opt].length);\n var newPos = (pos + 1) % limit;\n return this.config.listOpts[opt][newPos];\n },\n\n toggleTagglyOpt: function(title,opt) {\n var newVal = this.getNextValue(title,opt);\n this.setTagglyOpt(title,opt,newVal);\n }, \n\n createListControl: function(place,title,type) {\n var lingo = config.taggly.lingo;\n var label;\n var tooltip;\n var onclick;\n\n if ((type == "title" || type == "modified" || type == "created")) {\n // "special" controls. a little tricky. derived from sortOrder and sortBy\n label = lingo.labels[type];\n tooltip = lingo.tooltips[type];\n\n if (this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortBy") == type) {\n label += lingo.labels[this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder")];\n onclick = function() {\n config.taggly.toggleTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder");\n return false;\n }\n }\n else {\n onclick = function() {\n config.taggly.setTagglyOpt(title,"sortBy",type);\n config.taggly.setTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder",config.taggly.config.listOpts.sortOrder[0]);\n return false;\n }\n }\n }\n else {\n // "regular" controls, nice and simple\n label = lingo.labels[type == "numCols" ? type : this.getNextValue(title,type)];\n tooltip = lingo.tooltips[type == "numCols" ? type : this.getNextValue(title,type)];\n onclick = function() {\n config.taggly.toggleTagglyOpt(title,type);\n return false;\n }\n }\n\n // hide button because commas don't have columns\n if (!(this.getTagglyOpt(title,"listMode") == "commas" && type == "numCols"))\n createTiddlyButton(place,label,tooltip,onclick,type == "hideState" ? "hidebutton" : "button");\n },\n\n makeColumns: function(orig,numCols) {\n var listSize = orig.length;\n var colSize = listSize/numCols;\n var remainder = listSize % numCols;\n\n var upperColsize = colSize;\n var lowerColsize = colSize;\n\n if (colSize != Math.floor(colSize)) {\n // it's not an exact fit so..\n upperColsize = Math.floor(colSize) + 1;\n lowerColsize = Math.floor(colSize);\n }\n\n var output = [];\n var c = 0;\n for (var j=0;j<numCols;j++) {\n var singleCol = [];\n var thisSize = j < remainder ? upperColsize : lowerColsize;\n for (var i=0;i<thisSize;i++) \n singleCol.push(orig[c++]);\n output.push(singleCol);\n }\n\n return output;\n },\n\n drawTable: function(place,columns,theClass) {\n var newTable = createTiddlyElement(place,"table",null,theClass);\n var newTbody = createTiddlyElement(newTable,"tbody");\n var newTr = createTiddlyElement(newTbody,"tr");\n for (var j=0;j<columns.length;j++) {\n var colOutput = "";\n for (var i=0;i<columns[j].length;i++) \n colOutput += columns[j][i];\n var newTd = createTiddlyElement(newTr,"td",null,"tagglyTagging"); // todo should not need this class\n wikify(colOutput,newTd);\n }\n return newTable;\n },\n\n createTagglyList: function(place,title) {\n switch(this.getTagglyOpt(title,"listMode")) {\n case "group": return this.createTagglyListGrouped(place,title); break;\n case "normal": return this.createTagglyListNormal(place,title,false); break;\n case "commas": return this.createTagglyListNormal(place,title,true); break;\n case "sitemap":return this.createTagglyListSiteMap(place,title); break;\n }\n },\n\n getTaggingCount: function(title) {\n // thanks to Doug Edmunds\n if (this.config.showTaggingCounts) {\n var tagCount = store.getTaggedTiddlers(title).length;\n if (tagCount > 0)\n return " ("+tagCount+")";\n }\n return "";\n },\n\n // this is for normal and commas mode\n createTagglyListNormal: function(place,title,useCommas) {\n\n var list = store.getTaggedTiddlers(title,this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortBy"));\n\n if (this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder") == "desc")\n list = list.reverse();\n\n var output = [];\n for (var i=0;i<list.length;i++) {\n var countString = this.getTaggingCount(list[i].title);\n if (useCommas)\n output.push((i > 0 ? ", " : "") + "[[" + list[i].title + "]]" + countString);\n else\n output.push("*[[" + list[i].title + "]]" + countString + "\sn");\n }\n\n return this.drawTable(place,\n this.makeColumns(output,useCommas ? 1 : parseInt(this.getTagglyOpt(title,"numCols"))),\n useCommas ? "commas" : "normal");\n },\n\n // this is for the "grouped" mode\n createTagglyListGrouped: function(place,title) {\n var sortBy = this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortBy");\n var sortOrder = this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder");\n\n var list = store.getTaggedTiddlers(title,sortBy);\n\n if (sortOrder == "desc")\n list = list.reverse();\n\n var leftOvers = []\n for (var i=0;i<list.length;i++)\n leftOvers.push(list[i].title);\n\n var allTagsHolder = {};\n for (var i=0;i<list.length;i++) {\n for (var j=0;j<list[i].tags.length;j++) {\n\n if (list[i].tags[j] != title) { // not this tiddler\n\n if (!allTagsHolder[list[i].tags[j]])\n allTagsHolder[list[i].tags[j]] = "";\n\n allTagsHolder[list[i].tags[j]] += "**[["+list[i].title+"]]"\n + this.getTaggingCount(list[i].title) + "\sn";\n leftOvers.setItem(list[i].title,-1); // remove from leftovers. at the end it will contain the leftovers\n }\n }\n }\n\n var allTags = [];\n for (var t in allTagsHolder)\n allTags.push(t);\n\n var sortHelper = function(a,b) {\n if (a == b) return 0;\n if (a < b) return -1;\n return 1;\n };\n\n allTags.sort(function(a,b) {\n var tidA = store.getTiddler(a);\n var tidB = store.getTiddler(b);\n if (sortBy == "title") return sortHelper(a,b);\n else if (!tidA && !tidB) return 0;\n else if (!tidA) return -1;\n else if (!tidB) return +1;\n else return sortHelper(tidA[sortBy],tidB[sortBy]);\n });\n\n var leftOverOutput = "";\n for (var i=0;i<leftOvers.length;i++)\n leftOverOutput += "*[["+leftOvers[i]+"]]" + this.getTaggingCount(leftOvers[i]) + "\sn";\n\n var output = [];\n\n if (sortOrder == "desc")\n allTags.reverse();\n else if (leftOverOutput != "")\n // leftovers first...\n output.push(leftOverOutput);\n\n for (var i=0;i<allTags.length;i++)\n output.push("*[["+allTags[i]+"]]" + this.getTaggingCount(leftOvers[i]) + "\sn" + allTagsHolder[allTags[i]]);\n\n if (sortOrder == "desc" && leftOverOutput != "")\n // leftovers last...\n output.push(leftOverOutput);\n\n return this.drawTable(place,\n this.makeColumns(output,parseInt(this.getTagglyOpt(title,"numCols"))),\n "grouped");\n\n },\n\n // used to build site map\n treeTraverse: function(title,depth,sortBy,sortOrder) {\n\n var list = store.getTaggedTiddlers(title,sortBy);\n if (sortOrder == "desc")\n list.reverse();\n\n var indent = "";\n for (var j=0;j<depth;j++)\n indent += "*"\n\n var childOutput = "";\n for (var i=0;i<list.length;i++)\n if (list[i].title != title)\n childOutput += this.treeTraverse(list[i].title,depth+1,sortBy,sortOrder);\n\n if (depth == 0)\n return childOutput;\n else\n return indent + "[["+title+"]]" + this.getTaggingCount(title) + "\sn"+childOutput;\n },\n\n // this if for the site map mode\n createTagglyListSiteMap: function(place,title) {\n var output = this.treeTraverse(title,0,this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortBy"),this.getTagglyOpt(title,"sortOrder"));\n return this.drawTable(place,\n this.makeColumns(output.split(/(?=^\s*\s[)/m),parseInt(this.getTagglyOpt(title,"numCols"))), // regexp magic\n "sitemap"\n );\n },\n\n macros: {\n tagglyTagging: {\n handler: function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {\n var refreshContainer = createTiddlyElement(place,"div");\n // do some refresh magic to make it keep the list fresh - thanks Saq\n refreshContainer.setAttribute("refresh","macro");\n refreshContainer.setAttribute("macroName",macroName);\n refreshContainer.setAttribute("title",tiddler.title);\n this.refresh(refreshContainer);\n },\n\n refresh: function(place) {\n var title = place.getAttribute("title");\n removeChildren(place);\n if (store.getTaggedTiddlers(title).length > 0) {\n var lingo = config.taggly.lingo;\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"hideState");\n if (config.taggly.getTagglyOpt(title,"hideState") == "show") {\n createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"tagglyLabel",lingo.labels.label.format([title]));\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"title");\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"modified");\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"created");\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"listMode");\n config.taggly.createListControl(place,title,"numCols");\n config.taggly.createTagglyList(place,title);\n }\n }\n }\n }\n },\n\n // todo fix these up a bit\n styles: \n"/*{{{*/\sn"+\n"/* created by TagglyTaggingPlugin */\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging { padding-top:0.5em; }\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging li.listTitle { display:none; }\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging ul {\sn"+\n" margin-top:0px; padding-top:0.5em; padding-left:2em;\sn"+\n" margin-bottom:0px; padding-bottom:0px;\sn"+\n"}\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging { vertical-align: top; margin:0px; padding:0px; }\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging table { margin:0px; padding:0px; }\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging .button { display:none; margin-left:3px; margin-right:3px; }\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging .button, .tagglyTagging .hidebutton {\sn"+\n" color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; font-size:90%;\sn"+\n" border:0px; padding-left:0.3em;padding-right:0.3em;\sn"+\n"}\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging .button:hover, .hidebutton:hover {\sn"+\n" background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];\sn"+\n"}\sn"+\n".selected .tagglyTagging .button {\sn"+\n" display:inline;\sn"+\n"}\sn"+\n".tagglyTagging .hidebutton { color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; }\sn"+\n".selected .tagglyTagging .hidebutton { color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]] }\sn"+\n".tagglyLabel { color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; 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From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Content and methods\n''Recommendation No. 12''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering//:\n* that the separate disciplines which may bear on environmental issues are often taught in isolation from each other and may tend to neglect or pay insufficient attention to environmental problems,\n* that separate as well as interdisciplinary approaches both have important parts to play, depending on situations, learning groups and age levels,\n* that teaching methods for either type of approach are still in the process of development,\n* that the incorporation of environmental education into existing curricula or teaching programmes is often slow,\n* that the criteria on which to base the content of environmental education programmes and curricula are also in need of further development,\n* that socio-economic conditions determine different educational aspects,\n* that historic and cultural landscapes and situations also demand special consideration,\n* that particular sections of the community, such as farmers, rural inhabitants, managers, industrial workers and parents, need specially adapted environmental education programmes,\n* that in most if not all programmes and curricula, the teaching of ecological concepts plays a fundamentally important role,\n* that interdisciplinary approaches are essential for the enhancement of environmental education,\n* that interdisciplinary approaches cannot be achieved without the active participation of teachers,\n* that the interdisciplinary or integrated approaches cannot be effectively implemented without the simultaneous development of instructional materials,\n* that environmental education should preferably be oriented towards the solution of problems (problem-solving approach) and be concerned with opportunities for action (action-oriented approach),\n* that research relevant to these different approaches, aspects and methods is needed, to provide a sound basis for the development of environmental curricula and programmes,\n* that institutions for such research variously require establishment, development or support,\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* that the relevant authorities initiate, continue and strengthen - as circumstances may require -their efforts for incorporation of environmental issues in the various disciplines and subjects of the formal education system;\n* that educational and training institutions should have the necessary flexibility to enable them to include appropriate aspects of environmental education within existing curricula and to create new environmental curricula that meet the requirements of an interdisciplinary approach and methodology;\n* that relevant authorities work out criteria on which to base the environmental content of the curricula to be offered to pupils and students according to individual needs and taking into account local, social, occupational and other factors;\n* that within the framework of individual systems, encouragement and support might be provided for subject disciplines to identify and give priority to their special contribution to environmental education; and for those responsible for the planning and carrying out of programmes of general and vocational education to encourage that through interdepartmental collaboration and co-ordination, environmental aims and objectives are adequately served;\n* that they examine the potential of appropriate institutions to carry out research into the development of curricula and programmes in environmental education and encourage necessary initiatives, including institutional co-operation;\n* that responsible authorities support curriculum development as it relates to particular situations such as exist in urban areas, rural areas and areas of social, historical and cultural importance, and to the needs of particular groups such as farmers, industrial workers and parents;\n* that institutions engaged in the development of curricula, teaching programmes and materials for environmental education study the problems linked with single subject, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches respectively; consider the suitability of each approach to different situations and learning groups; and identify the potentially most effective contributions of, for example, the natural sciences, the social sciences and technology;\n* that in all approaches full and adequate emphasis is given to the teaching of ecological concepts, to the systems of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere and to relevant socio-economic aspects;\n* that relevant institutions be encouraged to concern themselves with programmes of initial and in-service training for teachers, in the production of materials and the dissemination of information;\n* that research and development programmes should preferably be problem- and action-oriented;\n* that in areas of special significance for the historical and cultural heritage, policies of environmental education should be accompanied by positive strategies for socio-economic development.\n''Recommendation No. 13''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering//:\n* that universities - as centres for research, teaching and training of qualified personnel for the nation - must be increasingly available to undertake research concerning environmental education and to train experts in formal and non-formal education, and\n* that environmental education in colleges and universities will become increasingly different from traditional education and will teach students essential basic knowledge for work in their future profession, which will benefit their environment,\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* to review the present potential of the universities for conducting research, especially fundamental research, concerning environmental education;\n* to encourage acceptance of the fact that, besides subject-oriented environmental education, interdisciplinary treatment of the basic problems of the interrelationships between people and their environment is necessary for students in all fields, not only natural and technical sciences but also social sciences and arts, because the relationships between nature, technology and society mark and determine the development of a society;\n* to develop different teaching aids and textbooks on the theoretical bases of environmental protection for all special fields to be written by leading scientists as soon as possible;\n* to develop close co-operation between different university institutions (departments, faculties, etc.) with the specific objective of training experts in environmental education;\n* such co-operation might assume different forms in line with the structure of university education in each country, but should combine contributions from physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, geography, socio-economic studies, ethics, education sciences, and aesthetic education, etc.\n''Recommendation No. 14''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n\nThat curricula for those undertaking vocational technical education should include information about the environmental changes which result from the sort of work they will do. Vocational education so modified should promote increased awareness of the relationship between people and their social, physical and cultural environment, and foster a desire to improve the environment through influencing decision-making processes;\n\nThat emphasis should be given in vocational technical education to:\n* environmental implications for workers in each vocation;\n* the collective effects of related vocations upon the environment. These objectives could be achieved:\n* by incorporating environmental objectives into in-service training for those already at work; and\n* by fully integrating environmental issues from the beginning of vocational technical education.\n//Invites// Unesco:\n\nTo undertake, in co-operation with UNEP and other relevant United Nations bodies, appropriate measures to ensure that environmental education will receive adequate attention in the field of vocational training, particularly in the preparation of their programmes.\n\n''Recommendation No. 15''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that the work environment constitutes a local environment, influencing those affected by it physically as well as socially and psychologically,\n\n//Regarding// the work environment as a natural learning situation for a major part of the adult population and consequently as an excellent starting point for adult environmental education,\n\n//Considering// that the universal importance of the work environment makes it desirable to introduce this aspect of environmental education in primary and secondary schools as well as in further and adult education,\n\n//Recalling// the work already done by the International Labour Organisation in this field,\n\n//Recommends// that Member States adopt the following objectives as guidelines for their policies concerning education on the work environment:\n* students in primary and secondary education should be provided with a general knowledge of the work environment and its problems;\n* education for specific trades and professions should include education concerning the work environment of the particular trade or profession, including information about medical standards for permissible levels of environmental pollution, noise, vibration, radiation and other factors affecting people and also about the system of measures for monitoring their enforcement. Continuing education on this aspect should also be made available;\n* decision-makers, consultants and other key persons influencing the working environment should be educated so as to become aware of the problems of the work environment, suggest solutions and ways to implement them. They, too, should be given the possibility of specialization and further education;\n* education should be offered to workers, giving them the possibility of acquiring such knowledge about the work environment as is relevant to their job;\n* persons assigned to teaching others about the problems of the work environment should be given an appropriate education.\n''Recommendation No. 16''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the great potential of consumers to influence indirectly through their individual and collective consumption behaviour the impact of consumption on the environment and on the use of the world's natural resources,\n\n//Considering// further that those who produce and advertise goods are responsible for direct and indirect impact on the environment,\n\n//Recognizing// the great influence of the mass media on consumer behaviour, especially through commercial programmes and advertisements,\n\n//Considering//, lastly, the growing interest shown by consumers' organizations and the important role they can have in educating consumers about environmentally detrimental behaviour and wasteful use of consumer goods,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* that they encourage national consumer organizations and producers and consumers in general to give more attention to environmentally detrimental consumption behaviour and the possible harmful and wasteful use of consumer goods; in particular consumers should be made conscious of the mechanisms available for influencing the production of such goods;\n* that they encourage the mass media to be conscious of their educational role in forming consumption behaviour, so as to avoid encouraging the consumption of goods which are detrimental to the environment;\n* that the appropriate educational authorities encourage the inclusion of such aspects in the programmes of formal and non-formal education.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Dissemination of information\n''Recommendation No. 20''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// it beyond doubt that the dissemination of specialized and general knowledge on the environment and the development of public awareness of the need for a correct approach to the complex problems of the environment are of tremendous and possibly crucial importance, both for further economic development and rational use of the earth's resources for the good of individual nations and of humanity as a whole,\n\n//Recognizing// the important role of governments in many countries in the design, execution and development of environmental education programmes,\n\n//Recognizing// the importance of the mass media for environmental education in both formal and non-formal education,\n\n(a) ''Environmental information programmes and strategies''\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that they envisage a public information campaign on nationally and regionally relevant environmental problems, such as fresh water, to promote the general education of the public, and to be conducted over the next few years by the various Member States acting as far as possible in a concerted fashion;\n\n//Recommends// that governments support non-formal environmental education activities conducted by institutions and associations, including youth organizations;\n\n//Recommends// that governments set up or encourage the setting up of formal and non-formal environmental education programmes, and in so doing use existing bodies and organizations if possible (both public and private); develop the exchange of relevant material and information between public bodies and private organizations concerned with environmental education in the formal and non-formal education sector;\n\n//Recommends// that Member States implement and develop environmental education programmes for all sectors of the population, associating in them, as appropriate, the non-governmental organizations concerned;\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco that it take initiative with other Specialized Agencies of the United Nations system involved in environmental education programmes to establish procedures for achieving greater co-ordination in this field;\n\n//Recommends// to the Member States that they encourage and develop the organization of museums and exhibitions in order to increase public awareness of environmental issues and environmental education;\n\n//Invites// the Director-General of Unesco to encourage more effective dissemination among Member States of information about environmental education activities, the results achieved and the possibilities for putting them into effect;\n\n(b) ''Environmental information through mass media''\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that they encourage the dissemination of knowledge about the protection and improvement of the environment by means of press, radio and television;\n\n//Recommends// that Member States organize training courses for journalists, newspaper editors, radio and television producers and other appropriate mass media personnel, which will enable them to deal properly with environmental issues and education, and to exchange among countries, programmes and films dealing with environmental issues;\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that the planning and co-ordination of environmental education programmes provide for suitable measures to ensure their reaching broad sectors of the urban and rural population not included in formal education, by means, for example, of the mass media and with the participation of social organizations;\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco, in co-operation with UNEP, that it encourage //national, regional and international organizations// to establish a network for the exchange of information on mass media materials for environmental education for each region.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Environmental education for the general public\n''Recommendation No. 9''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the need for environmental education programmes which introduce awareness among the general public of its own environment and the dangers to which it may be exposed,\n\n//Realizing// the importance of active participation of the general public in solving the environmental problems of contemporary society,\n\n//Invites// the Director-General of Unesco to work out model programmes of environmental education for the general public with a view to providing citizens with adequate background of knowledge and information, enabling them to take part in decisions concerning their environment; and\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that environmental education strategies in their countries include the preparation of programmes which provide information on present or planned activities with major potential impact on the environment. Such programmes should stress the importance of participation by the general public and non-governmental organizations in the relevant decision-making process. The programmes should present possible solutions to the problems in question and aim at developing a responsible attitude in participants.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!! Environmental education of professionals\n''Recommendation No. 10''\n\nThe Conference //recommends// to Member States that the training of professionals, such as economists, business administrators, architects, planners, forest managers, engineers, technicians and others whose activities, while not specifically in the field of environmental planning and management, nevertheless directly or indirectly have a major impact on the environment, include a common core of interdisciplinary environmental studies dealing with both the natural and human environments and related to their professions. In addition, special attention should be given to the development of suitable methodologies and organizational arrangements.\n\n''Recommendation No. 11''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that the work of many professionals (such as engineers, architects, administrators and planners of all types) has a great effect on the environment,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that incentives should be provided for such professionals to undertake further environmental education which will need to be of at least two types:\n\n1. In-depth supplementary and in-service training, or continuing education programmes, which enable them to relate more adequately to each other on an interdisciplinary basis (the methodology for which will need further elaboration as well as appropriate institutional arrangements);\n\n2. Post-graduate programmes for people already specialized in some disciplines. It is considered that a problem-solving approach on an integrated multidisciplinary team basis is an effective method of training, since it develops professionals who, while retaining their original expertise, thus acquire an interdisciplinary training and ability to work as members of multidisciplinary teams. They may be appropriately described as environmental integrators or integrationists as distinct from generalists or specialists.
From the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] on [[International and regional co-operation|Tbilisi Recommendations: International and regional co-operation]]\n!!!General Recommendations\n''Recommendation No. 22''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the need to increase the role and improve the quality of environmental education as a factor in national economic and social development,\n\n//Considering// that environmental education can become one of the factors in improving mutual understanding and strengthening trust between nations, and can contribute to the development of friendly relations between States and to the maintenance of peace and international security,\n\n//Considering// that there is a great need for international co-operation in environmental education for all countries, especially developing countries,\n\n//Recommends//:\n* that approval and support be given to the initiative of Unesco regarding the problems of environmental education, and invites the Director-General to continue in co-operation with UNEP the efforts with regard to the further extension of international co-operation in developing environmental education;\n* that the results of research carried out under the Programme on Man and the Biosphere and other programmes relating to the problem of the environment be used in the planning and implementation of activities in the field of environmental education;\n//Recommends// to Unesco:\n* that it extend the framework of its activities in the field of environmental education and give greater attention to these questions in its future activities, linking them with the whole of its educational activity;\n* that it adopt the necessary measures to study the role of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations in the solution of the problems discussed at the present Conference;\n* that it study the possibility of organizing periodic conferences among Member States of responsible officials and specialists in the field of environmental education in the form of international and regional conferences and seminars;\n* that, in co-operation with other international organizations, it take steps and work out organizational methods to contribute to the development of environmental education;\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco:\n* that he study the possibility of establishing a Unesco prize to reward outstanding work in environmental education;\n* that he provide technical aid to those Member States which are as yet without national environmental education structures, with a view to the formulation and execution of a suitable programme concerning this problem;\n* that he foster the gradual incorporation of the system thus created into the framework of regional and international co-operation;\n* that, with the assistance of UNEP, he consider the possibilities of further development of the International Environmental Education Programme. The following measures, among others, might be taken in the framework of this Programme:\n<<<\n# the preparation of textbooks and other teaching aids, as well as popular scientific books on environmental problems on the basis of an international competition, in which leading world scientists and educators would be invited to participate, with a view to the preparation of textbooks for schools and higher educational institutions, and also of visual aids and popular scientific books relating to the environment, to be published subsequently in all languages, using a standardized terminology and concepts;\n# the award of Unesco fellowships with the assistance of the Environment Fund in educational institutions in developing countries; the provision of textbooks and teaching aids free of charge; and the provision of assistance in the development of environmental education programmes and experimental projects. Extra-budgetary funds might be used for this purpose, for the pre- and in-service training of staff engaged in environmental education, and basic training with research centres at the same time designated to accept and train these specialists. The award of such fellowships on behalf of Unesco and UNEP at the expense of the host country would also be welcomed;\n<<<\n//Realizing// moreover, the specialized nature of environmental education and the limited number of educators in the field in the developing countries, //recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco that the General Conference provide, under one of its programmes, training fellowships in environmental education for those from developing countries;\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco in co-operation with UNEP:\n* that assistance be given, especially in developing countries, for the initiation and expansion of pilot programmes in environmental education, methodology and curriculum development;\n* that suitable attention be given, in co-operation also with ILO and other appropriate United Nations agencies, to urban problems, including the exchange of experience between countries and the support of formal and non-formal initiatives in urban environmental education; and that pressing needs for environmental education of the world's rural populations receive equivalent attention;\n* that consideration be given to the support of courses, seminars and workshops for curriculum development in environmental education;\n* that Member States be helped to establish research programmes in environmental education in colleges and universities.\n''Recommendation No. 23''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Having in mind// the global impacts of the present, past and future evolution of all nations on our planet closely connected with a sound and healthy environment for all now as well as for the generations to come,\n\n//Bearing in mind// the unprecedented economic growth and technological progress together with its inevitable changes, improvements, but also environmental hazards,\n\n//Being aware// that only co-operation, understanding and mutual help, goodwill, and systematically prepared, planned and implemented actions are able to solve present and future environmental problems in the conditions of peace,\n\n//Finds// that environmental education gives people throughout the world the necessary knowledge to use nature and natural resources, to control the quality of the environment so that it is not impaired, but wisely improved - and to have the knowledge, attitudes, motivation, commitment and skills to work individually and collectively toward a solution of current problems and prevention of new ones since at present humanity has the means as well as skills to do so;\n\n//States// that the documents prepared for the Tbilisi Conference, together with the suggestions and experiences presented and forwarded to this Conference, give a global, practicable and useful framework for environmental education;\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* to take all necessary action to implement in the broadest possible way and in accordance with the needs and possibilities of each nation concerned - the results of this Conference on environmental education, and in this respect to draw up action-oriented plans and timetables for the actions:\n<<<\n# to foster bilateral, regional and international co-operation within all branches of environmental education, based upon scientific research and a broad exchange of information and experience, co-operation on programmes, etc.;\n# to facilitate comprehensive approaches to the solution of environmental problems within the jurisdiction of each country concerned by the safeguarding of the necessary prerequisites for environmental education - comprehensive or co-ordinated legislation, financial, organizational and other measures;\n<<<\n* to inform other Member States as well as the Secretariat of Unesco about the time schedules, results, methods, etc., concerning environmental education and to forward to the Secretariat of Unesco all materials in this respect which they would wish to be used on a large scale;\n* to extend the necessary advice in environmental education to other Member States or their organizations;\n* to include an environmental education component in all national educational projects receiving funding from international sources;\n//Recommends// to the General Conference of Unesco:\n* to take into account the ''Recommendations of the Tbilisi Conference'';\n* to decide on the convening of a second conference on environmental education at an appropriate time;\n* to recommend to Member States application of the results of the Tbilisi Conference on environmental education and close co-operation on a bilateral, regional and international basis as well;\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco:\n* to establish a regular information bulletin or service, aimed mainly at informing Member States about all actions on environmental education prepared for a given period by the Secretariat of Unesco, by the Member States or by organizations, and about new publications, research work, methods, experiences, etc., in close co-operation with the International Referral System (IRS) and other United Nations agencies;\n* to request any contribution which may be necessary for this purpose from the Environment Fund;\n* to facilitate a practical exchange of information in this respect;\n* to foster international symposia, seminars, filmshows, etc. aimed at environmental education;\n* to request the Executive Director of UNEP to support Unesco's actions in implementation of recommendations adopted by the Tbilisi Conference;\n* to promote standing implementation of the Plan of Action adopted by the United Nations Stockholm Conference on Human Environment, with further emphasis on environmental education;\n* to recommend to future regional conferences on human environment held in Europe and North America that the Final Act of the Helsinki Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, in particular the section on environment in Part II, Section 5, should be kept in view, and priority be given to environmental education as well.\n''Recommendation No. 24''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Acknowledging// that the ''Recommendations of the Tbilisi Conference'' show the importance of strengthening co-operation in environmental education and provide a sound basis for further developing environmental education at all levels,\n\n//Considering// that environmental education is a relatively new and complex area which covers a wide range of disciplines, and that it must be adapted to the particular circumstances of different socio-cultural systems,\n\n//Recognizing// that while environmental education is inseparable from educational systems it also constitutes an important feature of general activity relating to the environment,\n\n//Further considering// that the Conference should assist the international community in introducing a new environmental dimension and drive into education,\n\n//Recommends// that the Director-General and the General Conference of Unesco and the Executive Director and Governing Council of UNEP take the following considerations into account:\n* In view of its special responsibility for education and science and its contacts with the educational authorities of its Member States, Unesco should in future play a major role in the preparation of environmental education programmes. The Conference invites Unesco to continue to promote and assist in the development of formal and non-formal programmes of environmental education, making use of the institutions and machinery existing at the regional and subregional levels.\n* The Conference appeals for more use to be made of Unesco's Regional Offices for Education in order to assist Member States in preparing environmental education programmes. Within the general context of the decentralization of Unesco's activities, the Conference recommends that greater use be made of these Regional Offices for Education in connection with environmental education, and that they be allocated additional resources, including specialized staff. The Conference also appeals to Unesco to draw on the work of all its sectors, and in particular on work done under the Man and the Biosphere Programme, in the elaboration of materials for environmental education.\n* The Conference considers that the greatest possible advantage should be taken of existing machinery and institutions for the implementation of recommendations concerning environmental education. It notes with satisfaction UNEP's statement that its programme activity centres for environmental education and training would be experimental in nature and play a catalysing role.\n* Given its role in environmental matters and its contacts with the authorities of Member States responsible for them, UNEP should ensure co-ordination of the environmental activities of the whole United Nations system by establishing co-operation with the other agencies (particularly within the framework of the Environment Co-ordination Board and other organizations) in order to ensure consistent and harmonious planning. The Conference invites UNEP to continue to play its role of coordinator of environmental programmes.\n* UNEP and Unesco should continue and extend their collaboration when carrying out the ''Recommendations of the Tbilisi Conference''. The Conference recommends that the General Conference and Executive Board of Unesco and the Governing Council of UNEP take all measures which they consider appropriate to ensure that practical and co-ordinated action is taken on the ''Recommendations of the Conference, with allowance made for the'' areas of competence of each of the United Nations agencies or bodies and their respective potential for providing support for environmental education.\n* The Conference recommends that Unesco, in collaboration with UNEP, encourage and support the important work being done for environmental education by the relevant regional and subregional organizations.\n* The Conference welcomes the important work being done in the sphere of environmental education by intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations such as FAO, ILO, WMO, IUCN, ICSU and WCOTP. The various bodies and Specialized Agencies of the United Nations system should continue and expand their efforts in the field of environmental education, and should be encouraged and supported by UNEP and Unesco through co-ordinated and harmonious planning of the activities included in the different programmes. Unesco and UNEP should encourage international nongovernmental organizations to intensify their action in the sphere of environmental education.\n''Recommendation No. 25''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that Unesco's Medium-Term Plan for 1977-1982 includes in Chapter VII "Man and his Environment', an objective relating particularly to the development and promotion of environmental education and training,\n\n//Considering// that the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education marks the end of the research and co-ordination phase and the beginning of the actual operational phase of Unesco's Medium-Term Plan,\n\n//Recommends// to the Director-General that, as far as possible in the planning of future programme actions, starting with preparation of the budget for the next biennium (1979-1980), he ensure that the ''Recommendations adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education'' are taken into account.\n\n''Recommendation No. 26''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recognizing// that it is necessary to establish priorities for activities within the area of environmental education and that Unesco works in concert with national authorities and regional centres of learning,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco:\n\n1. That it expand the functions of its Regional Offices to enable them, in co-operation with National Commissions, to help:\n* develop or adapt instructional materials related to local environmental problems for use in the formal and non-formal education of primary and secondary school-age students;\n* create regional source books for environmental education that will foster and facilitate development of locally appropriate instructional materials;\n* encourage activities of youth groups and non-governmental organizations geared to improving and understanding of local ecosystems and environmental problems, taking into account urban as well as natural environments;\n* identify new and promising approaches to environmental education; conduct and evaluate pilot projects. These aspects of projects which are applicable to other locations should be systematically disseminated to other potential users;\n* provide educational opportunities to teachers and school administrators;\n* supply environmental educational materials for use by the mass media;\n* conduct an expanded programme of pilot research, documentation and evaluation in environmental education and give wide dissemination to the results of these projects and similar activities through Unesco's environmental education publication (//Connect//):\n2. That it utilize existing institutions to receive, catalogue and disseminate materials useful in environmental education;\n\n3. That, in co-operation with UNEP, it develop model training courses, seminars, etc., on environmental and developmental issues for use by United Nations organizations and others in the training of officials of the developing countries and those concerned with assistance to them. Existing international training institutes and programmes should expand their training curriculum to include subjects on basic ecological relationships, impact assessment and establishment of effective institutional and regulatory mechanisms;\n\n4. That it place more emphasis on the sharing of environmental experience and remedial measures between developing countries. Unesco should work with UNDP to ensure that such an exchange can take place at the 1978 UNDP-sponsored Conference on Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries;\n\n5. That it issue, on a regular basis, world-wide directories of environmental education organizations and personnel from existing information collected and compiled by Unesco. Those directories would describe the organizational structure, objectives, functions and procedures for requesting support services. It is further recommended that the format be co-ordinated with the UNEP-International Referral System and that the information regarding the directories be published in //Connect//;\n\n6. That, in co-operation with UNEP, it proclaim a specific environmental topic to be treated on a world-wide scale at appropriate intervals, in consultation with relevant regional and international organizations.\n\n''Recommendation No. 27''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Taking into account// that the success of any action in the field of environmental education depends on organizing, providing and displaying information at all levels,\n\n//Considering// therefore that there is a special need to improve the information infrastructure in the field of environmental education, thus making possible within an international information network the dissemination of information on important actions taken at the local, regional and national levels,\n\n//Considering// that the effectiveness of any international information network is based on the effectiveness of existing national information centres, and on co-operation between them at subregional and regional levels, and with the appropriate international organizations,\n\n//Assuming// utilization of the already existing international information services, such as the International Bureau of Education (IBE), UNEP's International Referral System (IRS), Unesco's UNISIST, etc., and with reference to UNESCO/ENVED/4, 231 "Education and the challenge of environmental problems" and UNESCO/ENVED/7, 72 "Regional meetings of experts on environmental education - a synthetic report",\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n\n7. To identify as a matter of high priority, in co-operation with National Commissions for Unesco, an institution with extensive competence in the field of environmental education and to nominate it as a national information centre for the dissemination of information and experience at the national as well as at the regional and international levels;\n\n8. To collect and circulate, in co-operation with the appropriate governmental and non-governmental organizations, information relevant to environmental education, including information about rural and urban institutions and centres, and key staff within their territories with special knowledge or experience, and information about available teaching and reference material;\n\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco to support the establishment and operation of such an international network by:\n* maintaining, in liaison with National Commissions for Unesco, close and regular contacts with national centres;\n* disseminating information and advice which may not otherwise be available to Member States and which will assist and support them in the implementation of programmes of environmental education;\n* promoting exchanges of staff, sharing of experience and participation in meetings and conferences on a regional or subregional basis where desirable, in collaboration with intergovernmental or nongovernmental agencies;\n* promoting the development and publication of common terminology to facilitate international communication on the subject of environmental education;\n* requesting the Executive Director of UNEP to issue the annual reports on the state of the environment prepared by UNEP, so far as possible, in a form and in quantities which will enable them to be used as source material for environmental education;\n//Recommends// to Member States to make maximum use of the annual reports of UNEP on the state of the environment for purposes of environmental education and to encourage the popularization of knowledge about the environment.\n\n''Recommendation No. 28''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the value of international co-operation in the field of educational research,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco that it stimulate international co-operation in order to promote research which might serve as a basis for the design, development, application and evaluation:\n* of written or audio-visual documentation for use by the general public, teachers and students;\n* of low-cost research material;\n* of instruments of interdisciplinary methodology for the training of organizers and teachers.\nTo this end, priority emphasis should be laid on:\n* determining the objectives of environmental education;\n* determining the obstacles (epistemological, cultural or social) restricting access to educational messages and to their utilization;\n* determining qualification requirements and ways in which they may be met.\nThis co-operation could be illustrated by a number of pilot projects taking into account experience already gained in this field.\n\n''Recommendation No. 29''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Being aware// of the determining influence of social, cultural and psychological factors on environmental awareness,\n\n//Considering// that these factors may hamper or strengthen the intended results of environmental education,\n\n//Recognizing// the need for an evaluation of these factors,\n\n//Recommends//:\n* that the Director-General of Unesco, with the assistance of the Executive Director of UNEP, work further on the definition of the framework of environmental education, the state of the environment and their interrelationship;\n* that international organizations, responsible authorities and non-governmental organizations promote and develop relevant studies and research within their programmes, thus increasing the involvement of the social and human sciences in environmental education;\n* that international organizations, responsible authorities and non-governmental organizations utilize the results of these studies with regard to the formulation of specific goals and the selection of appropriate means for environmental education programmes.
From the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n* [[General Recommendations|Tbilisi Recommendations: General Recommendations]] - Recommendations 22-30\n* [[Recommendations on regional co-operation|Tbilisi Recommendations: Recommendations on regional co-operation]] - Recommendations 31-40
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Organizational structure\n''Recommendation No. 6''\n\nIt is recommended to Member States that, as far as possible, each country strengthen or set up the appropriate organizational structures which among others should have the functions listed below. It would be up to each government to decide as to the membership of the structure which might include representatives of educational and environmental protection authorities, practising teachers at different levels, organizations concerned nationally with environmental education and the mass media. Among the functions would be:\n* to facilitate relationships with Unesco, UNEP and other organizations involved in environmental education;\n* to co-ordinate initiatives in environmental education;\n* to serve as a consultative body in environmental education at the governmental level;\n* to play a role as a clearing-house and information centre in environmental education and training;\n* to develop in various social and occupational groups an awareness and knowledge about the issues associated with environmental education in the country;\n* to promote collaborative relationships among environmental education associations, citizen groups, and the scientific, research and education communities;\n* to provide more frequent opportunities for meetings of those with political and administrative responsibilities with such groups and associations;\n* to provide frameworks and guidelines for the establishment of environmental education action committees within the country;\n* to assess the need for research, development and evaluation in environmental education;\n* to encourage and facilitate the contribution to environmental education programmes of nongovernmental organizations, including voluntary bodies.\nThe aim of the structure would be to adapt the recommendations of the Unesco Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education to national and local conditions, and to aid governments to implement the recommendations.\n\nIt is further recommended that Unesco, in co-operation with UNEP, give assistance, if necessary, in setting up such a structure to those countries which do not already have one.\n\n''Recommendation No. 7''\n\n1. Since environmental education may promote the preservation and improvement of the living environment, thus improving the quality of human life as well as preserving ecological systems, the Conference //recommends// to Member States that: environmental education should aim at creating awareness, behavioural attitudes and values directed towards preserving the biosphere, improving the quality of life everywhere as well as safeguarding ethical values and the cultural and natural heritage, including, holy places, historical landmarks, works of art, monuments and sites, human and natural environment, including fauna and flora and human settlements.\n\n2. In order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, the Conference recommends to Member States, the creation of a specialized unit, by the appropriate authorities, to serve environmental education with terms of reference including:\n* training of leaders in the environmental fields;\n* development of school curricula compatible with the needs of the environment at the local, regional and world levels;\n* preparation of books and scientific reference works necessary for the improved curricula;\n* determining educational methods and media, including the audio-visual aids needed for the purpose of explaining and popularizing environmental curricula and programmes.\n3. The Conference //recommends// to Member States that they refrain from actions that would disfigure the environment or threaten man's life, health or economic conditions.\n\n4. The Conference //recommends// that Member States be encouraged to create local societies which would promote protection of the environment and participate in environmental education programmes at the various social and professional levels as well as at the level of decision-making.\n\n5. In recognition of the fact that a common language is needed to facilitate communication in dealing with matters concerning the environment, the Conference //recommends// that Unesco with the co-operation of UNEP and other organizations promote the standardization of environmental terminology through the compilation of a multilingual glossary to be published in the working languages of the United Nations and its Specialized Agencies.\n\n6. Considering that it is necessary to conserve the human and cultural heritage as well as the distinguishing features of civilizations, the Conference //recommends// to Member States that every effort should be made to preserve these heritages, including the teaching of cultural heritage in environmental education.\n\n7. The Conference //recommends// to Member States that the positive and enriching influence of ethical values should be taken into account in developing environmental education programmes.
From the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]] on [[International and regional co-operation|Tbilisi Recommendations: International and regional co-operation]] \n!!!Recommendations on regional co-operation\n''Recommendation No. 30''\n\nThe Conference,\n\nIn order to strengthen environmental education activities at the subregional and regional levels,\n\n//Recommends//:\n* that the Director-General of Unesco take the necessary measures to ensure that the Regional Offices of Unesco serve as co-ordinating agencies for development of environmental education programmes at the subregional and regional levels, as they are doing already in other intergovernmental programmes co-ordinated by Unesco, such as the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) and population education programmes;\n* that Unesco have an environmental education specialist at each Regional Office and make available more funds for training programmes at the regional and subregional levels.\n''Recommendation No. 31''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that great potential collective efforts can generate in the development of environmental education in Member States,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco, with the assistance of UNEP and in co-operation with other United Nations organizations:\n* that groups of Member States consider the need to encourage a network approach in dealing with environmental education;\n* that where a collective effort among countries in curriculum development in environmental education exists in a given region, as in the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP), the Science Education Programme for Africa (SEPA), the African Curriculum Organization (ACO), existing materials be enriched to incorporate such environmental education content areas as might be missing in such materials;\n* that such regional centres serve as resource centres and clearing-houses for Member States in environmental education;\n* that assistance be extended to such regional organizations, ASSP, ACO and SEPA, where the need arises for the exchange of specialists in environmental education to enable constituent Member States to benefit mutually;\n* that environmental education documentation be provided to such regional organizations as ASSP, ACO and SEPA to enrich the resources on which Member States depend for environmental education activities;\n* that research and training facilities be extended to such regional organizations through workshops, seminars, conferences, etc., at regional, subregional and national levels;\n* that funds be sought by the Director-General from bilateral and multilateral sources for this purpose.\n''Recommendation No. 32''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recognizing// the fact that there is a need for greater collaboration among the member countries of the Asia region,\n\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco:\n* that he study the possibility of establishing a consultative committee to co-ordinate the activities of environmental education in the Asia region;\n* that in order to help the consultative committee it would be desirable to have committees at national level, which in turn may form links with other organizations involved with environmental education programmes.\n''Recommendation No. 33''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Taking note// of the Belgrade Workshop's recommendation for concerted effort in environmental education activity at national and regional levels,\n\n//Taking further note// of the Brazzaville (African Region) Workshop's re-emphasis on the crucial importance of integrated programming in the Africa region,\n\n//Recognizing// that at both national and regional levels in Africa, environmental education organizations and institutions act in isolation from each other and that most are faced with inadequacies of human and material resources and communication facilities;\n\n//Cognizant// of the enormous benefits which could accrue at all levels of environmental education programming activities from the collective participation of all such organizations and institutions,\n\n//Realizing// that the creation of machinery for regional co-operation in Africa would be likely to contribute to the development of environmental education,\n\n//Recommends//:\n* that each Member State consider setting up national centres of environmental education for the co-ordination of national environmental education activities;\n* that Unesco, with the assistance of UNEP, set up as a matter of urgency a regional working party for the Africa region to organize the pooling together of energies and expertise to assist African governments in the implementation of the ''Tbilisi Recommendations;''\n* that Unesco, with the assistance of UNEP and other United Nations agencies, ensure the development of co-operation in environmental education at regional and international levels in accordance with the suggestions contained in paragraphs 84, 85 and 86 of document UNESCO/ENVED/7.\n''Recommendation No. 34''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Realizing// that there is a great need in the Africa region to:\n* strengthen existing projects on environmental education,\n* organize environmental education training courses, workshops and seminars,\n* assist in evaluation and research environmental education in the region,\n* disseminate environmental education materials and information within the region according to local conditions,\n* co-ordinate both formal and non-formal environmental education projects,\n//Being aware// that there are individual countries which have environmental education programmes and materials which could be useful to other countries in the Africa region,\n\n//Realizing// that there are already existing centres with programmes which have been involved to some extent in environmental education in the region, such as SEPA, ASSP and other African organizations responsible for curricula, and\n\n//Being aware// that regional Member States are already contributing to these programmes,\n\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco that he consider the setting up, with the support of UNEP and in collaboration with Member States, of an environmental education resource, material development and dissemination centre in the forthcoming 1978-1979 biennium or to make use of existing education programmes which are already involved in environmental education in Africa. This centre would carry out and implement the ''Tbilisi Recommendations'' at the regional level. It is further'' recommended that the Director-General seek funds from bilateral and multilateral sources for this purpose;\n\n//Appreciating// the work already being carried out by UNEP,\n\n//Recommends// that UNEP provide the necessary funding to Unesco to enable it to extend its environmental education programme to Member States in Africa, especially to those not already having a national co-ordinated programme.\n\n''Recommendation No. 35''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the nature of environmental problems in Africa which arise from low levels of literacy, lack of trained personnel and training facilities, the high cost of introducing curricula or revising existing ones and other media which would stimulate environmental awareness, motivation and commitment to the conservation and the enhancement of the environment,\n\n//Bearing in mind// that environmental education programmes in Africa at all levels are in embryonic stages of development,\n\n//Realizing// the significance of the conclusions of the Belgrade Workshop on Environmental Education and the subsequent Regional Conference on Environmental Education held in Brazzaville in 1976 for the Africa region,\n\n//Taking into account// recognition by African delegates to the Tbilisi Conference of the importance of the Brazzaville report and the commitments of the recommendations contained therein,\n\n//Being aware// of the role of Unesco and UNEP in assisting Member States as well as regions to initiate and to strengthen environmental education programmes,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco:\n* that, in collaboration with UNEP and other organizations of the United Nations system, it assist African regional organizations already in existence as well as Unesco Regional Offices in implementation of the ''Recommendations of the Tbilisi Conference'';\n* that, in collaboration with UNEP and the other organizations of the United Nations system, national, regional and international co-operation in environmental education be developed.\n''Recommendation No. 36''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco, in collaboration with FAO, ILO and UNEP, and to Member States that co-operative efforts be undertaken to help increase and intensify efforts to train farmers in environmental issues so as to improve their quality of life through increased but ecologically sound agricultural production, and through social development; that information concerning these experiences be exchanged to ensure that new ideas are circulated, promoted and adapted to local conditions;\n\n//Recommends// that Unesco with aid from UNEP provide assistance as soon as possible to establish regional training programmes in the ESCAP region, based on suitable existing national institutions, for the post-graduate training of environmental integrationists of the type that have been defined in the Report of the Asian Regional Conference on Environmental Education;\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that they begin or continue to co-operate with each other in fields of training which will facilitate the formation of national pluridisciplinary teams of doctors, sanitation and hygiene engineers and technicians capable of taking a comprehensive approach to public health problems in connection with those of the environment.\n\n''Recommendation No. 37''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recommends// that Unesco, with support from UNEP, and through responsible Regional Offices and national agencies, and non-governmental organizations, include in environmental education programmes:\n* education on the cultural heritage, wherever it is relevant to the human environment;\n* education dealing with the improvement of human settlements, particularly in developing countries, so that people in deprived human settlements can improve their surroundings;\n//Recommends//:\n* that Unesco, in collaboration with the International Labour Organisation and other bodies, particularly the relevant United Nations organizations, pay due attention to urban problems, encouraging countries to compare experience in this area and supporting any initiative, whether official or not, taken with regard to general education on the urban environment;\n* that the Member States study in greater depth, in the light of their own experience, the place of urban problems in their national programmes and in general environmental education.\n''Recommendation No. 38''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that education and training are indispensable instruments for the achievement of general and specific objectives of environmental education,\n\n//Convinced// of the fact that formulation of curricula and reorientation of educational systems are not sufficient, but that there must be an appeal to the feelings of individuals and to their ethical and cultural awareness so as to lead them to protect, improve and enrich their natural environment on an enduring basis,\n\n//Convinced// of the importance of linking educational processes to the real problems of preserving the environment and of the need to make educators aware of such issues, both within the context of human development in general and in the economic, social and cultural development of each country,\n\n//Conscious// of the considerable receptiveness of the school-age child, but equally conscious of the fact that to stimulate his or her responsiveness to the environment, he or she must be brought into direct contact with the natural elements, through systematic programmes which will have regard, in their implementation, for specific circumstances, such as location in urban, rural or coastal zones,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco that it submit to its General Conference a draft educational programme that, under the general title: "The child and the environment", will set out the main lines for the formulation and implementation of a systematic plan of action to bring the child into contact with, and give him or her awareness of, the elements that form his or her natural milieu, such as, more especially, the sea, woods, desert, mountains, forest, city, lakes, rivers and other ecosystems;\n\n//Requests// the Director-General to study the advisability of setting up a working group to examine the various components of this programme;\n\n//Agrees// that, should the project be adopted by Unesco, collaboration in its execution be requested from Unicef, UNEP and other international and regional organizations linked with environmental education and the specific aims of the project.\n\n''Recommendation No. 39''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recognizing// the importance of utilizing film and television production as well as other audio-visual techniques for the purpose of environmental education,\n\n//Taking note// of the report presented by the Czechoslovak governmental delegation on the international film festival, dedicated to environment, known as EKOFILM, which is being held regularly every year in Czechoslovakia, the first country in Europe to do so,\n\n//Believing// that this international festival might serve as a world instrument for the exchange of experience among specialists in the education of youth and adults for the purpose of protection and improvement of the environment,\n\n//Believing equally// that this festival might be a good stimulus for further film and television production in the field of environmental education and could thus contribute to its higher level and efficiency,\n\n//Considering// it purposeful to provide this festival with a concrete platform for the exchange of experience among specialists by means of an interrogational symposium,\n\n//Invites// the Director-General:\n* to study the possibility of a Unesco sponsorship of the annual EKOFILM film festival in Czechoslovakia;\n* to consider the possibility of granting assistance to this festival and of awarding a prize for the best film.\n''Recommendation No. 40''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Having learned// with interest of the activities and role of youth associations and non-governmental organizations in the field of environmental education,\n\n//Noting// that many international gatherings of young people have made it possible to prepare specific programmes of co-operation in the field of environmental education,\n\n//Mindful// of the fact that it is largely through young people that the non-formal education of young people should be undertaken,\n\n//Conscious// that international youth meetings allow an exchange of constructive ideas and experience and strengthen solidarity between the countries of the world,\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco, with the assistance of UNEP:\n* that they continue to give their material and moral support to international youth gatherings;\n* that they make provision in their future programmes for necessary resources for these types of meetings;\n* that they ensure the presence of responsible officials from these youth associations and nongovernmental organizations at intergovernmental meetings and meetings of experts organized by Unesco or UNEP;\n* that they ensure the proper distribution to all Member States of resolutions, recommendations and documents emanating from such meetings;\n* that they provide assistance and administrative facilities for the efficient organization of such meetings;\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* that they provide assistance for the organization of these meetings and facilitate the sending of youth delegations;\n* that they attach due importance to the conclusions of such meetings.\n''Recommendation No. 41''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the important role of non-governmental organizations and voluntary bodies in the field of environmental education at the local, national, regional and international levels,\n\n//Stressing// the desirability of enlarging the opportunities for democratic participation in the formulation and execution of programmes in the field of environmental education,\n\n//Bearing in mind// that the efficacy of the work of all intergovernmental organizations is enhanced by the activities of non-governmental organizations and voluntary bodies,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that they encourage and support non-governmental organizations and voluntary bodies at the local, national, regional and subregional level to make best use of their capabilities and activities;\n\n//Recommends// to national governments that they create and encourage environmental awareness among organizations, such as professional teachers' and other non-governmental organizations, which deal directly with children and youth, so as to get such organizations involved in the formulation and execution of national education strategies;\n\n//Recommends// to non-governmental organizations that they incorporate environmental education activities into their existing programmes;\n\n//Recommends// to Unesco that it co-operate closely with non-governmental organizations and support their relevant activities in the field of environmental education.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Research\n''Recommendation No. 21''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that the institutional and educational changes required for the incorporation of environmental education into national education systems should be based not only on experience but also on research and evaluation aimed at improving educational policy decisions,\n\n//Recommends// to all Member States:\n* that they develop national policies and strategies furthering environmental education research projects incorporating their findings into the general educational process through appropriate courses;\n* that they carry out research concerning: (1) the goals and objectives of environmental education; (2) the epistemological and institutional structures that affect consideration of environment demands; and (3) the knowledge and attitudes of individuals, in order to identify more precisely the most effective educational conditions, types of action by teachers and processes of assimilation of knowledge by pupils, as well as obstacles to the modification of concepts, values and attitudes which are held by individuals and are involved in environmental behaviour;\n* that they undertake research concerning the conditions which foster development of environmental education, directed more particularly towards: (1) identification of content, taking into consideration specific national and local features which might constitute an effective basis for educational programmes for those in and out of the formal education system as well as for specialists; (2) the establishment of methodologies for the effective acquisition of the relevant concepts, values and attitudes by the various population groups, young and adult, receiving formal and non-formal education; and (3) innovation in learning environments;\n* that they undertake research in the development of educational methods and curricula for sensitizing the general public, particularly with regard to the use of mass media and the preparation of evaluation tools for assessing the impact of such curricula;\n* that they include in courses for the pre- and in-service training of teachers, research methodologies for designing and developing methods and instruments which enable them to effectively fulfil the objectives of environmental education;\n* that they undertake research, taking into account the audiences, with a view to the design and development of mechanisms, methods and materials enabling interdisciplinary environmental curricula to be developed. With this in mind, the possibility of using elements of the natural and social sciences and of the arts as a basis for integration, should be studied;\n* that they undertake research in order to develop low-cost educational methods and materials for educators, to train or retrain themselves on their own;\n* that they take steps to promote exchanges of information among national educational research bodies, broad dissemination of research findings and evaluation in the educational system;\n* that they undertake systematic analysis of educational experience materials of other countries, in order to determine their educational relevance and to adapt them to local socio-economic, ecological and cultural conditions.
From the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!The Role, Objectives and Guiding Principles of Environmental Education\n''Recommendation No. 1''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the challenge that environmental problems present to contemporary society and having regard for the role that education can and must play in solving such problems,\n\n//Recommends// the adoption of certain criteria which will help to guide efforts to develop environmental education at the national, regional and international levels.\n# Whereas it is a fact that biological and physical features constitute the natural basis of the human environment, its ethical, social, cultural and economic dimensions also play their part in determining the lines of approach and the instruments whereby people may understand and make better use of natural resources in satisfying their needs.\n# Environmental education is the result of the reorientation and dovetailing of different disciplines and educational experiences which facilitate an integrated perception of the problems of the environment, enabling more rational action, capable of meeting social needs, to be taken.\n# A basic aim of environmental education is to succeed in making individuals and communities understand the complex nature of the natural and the built environments resulting from the interaction of their biological, physical, social, economic and cultural aspects, and acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, and practical skills to participate in a responsible and effective way in anticipating and solving environmental problems, and the management of the quality of the environment.\n# A further basic aim of environmental education is clearly to show the economic, political and ecological interdependence of the modern world, in which decisions and actions by the different countries can have international repercussions. Environment should, in this regard, help to develop a sense of responsibility and solidarity among countries and regions as the foundation for a new international order which will guarantee the conservation and improvement of the environment.\n# Special attention should be paid to understanding the complex relations between socio-economic development and the improvement of the environment.\n# For this purpose, environmental education should provide the necessary knowledge for interpretation of the complex phenomena that shape the environment, encourage those ethical, economic and aesthetic values which, constituting the basis of self-discipline, will further the development of conduct compatible with the preservation and improvement of the environment; it should also provide a wide range of practical skills required in the devising and application of effective solutions to environmental problems.\n# To carry out these tasks, environmental education should bring about a closer link between educational processes and real life, building its activities around the environmental problems that are faced by particular communities and focusing analysis on these by means of an interdisciplinary, comprehensive approach which will permit a proper understanding of environmental problems.\n# Environmental education should be regarded as a continuing process providing its recipients, through the constant renewal of its approach, content and methods, with knowledge that is always attuned to the changing conditions of the environment.\n# Environmental education should cater to all ages and socio-professional groups in the population. It should be addressed to \n## the general non-specialist public of young people and adults whose daily conduct has a decisive influence on the preservation and improvements of the environment; \n## to particular social groups whose professional activities affect the quality of the environment; and \n## to scientists and technicians whose specialized research and work will lay the foundations of knowledge on which education, training and efficient management of the environment should be based.\n# To achieve the effective development of environmental education, full advantage must be taken of all public and private facilities available to society for the education of the population; the formal education system, different forms of non-formal education, and the mass media.\n# To make an effective contribution towards improving the environment, educational action must be linked with legislation, policies, measures of control and the decisions that governments may adopt in relation to the human environment.\n''Recommendation No. 2''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recognizing// that environmental education should promote the strengthening of peace, the further relaxation of international tensions and mutual understanding among States and be a real instrument for international solidarity and for elimination of all forms of racial, political and economic discrimination,\n\n//Noting// that the concept of "the environment" includes a complex of natural, built and social components in the life of humanity and that the social components constitute a set of cultural, moral, personal values and interrelations of people in the spheres of labour and leisure activities,\n\n//Taking note// of document UNESCO/ENVED/4 "Education and the challenge of environmental problems", and in particular of the principles contained in Chapter II,\n\n//Having furthermore// noted the Synthetic Report of the Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education (ENVED/7, Chapter III, paragraphs 15-26),\n\n//Pursuant// to the working document UNESCO/ENVED/4, paragraph 67, in which the Conference is invited to formulate goals, objectives and guiding principles which environmental education should have in order to fulfil its functions most effectively,\n\n//Considering// that it should be a right of every citizen to receive environmental education,\n\n//Endorses// the following goals, objectives and guiding principles for environmental education:\n# The goals of environmental education are:\n## to foster clear awareness of, and concern about, economic, social, political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;\n## to provide every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed to protect and improve the environment;\n## to create new patterns of behaviour of individuals, groups and society as a whole towards the environment;\n# The categories of environmental education objectives:\n** //Awareness//: to help social groups and individuals acquire an awareness of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.\n** //Knowledge//: to help social groups and individuals gain a variety of experience in, and acquire a basic understanding of, the environment and its associate problems.\n** //Attitudes//: to help social groups and individuals acquire a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment, and the motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection.\n** //Skills//: to help social groups and individuals acquire the skills for identifying and solving environmental problems.\n** //Participation//: to provide social groups and individuals with an opportunity to be actively involved at all levels in working toward resolution of environmental problems.\n# Some //guiding principles// for environmental education: Environmental education should:\n** consider the environment in its totality - natural and built, technological and social (economic, political, technological, cultural-historical, moral, aesthetic);\n** be a continuous lifelong process, beginning at the pre-school level and continuing through all formal and non-formal stages;\n** be interdisciplinary in its approach, drawing on the specific content of each discipline in making possible a holistic and balanced perspective;\n** examine major environmental issues from local, national, regional and international points of view so that students receive insights into environmental conditions in other geographical areas;\n** focus on current and potential environmental situations, while taking into account the historical perspective;\n** promote the value and necessity of local, national and international co-operation in the prevention and solution of environmental problems;\n** explicitly consider environmental aspects in plans for development and growth;\n** enable learners to have a role in planning their learning experiences and provide an opportunity for making decisions and accepting their consequences;\n** relate environmental sensitivity, knowledge, problem-solving skills and values clarification to every age, but with special emphasis on environmental sensitivity to the learner's own community in early years;\n** help learners discover the symptoms and real causes of environmental problems;\n** emphasize the complexity of environmental problems and thus the need to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills;\n** utilize diverse learning environments and a broad array of educational approaches to teaching/ learning about and from the environment with due stress on practical activities and first-hand experience.\n''Recommendation No. 3''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that the broader conception of development to which all people now subscribe includes the environment as one of its basic components,\n\n//Considering// that environmental questions would accordingly be best approached and dealt with in relation to the overall policies applied by governments in regard to national development and in regard to international relations in the attempt to establish a new international order,\n\n//Considering// that the environment concerns all men and women in every country and that its preservation and improvement require the support and active participation of the population of those countries,\n\n//Believing// that education at all levels is necessary to this end,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n\nThat they integrate environmental education into their general policy and, in accordance with their national structure, take appropriate measures in order, more especially to:\n* sensitize public opinion to environmental problems and to major projects in course of execution or being planned;\n* develop more detailed general information which will give an overview of major problems, the possibility of dealing with them and the respective urgency of the various measures taken or to be taken;\n* encourage action within the family and in associations concerned with pre-primary education for the environmental education of young children, of pre-school age in particular;\n* assign a central role to the school in the whole system of environmental education and organize, for this purpose, systematic action in primary and secondary education;\n* expand environmental studies at the higher education level;\n* establish the means and methods for an in-service training policy which will provide the additional and, more especially, practical training that may be required by those who, in different capacities, exercise responsibility in the public or private sectors in regard to the environment;\n* seek, by means of environmental education, gradually to transform attitudes and behaviour so that all members of the community may be made aware of their responsibilities in the thinking through formulation and application of national or international environmental programmes;\n* contribute thereby to the search for a new ethic based on respect for nature, for people and for their dignity, and for the future, and on the need for a quality of life to which all will have access and in which all will feel themselves involved.\n//Recommends// to the Director-General of Unesco:\n* That he should provide technical aid to those Member States which are as yet without national environmental education structures, with a view to the formulation and execution of a suitable programme concerning this problem;\n*That he should foster the gradual incorporation of the system thus created into the framework of regional and international co-operation.\n''Recommendation No. 4''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the need to stress not only the socio-economic aspects suitably set forth in the Unesco document but also the ecological aspects of the natural and human environment, which are of the utmost importance for both theoretical and practical environmental education,\n\n//Considering// that the environment constitutes a system,\n\n//Considering// that the human environment, like any other ecosystem, has its own structure, operation and history,\n\n//Considering// that the causes of the ecological crisis must be sought at a deeper level, in certain aspects of these same socio-economic factors, namely:\n* in a mistaken ethical conception of the relationship between humanity and nature,\n* in a diminution, due to an extreme positivism, of the unitary nature of the scientific vision of reality,\n//Recommends// to the Member States that, in respect to formal and non-formal environmental education, they:\n* promote deeper understanding of the natural aspects of the environment;\n* develop a systems approach to the analysis and management of natural and human ecosystems;\n* take into consideration the temporal (past, present and future) dimension of each environment.\n''Recommendation No. 5''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recommends// that governments systematically evaluate the environmental impact of development activities, and //requests// that development assistance strategies and programmes provide opportunities for countries to establish environmental training programmes which include the evaluation of development from the standpoint of the human environment.
!!!Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level\n* [[Organizational structure|Tbilisi Recommendations: Organizational structure]] - Recomendations 6-7\n* [[Target populations for environmental education|Tbilisi Recommendations: Target populations for environmental education]] - Recommendation 8\n* [[Environmental education for the general public|Tbilisi Recommendations: Environmental education for the general public]] - Recommendation 9\n* [[Environmental education of professionals|Tbilisi Recommendations: Environmental education of professionals]] - Recommendations 10-11\n* [[Content and methods|Tbilisi Recommendations: Content and methods]] - Recommendations 12-16\n* [[Training of personnel|Tbilisi Recommendations: Training of personnel]] - Recommendations 17-18\n* [[Teaching - learning materials|Tbilisi Recommendations: Teaching - learning materials]] - Recommendation 19\n* [[Dissemination of information|Tbilisi Recommendations: Dissemination of information]] - Recommendation 20\n* [[Research|Tbilisi Recommendations: Research]] - Recommendation 21
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Target populations for environmental education\n''Recommendation No. 8''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that consideration should be given to:\n* //Education of the general public//: this education should be provided at every age and at all levels of formal education, for pupils and teachers, and in the various non-formal education activities for young people and adults, including the handicapped. In this education, voluntary organizations may play an important role.\n* //Education of specific occupational or social groups//: this education is focused on those whose activity and influence have an important bearing on the environment, for instance, engineers, architects, administrators and planners, industrialists, trade unionists, policy-makers and agriculturalists. Various levels in formal and non-formal education should contribute to this training.\n* //Training of certain professionals and scientists//: this training is for those working on specific problems of the environment, such as biologists, ecologists, hydrologists, toxicologists, soil scientists, agronomists, foresters, landscape architects, oceanographers, limnologists, meteorologists and sanitary engineers. It is important that the training of scientists include an interdisciplinary component.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Teaching - learning materials\n''Recommendation No. 19''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that environmental education becomes more effective when adequate teaching aids and materials are made available,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States that:\n* basic principles should be formulated for the preparation of model textbooks and reading materials for use at all levels within formal and non-formal education systems;\n* in developing low-cost teaching aids and materials, the fullest use should be made of existing documentation, educational research findings should be drawn upon, the value of existing teaching materials should be assessed and new teaching aids for environmental education should be developed as necessary;\n* teachers and learners should be involved in the preparation and adaptation of instructional materials for environmental education;\n* teachers in training should be given an understanding of the widest possible range of educational materials and aids, with special reference to low-cost materials and to opportunities for adaptation and improvisation according to local circumstances.
From [[Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level|Tbilisi Recommendations: Strategies for the Development of Environmental Education at the National Level]] in the [[Recommendations of the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education]]\n!!!Training of personnel\n''Recommendation No. 17''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// the need for all teachers to understand the importance of environmental emphasis in their teaching,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* that environmental sciences and environmental education be included in curricula for pre-service teacher education;\n* that the staffs of teacher education institutions be assisted in this respect; and\n* that teachers should get appropriate environmental training relating to the area, either urban or rural, where they are going to work.\n''Recommendation No.18''\n\nThe Conference,\n\n//Considering// that the importance of in-service training is underlined by the fact that a great majority of present-day teachers were graduated from teacher-training colleges at a time when environmental education was largely neglected and thus did not receive sufficient education in environmental issues and the methodology of environmental education,\n\n//Recommends// to Member States:\n* that they take the necessary steps to make in-service training of teachers in environmental education available for all who need it;\n* that the implementation and development of in-service training, including practical training, in environmental education be made in close co-operation with professional organizations of teachers, both at the international and national levels;\n* that in-service training take account of the area, either urban or rural, where the teachers are working;\n//Recommends// to Unesco:\n* To promote the dissemination of ideas, programmes and instructional material relevant to the promotion of in-service training in environmental education.
This tiddler provides links to some of the tiddlers that control the layout, format, fonts, colours, etc. for a TiddlyWiki web page.\n!!Templates\n* [[PageTemplate]] - defines the overall organization and layout of the page\n* [[ViewTemplate]] - defines the organization and layout of the display of tiddlers\n* [[EditTemplate]] - defines the organization and layout of the tiddlers when they are being edited\n!!Stylesheets\n* [[StyleSheetLayout]] - defines the fonts, font sizes, margins, borders for the various "styles" used\n** [[TagglyTaggingStyles]] - a set of imported styles that control the format by which the tiddler "tags" are presented\n** [[MainMenuStyles]] - Styles for the Main Menu\n* [[StyleSheetColors]] - defines the colour of fonts, background, borders, etc. for the various styles\n!!Palette\n* [[Colour Palette]] - displays a palette of colours - \n* [[ColorPalette]] - shadowed tiddler that defined the colours used in the StyleSheetColors tiddler
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<<<\n//Adopted at the ''Mid-Term Meeting of the International Consultative Forum on Education for All'' in Amman, Jordan, June 1996//\n<<<\nEducation is empowerment. It is the key to establishing and reinforcing democracy, to development which is both sustainable and humane and to peace founded upon mutual respect and social justice. Indeed, in a world in which creativity and knowledge play an ever greater role, the right to education is nothing less that the right to participate in the life of the modern world.\n\nAware of the power and potential of education, the international community committed itself at the [[World Conference on Education for All]] held in Jomtien, Thailand, in March 1990, to meet the basic learning needs of every individual. In major conferences since Jomtien, the nations of the world have repeatedly endorsed the central importance of basic education in all aspects of the development process: preserving the environment, managing population growth, combating poverty, promoting social development and creating equality between the sexes. We have now met in Amman, Jordan, at the gracious invitation of His Majesty King Hussein Bin Talal, to review progress toward the goals set in Jomtien and, of even greater importance, to find ways of overcoming persistent problems and confronting new challenges in order to achieve education for all (EFA).\n!!!Gains Achieved\nIn the six years since the adoption of the [[World Declaration on Education for All]], there has been significant progress in basic education, not in all countries nor as much as had been hoped, but progress that is nonetheless real. Primary school enrolment has increased, an estimated fifty million more children are enrolled today than in 1990. The number of out-of-school children, which had grown inexorably for decades, is also beginning to decline. There are today 20 million fewer out-of-school children of primary-school age than at the start of the decade. This progress is the result of concerted efforts by governments and peoples to extend educational opportunities. New partnerships have emerged, new resources have been tapped and new energies and ideas have been devoted to making education for all a reality.\n\nAccompanying these quantitative gains has been a growing emphasis on the quality of education. Without educational content relevant to current needs, without preparation in the learning skills and new knowledge required for the future, and without efforts to improve learning achievement, access may neither serve the purposes intended nor provide the benefits expected. Fortunately, serious reflection, more rigorous planning and a spirit of innovation have prepared the ground in many countries for important educational advances in the years ahead.\n\nWe acknowledge the forces of progress at work in all parts of the world: the new dynamism with which Africa is struggling, in difficult circumstances, to reverse the negative trends of the last ten years; the valiant efforts of South Asia to bring basic education to hundreds of millions of people; the increasing political support being given to EFA in the Arab States, which is increasingly perceived as the best preparation for meeting the challenges and uncertainties of the future; and the measures taken in other regions of the world to protect, sustain and enhance the gains that have been made since the Jomtien Conference.\n!!!Shortfalls\nYet, if the achievements of the last six years give reason for optimism, they provide no room for complacency. Continued progress requires even more forceful and concerted action, based on good information, sound research and careful analysis and aimed at achieving clearly specified results.\n\nNo point was more stressed in Jomtien than the urgent need to close the gender gap in education, both as a matter of simple equity and as the most effective means for responding to demographic pressures and promoting development. Yet, progress towards this goal has been excruciatingly slow; much more must be done.\n\nThe expanded vision of basic education espoused in Jomtien has often been reduced to a simple emphasis upon putting more children into school: an essential step, but only one of many measures needed to achieve EFA.\n\nEarly childhood care and development, with its enormous potential and distinctive role in promoting the active learning capacities and the overall well-being and development of children, while receiving greatly increased attention, nonetheless remains seriously under-developed and under-supported in many countries.\n\nThis lack of support applies as well to out-of-school literacy and education programmes for adolescents and adults. There are some 900 million adult illiterates in the world, nearly two- thirds of them women. In all societies, the best predictor of the learning achievement of children is the education and literacy level of their parents. Investments in adult education and literacy are, thus, investments in the education of entire families.\n\nThere has also been a tendency to focus on basic education without recognizing its essential links to secondary and higher education, as well as to teacher training and the development of technical and vocational skills. The [[World Declaration on Education for All]] was intended to empower, not to limit -- to propose minimums, but not to set ceilings.\n!!!The Road Ahead\nAs we look to the end of the century and beyond, the leadership in each country must assume the responsibility for accelerating progress towards EFA, setting firm targets and timetables for achieving them.\n\nInternational agencies and donors must also play their full role as partners in the EFA movement, matching national efforts with significantly increased international support, improved co- ordination and greater responsiveness to country priorities.\n\nAll EFA partners must learn how to mobilize new resources as well as how to use existing resources more effectively. In the quest for EFA, enhanced political will, greater financial and material resources and improved management are all essential.\n!!!Emerging Challenges\nIn the light of the developments of the past six years, it has become essential to re-examine goals and add new areas and means of action to those set forth in the Jomtien vision:\n\nGiven the trend toward more open societies and global economies, we must emphasize the forms of learning and critical thinking that enable individuals to understand changing environments, create new knowledge and shape their own destinies. We must respond to new challenges by promoting learning in all aspects of life, through all the institutions of society, in effect, creating environments in which living is learning.\n\nGiven the growing recognition and reality of multicultural and diverse societies, we must respond by including local content as well as cross-cultural learning in basic education and by acknowledging the essential role of the mother tongue for initial instruction.\n\nGiven escalating violence caused by growing ethnic tensions and other sources of conflict, we must respond by ensuring that education reinforces mutual respect, social cohesion and democratic governance; We must learn how to use education to prevent conflict and, where crises do occur, ensure that education is among the first responses, thereby contributing to hope, stability and the healing of the wounds of conflict.\n\nGiven debt burdens, restrictions on social expenditures and continuing wasteful expenditure on weapons of war, we must respond with measures to reduce debt burdens, including the transformation of liabilities into assets through debt swaps, policies that promote investments in a nation's people and future, and reforms to the international economic system that give poor countries a chance to earn their way in the world.\n\nGiven rapidly growing numbers of youth at risk, often alienated from society and facing unemployment, we must seek ways to make education more responsive, both to the immediate realities facing these youth, as well as to the changing realities of a world in which basic learning skills are ever more important.\n!!!Continuing Challenges\nEven as we focus our attention on these new realities and challenges, we must persist in our efforts to meet the goals set forth in the World Declaration on Education for All:\n\nThe priority of priorities must continue to be the education of women and girls. Successful approaches and programmes must be identified in order that they may be replicated and expanded. There can be no enduring success in basic education until the gender gap is closed.\n\nThe training, status and motivation of teachers continues to be at the very core of educational concerns. While we must make better and wider use of technology and media, they can complement, but never replace the essential role of the teacher as the organizer of the instructional process and as a guide and example to the young.\n\nThe full vision of EFA, that of a learning society, recognizes the role of parents, families and communities as the child's first teachers. Both learning and teaching begin at birth and continue throughout life, as individuals work, live and communicate ideas and values by word and example.\n\nEFA can only be achieved through a broad partnership united by a shared purpose. It is essential to sustain the spirit of partnership and to broaden it to include all elements of society: parliaments, religious bodies, voluntary and community groups, the business sector, the media and others. EFA was founded on a faith in partnerships and a belief that, in a shrinking world, we are destined to share fully in the successes as well as the setbacks of other peoples and countries. In the quest to achieve EFA, it is essential that we sustain and enhance this spirit of solidarity.\n\nThe efficient and effective use of resources continues to be essential to the progress of EFA. We must seek more efficient management of education systems, make more effective use of partnerships, draw more systematically upon research and experimentation, and develop reliable information and assessment systems.\n\nThe right to education has been powerfully reaffirmed by the near-universal ratification of the United Nations <a href="crc.htm">Convention on the Rights of the Child</a>. Yet, there are still over 100 million children without access to education. We must respond urgently with new approaches and strategies capable of bringing quality education within the reach of all, including the poor, the remote and those with special educational needs. This calls for a comprehensive effort tailored to the needs of specific populations and based upon the best available expertise and technology.\n!!!Renewing the Pledge\nSix years ago, at Jomtien, the international community agreed upon the necessity and the possibility of achieving Education for All. Today, we, the participants in the Mid-Decade Review of EFA, reflecting on the experience and knowledge gained during the intervening years, reaffirm that necessity and possibility and re-dedicate ourselves to the essential task of bring the benefits of education to all.\n
The Hague Appeal for Peace is an international network of organizations and individuals dedicated to the abolition of war and making peace a human right. The Global Campaign for Peace Education was launched at the Hague Appeal for Peace conference in May 1999. After the conference, Hague Appeal for Peace took the responsibility of coordinating the Campaign.\n\nFor more information, visit
The Talloires Declaration was developed in 1990 and has been signed by over 320 university presidents and chancellors around the world. The Association of University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF) serves as the secretariat for the declaration. ULSF is a leading international non-profit organization working to strengthen the capacity of colleges and universities to make sustainability and environmental literacy a major focus of teaching, research, service, and operations.\n\n----\n!!The Talloires Declaration\nWe, the presidents, rectors, and vice chancellors of universities from all regions of the world are deeply concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources.\n\nLocal, regional, and global air and water pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. These environmental changes are caused by inequitable and unsustainable production and consumption patterns that aggravate poverty in many regions of the world.\n\nWe believe that urgent actions are needed to address these fundamental problems and reverse the trends. Stabilization of human population, adoption of environmentally sound industrial and agricultural technologies, reforestation, and ecological restoration are crucial elements in creating an equitable and sustainable future for all humankind in harmony with nature.\n\nUniversities have a major role in the education, research, policy formation, and information exchange necessary to make these goals possible. Thus, university leaders must initiate and support mobilization of internal and external resources so that their institutions respond to this urgent challenge.\n\nWe, therefore, agree to take the following actions:\n<<<\n1. ''Increase Awareness of Environmentally Sustainable Development''\nUse every opportunity to raise public, government, industry, foundation, and university awareness by openly addressing the urgent need to move toward an environmentally sustainable future.\n\n2. ''Create an Institutional Culture of Sustainability''\nEncourage all universities to engage in education, research, policy formation, and information exchange on population, environment, and development to move toward global sustainability.\n\n3. ''Educate for Environmentally Responsible Citizenship''\nEstablish programs to produce expertise in environmental management, sustainable economic development, population, and related fields to ensure that all university graduates are environmentally literate and have the awareness and understanding to be ecologically responsible citizens.\n\n4. ''Foster Environmental Literacy For All''\nCreate programs to develop the capability of university faculty to teach environmental literacy to all undergraduate, graduate, and professional students.\n\n5. ''Practice Institutional Ecology''\nSet an example of environmental responsibility by establishing institutional ecology policies and practices of resource conservation, recycling, waste reduction, and environmentally sound operations.\n\n6. ''Involve All Stakeholders''\nEncourage involvement of government, foundations, and industry in supporting interdisciplinary research, education, policy formation, and information exchange in environmentally sustainable development. Expand work with community and nongovernmental organizations to assist in finding solutions to environmental problems.\n\n7. ''Collaborate for Interdisciplinary Approaches''\nConvene university faculty and administrators with environmental practitioners to develop interdisciplinary approaches to curricula, research initiatives, operations, and outreach activities that support an environmentally sustainable future.\n\n8. ''Enhance Capacity of Primary and Secondary Schools''\nEstablish partnerships with primary and secondary schools to help develop the capacity for interdisciplinary teaching about population, environment, and sustainable development.\n\n9. ''Broaden Service and Outreach Nationally and Internationally''\nWork with national and international organizations to promote a worldwide university effort toward a sustainable future.\n\n10. ''Maintain the Movement''\nEstablish a Secretariat and a steering committee to continue this momentum, and to inform and support each other's efforts in carrying out this declaration.\n<<<\n----\n\nTo find out more about the Tailloires Declaration. visit the web site of the ''Association of University Leaders for a Sustainable Future'' at
''The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom'' is a highly-acclaimed book on the nature and dynamics of a 'networked information economy' by ''Yochai Benkler'', Professor of Law at Yale and New York University, and is recommended reading for anyone who would like to understand more about the profound economic transformation that is being made possible by developments in information and communications technologies (ICT). Published in May 2006, the book was also released under a [[Creative Commons]] licence and made freely available for non-commercial use on an experimental collaborative wiki site that Benkler set up at [[|]].\n\nThe opportunity to participate in "The Wealth of Networks Wiki " has played a valuable role in the development of plans for the use of ICT in support of the NGO Committee on Education's plans for the Decade on Education for Sustainable Development, and the Committee has published the primary HTML version of the book at [[|]]
These tiddlers are included for their usefulness in administering, managing and editing this TiddlyWiki web page, and may be of interest to visitors who want to explore some of the unique design features of TiddlyWiki web pages, and perhaps to being developing your own TiddyWiki pages. A central key to the genius of the design of TiddlyWiki is the way that virtually all aspects of a TiddlyWiki web page - organization and classification of the content, layout, format, colours, fonts, functions and features can be managed through tiddlers that define templates, styles or macros and features written in Javascript.\n* [[Tiddler Lists]] \n** [[Alphabetical Tiddlers]] \n** [[Tiddler Timeline]]\n** [[Shadow Tiddlers]] \n** [[Missing Tiddlers]] \n** [[Imported Tiddlers]] \n** [[Tiddler Tags]] \n** [[Included TiddlyWikis]] \n* [[Main Menu|MainMenu]] \n** [[Default Tiddlers|DefaultTiddlers]] \n* [[Import Tiddlers]] \n* [[Plugin Macros]] \n* [[Templates & Stylesheets]] \n** PageTemplate \n** ViewTemplate \n** EditTemplate \n** StyleSheetLayout \n** StyleSheetColors \n** [[Colour Palette]] \n* [[Formatting Tiddlers]] \n** [[Formatting Text]] \n** [[Headers & Outlines]] \n** [[Tiddly Links]] \n** [[Tables]] \n** [[Images]] \n
TiddlyWiki offers many ways by which you can create list of tiddlers\n* [[Alphabetical Tiddlers]] - a list of tiddlers in alphabetical order\n* [[Tiddler Timeline]] - a list of tiddlers by date they were created or edited\n* [[Shadow Tiddlers]] - tiddlers for which a default value is generated - either by TiddlyWiki itself, or by a plugin macro\n* [[Missing Tiddlers]] - tiddlers that have not been defined, but that have been referenced in one or more other tiddlers\n* [[Site Maps]] - \n
This tiddler uses the {{<<allTags>>}}} built-in macro to list the tags / key words, indicate the number of tiddlers with each tag, and create a link to each tag that displays all the tiddlers with the tag.\n\n<<allTags>>\n
<<tiddler TabTimeline>>
//{{{\n// based on Sweet Titles (c) Creative Commons 2005\n//\n// Author: Dustin Diaz |\n// Adapted to TW for tiddler previews by Saq Imtiaz\nconfig.linkPreview ={\n tiddlyLinkPreview : true,\n externalLinkPreview : false,\n customTiddlerPreview : true\n}\n\nif (config.linkPreview.customTiddlerPreview)\n {\n Tiddler.prototype.getSubtitle = function()\n {\n return (this.text.length>0 ? this.text.substr(0,110) : "(no text)");\n }\n }\n\nif (config.linkPreview.tiddlyLinkPreview)\n {\n old_tiddlerPreview_createTiddlyButton=createTiddlyButton;\n window.createTiddlyButton = function (theParent,theText,theTooltip,theAction,theClass,theId,theAccessKey)\n {\n var theButton = old_tiddlerPreview_createTiddlyButton.apply(this,arguments);\n if (theButton.className.indexOf('tiddlyLink')!=-1)\n {\n theButton = setLinkPreview(theButton);\n }\n return theButton;\n }\n }\n\nfunction setLinkPreview (theButton)\n{\n theButton.setAttribute("tip",theButton.getAttribute("title"));\n addEvent(theButton,'mouseover',sweetTitles.tipOver);\n addEvent(theButton,'mouseout',sweetTitles.tipOut);\n theButton.setAttribute("title","");\n return theButton;\n}\n\nif (config.linkPreview.externalLinkPreview)\n {\n old_tiddlerPreview_createExternalLink=createExternalLink;\n window.createExternalLink = function(place,url)\n {\n var theLink = old_tiddlerPreview_createExternalLink(place,url);\n theLink = setLinkPreview(theLink);\n return(theLink);\n }\n }\n\nwindow.old_lewcid_pt_restart = restart;\nrestart = function()\n{\n window.old_lewcid_pt_restart();\n sweetTitles.init();\n};\n\nwindow.refreshTiddlyLink = function(e,title)\n{\n var i = getTiddlyLinkInfo(title,e.className);\n e.className = i.classes;\n if (!e.getAttribute('tip'))\n e.title = i.subTitle;\n}\n\nsetStylesheet("body div#toolTip { position:absolute;z-index:1000;width:220px;background:#000;border:2px double #fff;text-align:left;padding:5px;min-height:1em;-moz-border-radius:5px; }\sn body div#toolTip p { margin:0;padding:2px;color:#fff;font:11px/12px verdana,arial,sans-serif; font-weight:bold; word-break:normal;display:block;overflow:hidden;}","linkPreviewStyles");\n\nvar sweetTitles = { \n xCord : 0, // @Number: x pixel value of current cursor position\n yCord : 0, // @Number: y pixel value of current cursor position\n tipElements : ['a','abbr','acronym'], // @Array: Allowable elements that can have the toolTip\n obj : Object, // @Element: That of which you're hovering over\n tip : Object, // @Element: The actual toolTip itself\n active : 0, // @Number: 0: Not Active || 1: Active\n init : function() {\n this.tip = createTiddlyElement(document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0],"div","toolTip");\n = '0';\n = 'hidden';\n },\n updateXY : function(e) {\n var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);\n sweetTitles.xCord = findPosX(theTarget);\n sweetTitles.yCord = findPosY(theTarget);\n },\n tipOut: function() {\n if ( window.tID ) {\n clearTimeout(tID);\n }\n if ( window.opacityID ) {\n clearTimeout(opacityID);\n }\n = 'hidden';\n },\n tipOver : function(e) {\n sweetTitles.obj = this;\n tID = window.setTimeout("sweetTitles.tipShow()",500);\n sweetTitles.updateXY(e);\n },\n tipShow : function() { \n var scrX = Number(this.xCord);\n var scrY = Number(this.yCord);\n var tp = parseInt(scrY+15);\n var lt = parseInt(scrX+10);\n var anch = this.obj;\n this.tip.innerHTML = "<p>"+anch.getAttribute('tip')+"<em></em></p>";\n = ( parseInt(findWindowWidth()+findScrollX()) < parseInt(this.tip.offsetWidth+lt) )? parseInt(lt-(this.tip.offsetWidth))+'px' : = lt+'px';\n = ( parseInt(findWindowHeight()+findScrollY()) < parseInt(this.tip.offsetHeight+tp) ) ? parseInt(tp-(this.tip.offsetHeight+15))+'px': = tp+5+'px';\n = 'visible';\n = '.1';\n this.tipFade(10);\n },\n tipFade: function(opac) {\n var passed = parseInt(opac);\n var newOpac = parseInt(passed+10);\n if ( newOpac < 80 ) {\n = '.'+newOpac;\n = "alpha(opacity:"+newOpac+")";\n opacityID = window.setTimeout("sweetTitles.tipFade('"+newOpac+"')",20);\n }\n else { \n = '.80';\n = "alpha(opacity:80)";\n }\n }\n};\n//}}}
A ''Tiddler'' is the basic unit of content in a TiddlyWiki, the equivalent of a page in a conventional Wiki site or web site. There are three basic types of Tiddlers: scripts or macros, styles, and text, although a Tiddler can contain elements of all three.\n\nEach tiddler is of the form of a styled {{{<div> ... </div>}}} with attributes for the name of the Tiddler, the user name of the last person wh edited the Tiddler, a 12-digit date and time code for the date and time the Tiddler was modified and created, and a set of tags or key words, where the tag is either a single word, or two or more words enclosed by square brackets - e.g. {{{[[sustainable development]]}}}, and in the source code of a TiddlyWiki page each Tiddler is a single line of code, and looks something like the following\n{{{<div tiddler'"Tiddlers" modifier="Editor" modified="200611111130" created="20061031830" tags="tag1 tag2 [[another tag]] .... ">content of tiddler - optionally with TiddlerMarkup language.</div>}}} In the source code, a new line is coded as {{{/n}}}.\n\n\nThe contents of a Tiddler can be formatted with simple but powerful formatting codes, described in more detail in TiddlerMarkup
TiddlyPerfect is the child of a marriage of convenience. and holds within it great promises of convenience. a marriage of the old and the new and through which the unparalelled genius of DataPerfect, the true centrepiece of the WordPerfect Corporation in its days the old. One parent - TiddlyWiki - the newest, wiki-est of wikis; the other is DataPerfect, the most brilliant software in WordPerfect Library / Office released more than twenty years ago in a world of MS-DOS - TiddlyWiki, the complex and the simple. and a marriag between TiddlyWiki and DataPerfect - from wiki interactions between conversations among Javascripts, Cascading Styles, HTML, Wiki, //et al//
What distinguishes a "~TiddlyPerfect Menu" from a ~TiddlyWiki Menu is that the former has been generated by the DataPerfect engine, through generating tiddlers from menu titles based on the use of [[Cascading Links]], one of DataPerfect's many design features.\n\nThe menus for the [[Gandhi-King Season for Nonviolence]] - [[|]] - and the collection of [[Poems from Rumi]] - [[|]] - are examples of ~DataPerfect-generated menus written in HTML, and that could readily be translated in to the language of TiddylWiki\n
The following TiddlyPerfect web sites are in various stages of development \n\n|>|Available online|h\n|TiddlyPerfect||\n|[[Climate Change 2.0]]||\n|[[Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review]]||\n|[[Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble: Plan B 3.0 (beta)]]||\n|[[Workshop on Education, Youth & Technology for Sustainable Development|DPI/NGO Workshop]]||\n|[[UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements]]||\n|[[Information Habitat 2.0|Information Habitat]]||\n|[[DataPerfect Information]]||\n|>|Under development|h\n|[[Silken Valleys: Where Silicon Valley Meets the Silk Road]]|/%|\n|[[IPCC Fourth Assessment Review]]||\n|[[Climate Change Bibliography]]||\n|[[Program Editor 3.1]]||
nTiddlyPerfect is an emerging hybrid information species - based on TiddlyWiki and DataPerfect, two remarkable software platforms. TiddlyWiki is a brilliant new platform for a self-contained wiki site, powered by Javascript, in which contents is based on "tiddlers" that can contains, formatted text, images, etc, plugin macros written in Javascript that can be executed inside other tiddlers, and cascading styles sheets, and that offers exceptional versatility in organizing and presenting web-based information. DataPerfect, a largely unrecognized star of the legendary WordPerfect family of the MS-DOS era - obscured by the onset of Windows - is arguably the most brilliant relational database ever written and is an ideal engine from which tiddlers can be generated. In the full implementation of TiddlyPerfect, a DataPerfect engine will serve as a database engine for TiddyyWiki. In the meantime, DataPerfect has been used as the engine to generate the content for several TiddyWiki sites. \n\nThe extensive archives of [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]], gathered over the past sixteen years in the course of Information Habitat's pioneer tole in promoting the adoption of information and communications technology by the United Nations NGO community, beginning with the preparations for the 1992 Earth Summit that are serving as the initial collection for [[Climate Change 2.0]] and for the [[NGO Committee on Education]]'s commitment in support of the [[United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] have been largely maintained in a set of DataPerfect digital engines, that will be used to generate an evolving set of prototype TiddlyPerfect sites.
''~TiddlyWiki'' - [[|]] - is a brilliant, versatile completely self-contained personal wiki powered by ''HTML''. ''Javascript'' & ''Cascading Styles'' that allows one to add and modify 'microcontent' using a simple, yet powerful markup language. Each piece of microcontent, that can include text, images, Javascript macros and/or Cascading Styles, is saved in a separate "tiddler" that records the creator or modifier of the tiddler, the date and time the tiddler was created and last modified, and a set of tags / keywords in addition to the content.\n\n~TiddlyWiki was created by ''Jeremy Ruston'' and is published under an Open Source license that allows anyone to use and share it freely. The incorporation of an "ImportTiddlers" feature makes it easy to import tiddlers from other TiddlyWiki pages, and this site includes a number of "plugin macros" that have been imported from other pages. There is a very active, resourceful and enthusiastic community of thinkers, developers and users who help each other to get the best out of using ~TiddlyWiki.\n\n
/***\n| Name:|ToggleTagMacro|\n| Description:|Makes a checkbox which toggles a tag in a tiddler|\n| Version:|6.1.2|\n| Date:|20-Oct-2006|\n| Source:||\n| Author:|SimonBaird|\n| License:|[[BSD open source license]]|\n| CoreVersion:|2.1|\n!Usage\n{{{<<toggleTag }}}//{{{TagName TiddlerName LabelText}}}//{{{>>}}}\n* TagName - the tag to be toggled, default value "checked"\n* TiddlerName - the tiddler to toggle the tag in, default value the current tiddler\n* LabelText - the text (gets wikified) to put next to the check box, default value is '{{{[[TagName]]}}}' or '{{{[[TagName]] [[TiddlerName]]}}}'\n(If a parameter is '.' then the default will be used)\n\nExamples:\n\n|Code|Description|Example|h\n|{{{<<toggleTag>>}}}|Toggles the default tag (checked) in this tiddler|<<toggleTag>>|\n|{{{<<toggleTag TagName>>}}}|Toggles the TagName tag in this tiddler|<<toggleTag TagName>>|\n|{{{<<toggleTag TagName TiddlerName>>}}}|Toggles the TagName tag in the TiddlerName tiddler|<<toggleTag TagName TiddlerName>>|\n|{{{<<toggleTag TagName TiddlerName 'click me'>>}}}|Same but with custom label|<<toggleTag TagName TiddlerName 'click me'>>|\n|{{{<<toggleTag . . 'click me'>>}}}|dot means use default value|<<toggleTag . . 'click me'>>|\n(Note if TiddlerName doesn't exist it will be silently created)\n\n!Known issues\n* Doesn't smoothly handle the case where you toggle a tag in a tiddler that is current open for editing. Should it stick the tag in the edit box?\n\n***/\n//{{{\n\nmerge(config.macros,{\n\n toggleTag: {\n\n doRefreshAll: true,\n createIfRequired: true,\n shortLabel: "[[%0]]",\n longLabel: "[[%0]] [[%1]]",\n\n handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {\n var tag = (params[0] && params[0] != '.') ? params[0] : "checked";\n var title = (params[1] && params[1] != '.') ? params[1] : tiddler.title;\n var defaultLabel = (title == tiddler.title ? this.shortLabel : this.longLabel);\n var label = (params[2] && params[2] != '.') ? params[2] : defaultLabel;\n var theTiddler = title == tiddler.title ? tiddler : store.getTiddler(title);\n var cb = createTiddlyCheckbox(place, label.format([tag,title]), theTiddler && theTiddler.isTagged(tag), function(e) {\n if (!store.tiddlerExists(title)) {\n if (config.macros.toggleTag.createIfRequired) {\n var content = store.getTiddlerText(title); // just in case it's a shadow\n store.saveTiddler(title,title,content?content:"",config.options.txtUserName,new Date(),null);\n }\n else \n return false;\n }\n //store.suspendNotifications(); \n store.setTiddlerTag(title,this.checked,tag);\n //refreshDisplay(); \n //store.resumeNotifications();\n return true;\n });\n }\n }\n});\n\n//}}}\n\n
[<img[Twin Light & Colour Cube|]] [>img[Twin Light & Colour Cube|]]\n@@clear(left):clear(right):display(block):@@\nThe ''Twin Light & Colour Cubes'' / ''Virtual Light & Colour Cubes'' are fascinating, profoundly symmetrical cubes with dimensions of ''@@color:#ff0000;red@@'', ''@@color:#00ff00;green@@'' & ''@@color:#0000ff;blue@@'' - the primary colours of light - in which the colour at any point is equal to the sum of the point's red, green and blue coordinates - represented in HTML as {{{#rrggbb}}} where {{{rr}}}, {{{gg}}} & {{{bb}}} are two-digit hexadecimal numbers describing the intensity of ''@@color:#ff0000;red@@'', ''@@color:#00ff00;green@@'' & ''@@color:#0000ff;blue@@'' respectively. Each cube - the mirror image and photographic negative of each other - contains all the colours that can be displayed in the "RGB" mode used by computer monitors, digital cameras, television, film, etc. \n\nThe Light & Colour Cubes show how colours can be understood as existing in a three-dimensional space - in which the faces of the cubes are the surfaces and outer boundaries of colour space - and serve as the cornerstone of a simple three-dimensional mathematics and geometry of light & colour that allows - within the constraints of the cubes - addition and subtraction, calculation of "distances" between any two colours, and a geometrical representation of relationships between colours.\n\nThe Light & Colour Cubes - whose only "pure" existence is in a virtual or mathematical space - allow a simple, yet profound shift in our perception and understanding of colour & light as we transition to a digital, light-based environment from a material, pigment-based world. We can discover that the ''blue'', ''red'' & ''yellow'' that had been taught as the primary colours, are actually, ''@@color:#00ffff;cyan@@'', ''@@color:#ff00ff;magenta@@'' & ''@@color:#ffff00;yellow@@'' - the colours that, with the addition of ''black'', are used by printers and known as ''CMYK''. ''@@color:#00ffff;Cyan@@'', ''@@color:#ff00ff;magenta@@'' & ''@@color:#ffff00;yellow@@'' are the photographic negatives of ''@@color:#ff0000;red@@'', ''@@color:#00ff00;green@@'' & ''@@color:#0000ff;blue@@'' , the primary colours of light. Both sets of primary colours - along with ''black'' and ''@@color:#ffffff;background:#000000;white@@'' - serve as the apexes of the Light & Colour Cubes. While a pure Light & Colour Cube only exists as a virtual entity, models of the cubes can be built with [[downloadable template|Templates for Light & Colour Cubes]]\n\n\nIn the context of the transition to a sustainable development path, the dimensions of the cube ''@@color:#ff0000;red@@'', ''@@color:#00ff00;green@@'' & ''@@color:#0000ff;blue@@'' - can serve as a metaphor for the "three pillars of sustainable development" - ''@@color:#ff0000;economic@@'', ''@@color:#00ff00;environmental@@'' and ''@@color:#0000ff;social@@''. The Light & Colour Cubes were dedicated as ''Peace Cubes'' at the Peace Bell in an Earthday ceremony at UN Headquarters, and have been incorporated on many subsequent web sites developed by ''Information Habitat'' - several of which are devoted to sets of images derived from the Light & Colour Cubes.\n\n the Peace Bell o\n\nDiscovered by [[Information Habitat: Where Information Lives]] in November 1996, in the context of follow-up to the June 1996 [[Habitat II]] conference in Istanbul, the Light & Colour Cubes have served as icons for [[information ecology|Information ecology]] and for a sustainable transition to a digital knowledge-based universe. \n\n\n\n\n\n
''UN Documents Cooperation Circles: Gathering a Body of Global Agreements'' is a unique hyperlinked collection of more than five hundred key United Nations documents relating to sustainable development, education, human rights, peace, etc., including the agreements from most of the major global conferences organized by the United Nations and a significant number of important conventions / treaties. The use of hyperlinksA significant number of these documents have only previously been available as scanned images - where their contents were mostly generally inaccessible to Internet search engines and from which it was not possible to copy selected text - and have been converted using Optical Character Recognition software. \n\nThe documents have been converted into a simple HTML format, imported into a DataPerfect database, and re-generated in a consistent common format. A simple, consistent system of file names for documents with UN document codes has been adopted, making it easy to reference the documents - e.g. the URL for General Assembly Resolution A/RES/60/1 - the ''2005 World Summit Outcome'' is [[|]]. For consistency and to simplify the recognition and understanding, a revised document code has been adopted for General Assembly resolutions for the first thirty Sessions of the General Assembly, for which Roman numerals have historically been used to identify the session; thus the GA resolution 2625 (XXV) on the.''Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations'' has been given the document code A/RES/25/2625 instead of A/RES/2625(XXV) and a corresponding URL of [[|]].\n\nIn the case of many of the longer documents in the collection, a Table of Contents, with links to the different sections has been added. In the case of conventions, "anchors" have been added to each article of the convention. This makes it possible to create links directly to relevant sections in a document. For the General Assembly documents. the number of the agenda item has been recorded, and the task of adding the description of the agenda items has been partially implemented. \n\nThe documents in the collection have been classified with key words, to make it easier to find related documents; there remains considerable need for additional key words, and for elaboration of the organization and structure of the key words. The inclusion of hyperlinks to references cited in documents makes it possible to a} generate a table to links for each document, and b) to create a listing of documents that include a reference to the documents. The generation of web pages with the backward and forward reference tables remains as a future enhancement; a sample document, links for the ''2005 World Summit Outcome'' is available at [[|]]\n\nThe ''Official Records of the General Assembly'' corresponding to the resolutions have also been added to the collection and uploaded;the Official Records are a very valuable resource for anyone interested in the history of the United Nations; these records are only available as scanned pdf files; in most cases, many of the pages are skewed in the vopies on the ''Official Documents of the United Nations'' - [[|]] - some of the files of the official records have been de-skewed - with ''ReadIris Pro'', an excellent OCR package, and blank pages have been removed.\n\nThe UN Documents web site has been submitted to the major search engines, with the result that some of the documents are now fairly close to the top of Google search results for their title and a [[Google site search|Google UN documents]] offers a quick way to find relevant documents in the collection.
!! Article 2: Objective\nThe ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.\n\nSuch a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient\n* to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change,\n* to ensure that food production is not threatened and\n* to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
Education for sustainable development is about learning to:\n* respect, value and preserve the achievements of the past;\n* appreciate the wonders and the peoples of the Earth;\n* live in a world where all people have sufficient food for a healthy and productive life;\n* assess, care for and restore the state of our Planet;\n* create and enjoy a better, safer, more just world;\n* be caring citizens who exercise their rights and responsibilities locally, nationally and globally.\nIn the framework of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), we would like to get your answers to the following questions:\n* How do you say Sustainable Development in your country? Please send us the words ‘sustainable development’ in the different languages and dialects of your country.\n* Define Sustainable Development in 25 words or less - please write and send us a sentence containing 25 words maximum which summarizes your perception of sustainable development.\n* Is Education for Sustainable development (ESD) different from education for environment (EE)? If yes, what are the differences?\n* Are you doing anything related to Education for Sustainable Development in your community, your school? If yes, please give some examples.\n* To promote a sustainable world, what would you do?\n** At a personal level\n** At a community level\n** At a national level\n* Have you heard of the [[Earth Charter]]? If yes, what do you think of it?\nPlease send your contributions to [[Decade for Education for Sustainable Development|]] at UNESCO.\n\nThank you for your cooperation.
The ''United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development'' (2005-2014) was established by [[General Assembly Resolution 57/254|57/254. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]] on 20 December 2002 in response to a recommendation in the [[section on education|"Education" in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation]] in the [[Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development|]] ("Johannesburg Plan of Implementation"). and gave the lead responsibility for co-ordinating the response of the United Nations system to the ''United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization'' (UNESCO) \n\nThe Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) is one of a number of United Nations Decades that have been established by the General Assembly and many of these address areas of global concern that are closely connected with the issue of education and sustainable development, and hence of significant concern to the NGO Committee on Education. Among such Decades currently underway are the ''International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World'' (2000-2010), the ''United Nations Literacy Decade'' (2003-2012) , the ''Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People'' (2005-2014), and the ''International Decade for Action, "Water for Life'' (2005-2015).\n\nFor more information on Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, visit UNESCO's web site at
<<<\nAdopted by the ''United Nations General Assembly'' in its resolution 217 A (III), December 10, 1948\n<<<\nWhereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,\n\nWhereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,\n\nWhereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,\n\nWhereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,\n\nWhereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,\n\nWhereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,\n\nWhereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,\n\nNow, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.\n!!!Article 1.\nAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.\n!!!Article 2.\nEveryone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.\n!!!Article 3.\nEveryone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.\n!!!Article 4.\nNo one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.\n!!!Article 5.\nNo one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.\n!!!Article 6.\nEveryone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.\n!!!Article 7.\nAll are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.\n!!!Article 8.\nEveryone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.\n!!!Article 9.\nNo one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.\n!!!Article 10.\nEveryone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.!\n!!Article 11.\n1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.\n\n2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.\n!!!Article 12.\nNo one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.\n!!!Article 13.\n1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.\n\n2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.\n!!!Article 14.\n1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.\n\n2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.\n!!!Article 15.\n1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.\n\n2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.\n!!!Article 16.\n1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.\n\n2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.\n\n3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.\n!!!Article 17.\n1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.\n\n2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.\n!!!Article 18.\nEveryone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.\n!!!Article 19.\nEveryone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.\n!!!Article 20.\n1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.\n\n2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.\n!!!Article 21.\n1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.\n\n2. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.\n\n3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.\n!!!Article 22.\nEveryone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.!\n!!Article 23.\n1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.\n\n2. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.\n\n3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.\n\n4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.\n!!!Article 24.\nEveryone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.\n!!!Article 25.\n1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.\n\n2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.\n!!!Article 26.\n1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.\n\n2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.\n\n3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.\n!!!Article 27.\n1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.\n\n2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.\n!!!Article 28.\nEveryone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.\n!!!Article 29.\n1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.\n\n2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.\n\n3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.\n!!!Article 30.\nNothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.\n\n//183rd plenary meeting\n10 December 1948//
!!Basic Options\nThe Interface Options use the {{{<<option>>}}} built-in macro to allow you to customise some of the ways this web site behaves. The options you select are saved in your browser, and will remain in effect when you visit this site again. \n\nYour username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>\nConventionally, TiddlyWiki developers suggest this bewritten as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs), however TiddlyPerfect recommends a user name with separate elements, eg Firstname Lastname, a Nickname or an organizational name. Note that you will only be able to create or edit tiddlers if the page you are editing is on a local drive \n\n<<option chkSaveBackups>> Save Backups\n<<option chkAutoSave>> Auto Save\n<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch\n<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> Case Sensitive Search\n<<option chkAnimate>> Enable Animations\n----\n!!Advanced Options\n!!!Navigation Options\n<<option chkToggleLinks>> Clicking on links to tiddlers that are already open causes them to close\n^^(override with Control or other modifier key)^^\n<<option chkOpenInNewWindow>> Open Links In New Window\n!!!Save Options\n<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups\n<<option chkGenerateAnRssFeed>> Generate an Rss Feed\n<<option chkSaveEmptyTemplate>> Save Empty Template - i.e. just TiddlyWiki, without any of the tiddlers\nFolder name for backup files: <<option txtBackupFolder>>\n<<option chkAutoSave>> Auto Save: When selected, the page will be saved each time you save a tiddler; note that it will slow down your editing, while it protects you from losing your work if your browser crashes. \n!!!Editing Options\n<<option chkHttpReadOnly>> HideEditingFeatures when viewed over HTTP\n<<option chkForceMinorUpdate>> Treat edits as MinorChanges by preserving date and time\n^^(override with Shift key when clicking 'done' or by pressing Ctrl-Shift-Enter^^\n<<option chkConfirmDelete>> Confirm Before Deleting a tiddler\nMaximum number of lines in a tiddler edit box: <<option txtMaxEditRows>>\n<<option chkInsertTabs>> Use tab key to insert tab characters instead of jumping to next field\n!!!Search Options\n<<option chkSearchTitles>> Search in tiddler titles\n<<option chkSearchText>> Search in tiddler text\n<<option chkSearchTags>> Search in tiddler tags\n<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>> Search results show title matches first\n<<option chkSearchList>> Search results show list of matching tiddlers\n<<option chkSearchIncremental>> Incremental searching\n!!!~YourSearch Options\n<<option chkUseYourSearch>> Use 'Your Search' \n<<option chkPreviewText>> Show Text Preview\n<<option chkSearchAsYouType>> 'Search As You Type' Mode (No RETURN required to start search)\nDefault Search Filter: <<option chkSearchInTitle>>Titles ('!') <<option chkSearchInText>>Texts ('%') <<option chkSearchInTags>>Tags ('#') <html><br><font size="-2">The parts of a tiddlers that are searched when you don't explicitly specify a filter in the search text (using a '!', '%' or '#' prefix).</font></html>\nNumber of items on search result page: <<option txtItemsPerPage>>\nNumber of items on search result page with preview text: <<option txtItemsPerPageWithPreview>>\n!!!Private Settings: \n<<option chkUsePrivateSettings>> Use private settings. \n<<option chkMakeSettingPrivateWhenChanged>> Make setting private when changed.&#160;&#160;&#160;[[Show Settings]].\n^^(Private settings are stored in this ~TiddlyWiki, shared settings are stored as cookies. For more information see the [[Settings documentation|SettingsPlugin Documentation]].)^^\n!!Plugins\n[[PluginManager]]\n\n
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Welcome to ''Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability'' - a TiddlyWiki rendition of the ''Summary for Policy Makers'' of ''Working Group II'' for the [[Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007]] of the [[Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change]] that was released on Friday, April 6, 2007.\n\nThis rendition of the report is an element of [[Climate Change 2.0]] - an initiative being prepared in support of preparations for, broad=based participation in and follow-up to, the ''60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference'' on the theme of ''Climate Change'', to be held ''September 5-7, 2007'' at ''United Nations Headquarters'' in New York and attended by approximately 2,000 representatives of non-governmental organizations from around the world.\n\nPlans for the follow-up include the launch of a global [[Youth & Technology Challenge]] with the goal of mobilizing the energy, talents and commitment of young people - from elementary school through young adults in the community and workforce - and the technology community to harness the powers of modern information and communications technology in undertaking and documenting a project intended to reduce the threat of global warming and/or to adapt intelligently to actual or likely impacts of global warming. \n\n''Climate Change 2.0'' is based on the premise that modern information and communications technology can make a major contribution to addressing the dangerous human-induced global warming, both through the systematic compilation, organization and exchange of, and access to information on climate change and global warming and on remedies that can mitigate or effectively adapt to, the causes and consequences of dangerous climate change.\n\n''Climate Change 2.0'' is an open partnership, initially convened by the [[Networking Sub-Committee]] of the [[Planning Committee|DPI/NGO Conference Planning Committee]] for the [[60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference]] and the [[Information and Communications Sub-Committee]] of the [[NGO Committee on Education]] of [[CONGO|Conference Of NGOs]] - (the ''C''onference ''O''f ''N''on-''G''overnmental ''O''rganizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations) - in conjunction with the Education Committee's focus on the [[United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development]]
| |>| ''Physical'' |>| ''Biological'' |\n|~|# of significant<br>observed changes | % consistent<br>with warming | # of significant<br>observed changes | % consistent<br>with warming |\n|''Continental regions'' |>|>|>| |\n|North America | 355| 94%| 455| 92%|\n|Latin America | 53| 98%| 5| 100%|\n|Europe | 119| 94%| 28,115| 89%|\n|Africa | 5| 100%| 2| 100%|\n|Asia | 106| 96%| 8| 100%|\n|Australia & New Zealand | 6| 100%| 0| -|\n|Polar Regions *| 120| 91%| 24| 100%|\n|''Global scale'' |>|>|>| |\n|Terrestrial | 764| 94%| 28,568| 90%|\n|Marine & Freshwater ** | 1| 100%| 85| 99%|\n|Global | 765| 94%| 28,671| 90%|\n\n * Polar regions include also changes in marine and freshwater biological systems\n ** Marine and freshwater include sites and large areas in oceans, small islands and continents\n\n''Additional details'' +++\n<<<\nLocations of significant changes in observations of physical systems (snow, ice and frozen ground; hydrology; and coastal processes) and biological systems (terrestrial, marine, and freshwater biological systems), are shown together with surface air temperature changes over the period 1970-2004. \n\nA subset of about 29,000 data series was selected from about 80,000 data series from 577 studies. These met the following criteria: (1) Ending in 1990 or later; (2) spanning a period of at least 20 years; and (3) showing a significant change in either direction, as assessed in individual studies. These data series are from about 75 studies (of which ~70 are new since the Third Assessment) and contain about 29,000 data series, of which about 28,000 are from European studies. White areas do not contain sufficient observational climate data to estimate a temperature trend. \n\nThe numbers of studies from the seven regional boxes (NAM, …, PR) do not add up to the global (GLO) totals because numbers from regions except Polar do not include the numbers related to Marine and Freshwater (MFR) systems. [F1.8, F1.9; Working Group I Fourth Assessment F3.9b]\n<<<
[img[Working Group II, Figure SPM-1|]]\n<<<\n''Temperature change &deg;C, 1970-2004 ''\n[img[Temperature change &deg;C, 1970-2004|]]\n''Observations''\n> [img[Physical systems - green circle|]] Physical systems (cryosphere, hydrology, coastal processes)\n> [img[Biological systems - green circle|]] Biological systems (marine, freshwater and terrestial)\n''Observed Changes'' \n<<tiddler "Working Group II, Figure SPM-1 Notes">>\n<<<
The ''World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts'' is a worldwide Movement in General Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council providing non-formal education where girls and young women develop leadership and life skills through self-development, challenge and adventure. Girl Guides and Girl Scouts learn by doing. The World Association brings together Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Associations in 144 countries across the globe. \n\nFor more information, visit
!!World Conference on Education for All\nJomtein, Thailand, March 1990\n* [[Preamble|Jomtien Declaration: Preamble]]\n[[World Declaration on Education for All]]\n* [[Education For All: The Purpose|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Purpose]]\n** Article I - Meeting Basic Learning Needs\n* [[Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: An Expanded Vision and a Renewed Commitment]]\n** Article II - Shaping The Vision\n** Article III - Universalizing Access and Promoting Equity\n** Article IV - Focussing on Learning\n** Article V - Broadening the Means and Scope of Basic Education\n** Article VI - Enhancing the Environment for Learning\n** Article VII - Strengthening Partnerships\n* [[Education For All: The Requirements|Jomtien Declaration: Education For All: The Requirements]]\n** Article VIII - Developing a Supportive Policy Context\n** Article IX - Mobilizing Resources\n** Article X - Strengthening International Solidarity
<<tiddler "World Declaration on Education For All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs">>
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_8b=_84;for(var j=i;j<_89;j++){r=_82[j];_8a=Math.min(_8a,r.start);_8b=Math.max(_8b,r.end);}_82.splice(i,_89-i,{start:_8a,end:_8b});return;}if(_87.start>_84){break;}}_82.splice(i,0,{start:_83,end:_84});};var getTotalRangesSize=function(_8d){var _8e=0;for(var i=0;i<_8d.length;i++){var _90=_8d[i];_8e+=_90.end-_90.start;}return _8e;};var writeTextAndMatchRange=function(_91,s,_93,_94,_95){var t;var _97;var pos=0;var i=0;var _9a=0;for(;i<_93.length;i++){t=_93[i];_97=t.text;if(_94<pos+_97.length){_9a=_94-pos;break;}pos+=_97.length;}var _9b=_95-_94;for(;i<_93.length&&_9b>0;i++){t=_93[i];_97=t.text.substr(_9a);_9a=0;if(_97.length>_9b){_97=_97.substr(0,_9b);}if(t.isMatch){createTiddlyElement(_91,"span",null,"marked",_97);}else{createTiddlyText(_91,_97);}_9b-=_97.length;}if(_95<s.length){createEllipsis(_91);}};var getMatchedTextCount=function(_9c){var _9d=0;for(var i=0;i<_9c.length;i++){if(_9c[i].isMatch){_9d++;}}return _9d;};var getMatchedTextWithContextRanges=function(_9f,s,_a1){var _a2=[];var _a3=getMatchedTextCount(_9f);var pos=0;for(var i=0;i<_9f.length;i++){var t=_9f[i];var _a7=t.text;if(t.isMatch){var _a8=getContextRangeAround(s,pos,pos+_a7.length,_a3,_a1);addRange(_a2,_a8.start,_a8.end);}pos+=_a7.length;}return _a2;};var fillUpRanges=function(s,_aa,_ab){var _ac=_ab-getTotalRangesSize(_aa);while(_ac>0){if(_aa.length==0){addRange(_aa,0,moveToWordBorder(s,_ab,false));return;}else{var _ad=_aa[0];var _ae;var _af;if(_ad.start==0){_ae=_ad.end;if(_aa.length>1){_af=_aa[1].start;}else{addRange(_aa,_ae,moveToWordBorder(s,_ae+_ac,false));return;}}else{_ae=0;_af=_ad.start;}var _b0=Math.min(_af,_ae+_ac);addRange(_aa,_ae,_b0);_ac-=(_b0-_ae);}}};var writeRanges=function(_b1,s,_b3,_b4,_b5){if(_b4.length==0){return;}if(_b4[0].start>0){createEllipsis(_b1);}var _b6=_b5;for(var i=0;i<_b4.length&&_b6>0;i++){var _b8=_b4[i];var len=Math.min(_b8.end-_b8.start,_b6);writeTextAndMatchRange(_b1,s,_b3,_b8.start,_b8.start+len);_b6-=len;}};var createLimitedTextWithMarksAndContext=function(_ba,s,_bc){if(!lastQuery){return;}if(s.length<_bc){_bc=s.length;}var _bd=getTextAndMatchArray(s,lastQuery.getMarkRegExp());var _be=getMatchedTextWithContextRanges(_bd,s,_bc);fillUpRanges(s,_be,_bc);writeRanges(_ba,s,_bd,_be,_bc);};var createLimitedTextWithMarks=function(_bf,s,_c1){return createLimitedTextWithMarksAndContext(_bf,s,_c1);};var myStorySearch=function(_c2,_c3,_c4){highlightHack=new RegExp(_c4?_c2:_c2.escapeRegExp(),_c3?"mg":"img");var _c5=findMatches(store,_c2,_c3,_c4,"title","excludeSearch");firstIndexOnPage=0;showResult();highlightHack=null;};var myMacroSearchHandler=function(_c6,_c7,_c8){var _c9="";var _ca=null;var _cb=function(txt){if(config.options.chkUseYourSearch){myStorySearch(txt.value,config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch,config.options.chkRegExpSearch);}else{,config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch,config.options.chkRegExpSearch);}_c9=txt.value;};var _cd=function(e){_cb(searchInputField);return false;};var _cf=function(e){if(!e){var e=window.event;}switch(e.keyCode){case 13:_cb(this);break;case 27:if(isResultOpen()){closeResult();}else{this.value="";clearMessage();}break;}if(String.fromCharCode(e.keyCode)==this.accessKey||e.altKey){reopenResultIfApplicable();}if(this.value.length<3&&_ca){clearTimeout(_ca);}if((this.value.length>2)&&(this.value!=_c9)){if(!config.options.chkUseYourSearch||config.options.chkSearchAsYouType){if(_ca){clearTimeout(_ca);}var txt=this;_ca=setTimeout(function(){_cb(txt);},500);}}if(this.value.length==0){closeResult();}};var _d3=function(e){;reopenResultIfApplicable();};var btn=createTiddlyButton(_c6,this.label,this.prompt,_cd);var txt=createTiddlyElement(_c6,"input",null,null,null);if(_c8[0]){txt.value=_c8[0];}txt.onkeyup=_cf;txt.onfocus=_d3;txt.setAttribute("size",this.sizeTextbox);txt.setAttribute("accessKey",this.accessKey);txt.setAttribute("autocomplete","off");if(config.browser.isSafari){txt.setAttribute("type","search");txt.setAttribute("results","5");}else{txt.setAttribute("type","text");}searchInputField=txt;searchButton=btn;};var isResultOpen=function(){return resultElement!=null&&resultElement.parentNode==document.body;};var closeResult=function(){if(isResultOpen()){document.body.removeChild(resultElement);}};var openAllFoundTiddlers=function(){closeResult();if(lastResults){var _d7=[];for(var i=0;i<lastResults.length;i++){_d7.push(lastResults[i].title);}story.displayTiddlers(null,_d7);}};var refreshResult=function(){if(!resultElement||!searchInputField){return;}var _d9=store.getTiddlerText("YourSearchResultTemplate");if(!_d9){_d9="<b>Tiddler YourSearchResultTemplate not found</b>";}resultElement.innerHTML=_d9;firstIndexOnPage=Math.floor(firstIndexOnPage/getItemsPerPage())*getItemsPerPage();applyHtmlMacros(resultElement,null);refreshElements(resultElement,null);if(lastResults&&lastResults.length>0){var _da=store.getTiddlerText("YourSearchItemTemplate");if(!_da){alertAndThrow("YourSearchItemTemplate not found");}var _db=document.getElementById(yourSearchResultItemsID);if(!_db){_db=createTiddlyElement(resultElement,"div",yourSearchResultItemsID);}var _dc=Math.min(firstIndexOnPage+getItemsPerPage(),lastResults.length);indexInPage=-1;for(var i=firstIndexOnPage;i<_dc;i++){currentTiddler=lastResults[i];indexInPage++;indexInResult=i;var _de=createTiddlyElement(_db,"div",null,"yourSearchItem");_de.innerHTML=_da;applyHtmlMacros(_de,null);refreshElements(_de,null);}}currentTiddler=null;ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely();};var ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely=function(){adjustResultPositionAndSize();scrollVisible();};var scrollVisible=function(){if(resultElement){window.scrollTo(0,ensureVisible(resultElement));}if(searchInputField){window.scrollTo(0,ensureVisible(searchInputField));}};var adjustResultPositionAndSize=function(){if(!searchInputField){return;}var _df=searchInputField;var _e0=findPosX(_df);var _e1=findPosY(_df);var _e2=_df.offsetHeight;var _e3=_e0;var _e4=_e1+_e2;var _e5=findWindowWidth();if(_e5<resultElement.offsetWidth){"px";_e5=findWindowWidth();}var _e6=resultElement.offsetWidth;if(_e3+_e6>_e5){_e3=_e5-_e6-30;}if(_e3<0){_e3=0;}"px";"px";"block";};var showResult=function(){if(!resultElement){resultElement=createTiddlyElement(document.body,"div",yourSearchResultID,"yourSearchResult");}else{if(resultElement.parentNode!=document.body){document.body.appendChild(resultElement);}}refreshResult();};var reopenResultIfApplicable=function(){if(searchInputField==null||!config.options.chkUseYourSearch){return;}if((searchInputField.value==lastSearchText)&&lastSearchText&&!isResultOpen()){if(resultElement&&(resultElement.parentNode!=document.body)){document.body.appendChild(resultElement);ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely();}else{showResult();}}};var setFirstIndexOnPage=function(_e7){if(!lastResults||lastResults.length==0){return;}firstIndexOnPage=Math.min(Math.max(0,_e7),lastResults.length-1);refreshResult();};var onDocumentClick=function(e){if({return;}if({return;}if(resultElement&&isDescendantOrSelf(resultElement,{return;}closeResult();};var onDocumentKeyup=function(e){if(e.keyCode==27){closeResult();}};addEvent(document,"click",onDocumentClick);addEvent(document,"keyup",onDocumentKeyup);config.macros.yourSearch={label:"yourSearch",prompt:"Gives access to the current/last YourSearch result",funcs:{},tests:{"true":function(){return true;},"false":function(){return false;},"found":function(){return lastResults&&lastResults.length>0;},"previewText":function(){return config.options.chkPreviewText;}}};config.macros.yourSearch.handler=function(_ea,_eb,_ec,_ed,_ee,_ef){if(_ec.length==0){return;}var _f0=_ec[0];var _f1=config.macros.yourSearch.funcs[_f0];if(_f1){_f1(_ea,_eb,_ec,_ed,_ee,_ef);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.itemRange=function(_f2){if(lastResults){var _f3=Math.min(firstIndexOnPage+getItemsPerPage(),lastResults.length);var s="%0 - %1".format([firstIndexOnPage+1,_f3]);createTiddlyText(_f2,s);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.count=function(_f5){if(lastSearchText){createTiddlyText(_f5,lastResults.length.toString());}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.query=function(_f6){if(lastResults){createTiddlyText(_f6,lastSearchText);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.version=function(_f7){var t="YourSearch %0.%1.%2".format([version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.major,version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.minor,version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.revision]);var e=createTiddlyElement(_f7,"a");e.setAttribute("href","");e.innerHTML="<font color=\s"black\s" face=\s"Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif\s">"+t+"<font>";};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.copyright=function(_fa){var e=createTiddlyElement(_fa,"a");e.setAttribute("href","");e.innerHTML="<font color=\s"black\s" face=\s"Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif\s">&copy; 2005-2006 <b><font color=\s"red\s">abego</font></b> Software<font>";};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.linkButton=function(_fc,_fd,_fe,_ff,_100,_101){if(_fe<2){return;}var _102=_fe[1];var text=_fe<3?_102:_fe[2];var _104=_fe<4?text:_fe[3];var _105=_fe<5?null:_fe[4];var btn=createTiddlyButton(_fc,text,_104,closeResultAndDisplayTiddler,null,null,_105);btn.setAttribute("tiddlyLink",_102);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.closeButton=function(_107,_108,_109,_10a,_10b,_10c){var _10d=createTiddlyButton(_107,"close","Close the Search Results (Shortcut: ESC)",closeResult);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.openAllButton=function(_10e,_10f,_110,_111,_112,_113){if(!lastResults){return;}var n=lastResults.length;if(n==0){return;}var _115=n==1?"open tiddler":"open all %0 tiddlers".format([n]);var _116=createTiddlyButton(_10e,_115,"Open all found tiddlers (Shortcut: Alt-O)",openAllFoundTiddlers);_116.setAttribute("accessKey","O");};var onNaviButtonClick=function(e){if(!e){var e=window.event;}var _119=getIntAttribute(this,"page");setFirstIndexOnPage(_119*getItemsPerPage(),0);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.naviBar=function(_11a,_11b,_11c,_11d,_11e,_11f){if(!lastResults||lastResults.length==0){return;}var _120;var _121=Math.floor(firstIndexOnPage/getItemsPerPage());var _122=Math.floor((lastResults.length-1)/getItemsPerPage());if(_121>0){_120=createTiddlyButton(_11a,"Previous","Go to previous page (Shortcut: Alt-'<')",onNaviButtonClick,"prev");_120.setAttribute("page",(_121-1).toString());_120.setAttribute("accessKey","<");}for(var i=-maxPagesInNaviBar;i<maxPagesInNaviBar;i++){var _124=_121+i;if(_124<0){continue;}if(_124>_122){break;}var _125=(i+_121+1).toString();var _126=_124==_121?"currentPage":"otherPage";_120=createTiddlyButton(_11a,_125,"Go to page %0".format([_125]),onNaviButtonClick,_126);_120.setAttribute("page",(_124).toString());}if(_121<_122){_120=createTiddlyButton(_11a,"Next","Go to next page (Shortcut: Alt-'>')",onNaviButtonClick,"next");_120.setAttribute("page",(_121+1).toString());_120.setAttribute("accessKey",">");}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs["if"]=function(_127,_128,_129,_12a,_12b,_12c){if(_129.length<2){return;}var _12d=_129[1];var _12e=(_12d=="not");if(_12e){if(_129.length<3){return;}_12d=_129[2];}var test=config.macros.yourSearch.tests[_12d];var _130=false;try{if(test){_130=test(_127,_128,_129,_12a,_12b,_12c)!=_12e;}else{_130=(!eval(_12d))==_12e;}}catch(ex){}if(!_130){"none";}};var createOptionWithRefresh=function(_131,_132,_133,_134){invokeMacro(_131,"option",_132,_133,_134);var elem=_131.lastChild;var _136=elem.onclick;elem.onclick=function(e){var _138=_136.apply(this,arguments);refreshResult();return _138;};return elem;};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.chkPreviewText=function(_139,_13a,_13b,_13c,_13d,_13e){var _13f=_13b.slice(1).join(" ");var elem=createOptionWithRefresh(_139,"chkPreviewText",_13c,_13e);elem.setAttribute("accessKey","P");elem.title="Show text preview of found tiddlers (Shortcut: Alt-P)";return elem;};config.macros.foundTiddler={label:"foundTiddler",prompt:"Provides information on the tiddler currently processed on the YourSearch result page",funcs:{}};config.macros.foundTiddler.handler=function(_141,_142,_143,_144,_145,_146){if(!currentTiddler){return;}var name=_143[0];var func=config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs[name];if(func){func(_141,_142,_143,_144,_145,_146);}};var closeResultAndDisplayTiddler=function(e){closeResult();var _14a=this.getAttribute("tiddlyLink");if(_14a){var _14b=this.getAttribute("withHilite");var _14c=highlightHack;if(_14b&&_14b=="true"&&lastQuery){highlightHack=lastQuery.getMarkRegExp();}story.displayTiddler(this,_14a);highlightHack=_14c;}return (false);};var getShortCutNumber=function(){if(!currentTiddler){return -1;}if(indexInPage>=0&&indexInPage<=9){return indexInPage<9?(indexInPage+1):0;}else{return -1;}};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.title=function(_14d,_14e,_14f,_150,_151,_152){if(!currentTiddler){return;}var _153=getShortCutNumber();var _154=_153>=0?"Open tiddler (Shortcut: Alt-%0)".format([_153.toString()]):"Open tiddler";var btn=createTiddlyButton(_14d,null,_154,closeResultAndDisplayTiddler,null);btn.setAttribute("tiddlyLink",currentTiddler.title);btn.setAttribute("withHilite","true");createLimitedTextWithMarks(btn,currentTiddler.title,maxCharsInTitle);if(_153>=0){btn.setAttribute("accessKey",_153.toString());}};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.tags=function(_156,_157,_158,_159,_15a,_15b){if(!currentTiddler){return;}createLimitedTextWithMarks(_156,currentTiddler.getTags(),maxCharsInTags);};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.text=function(_15c,_15d,_15e,_15f,_160,_161){if(!currentTiddler){return;}createLimitedTextWithMarks(_15c,removeTextDecoration(currentTiddler.text),maxCharsInText);};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.number=function(_162,_163,_164,_165,_166,_167){var _168=getShortCutNumber();if(_168>=0){var text="%0)".format([_168.toString()]);createTiddlyElement(_162,"span",null,"shortcutNumber",text);}};function scrollToAnchor(name){return false;}if(config.options.chkUseYourSearch==undefined){config.options.chkUseYourSearch=true;}if(config.options.chkPreviewText==undefined){config.options.chkPreviewText=true;}if(config.options.chkSearchAsYouType==undefined){config.options.chkSearchAsYouType=true;}if(config.options.chkSearchInTitle==undefined){config.options.chkSearchInTitle=true;}if(config.options.chkSearchInText==undefined){config.options.chkSearchInText=true;}if(config.options.chkSearchInTags==undefined){config.options.chkSearchInTags=true;}if(config.options.txtItemsPerPage==undefined){config.options.txtItemsPerPage=itemsPerPageDefault;}if(config.options.txtItemsPerPageWithPreview==undefined){config.options.txtItemsPerPageWithPreview=itemsPerPageWithPreviewDefault;}config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions+="\sn<<option chkUseYourSearch>> Use 'Your Search' //([[more options|YourSearch Options]])//";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Introduction"]="!About YourSearch\sn"+"\sn"+"YourSearch gives you a bunch of new features to simplify and speed up your daily searches in TiddlyWiki. It seamlessly integrates into the standard TiddlyWiki search: just start typing into the 'search' field and explore!\sn"+"\sn"+"''May the '~Alt-F' be with you.''\sn"+"\sn"+"\sn"+"!Features\sn"+"* YourSearch searches for tiddlers that match your query ''as you type'' into the 'search' field. It presents a list of the ''\s"Top Ten\s"'' tiddlers in a ''popup-like window'': the ''[[YourSearch Result]]''. The tiddlers currently displayed in your TiddlyWiki are not affected.\sn"+"* Using ''~TiddlerRank technology'' the [[YourSearch Result]] lists the ''most interesting tiddlers first''.\sn"+"* Through ''Filtered Search'' and ''Boolean Search'' you can easily refining your search, like excluding words or searching for multiple words. This way less tiddlers are displayed in the [[YourSearch Result]] and you can faster scan the result for the tiddler you are looking for.\sn"+"* The [[YourSearch Result]] lists the found tiddlers ''page-wise'', e.g. 10 per page. Use the ''Result Page Navigation Bar'' to navigate between pages if the result does not fit on one page.\sn"+"* The [[YourSearch Result]] states the ''total number of found tiddlers''. This way you can quickly decide if you want to browse the result list or if you want to refine your search first to shorten the result list.\sn"+"* Beside the ''title of the found tiddlers'' the [[YourSearch Result]] also ''displays tags'' and ''tiddler text previews''. The ''tiddler text preview'' is an extract of the tiddler's content, showing the most interesting parts related to your query (e.g. the texts around the words you are looking for).\sn"+"* The words you are looking for are hilited in the titles, tags and text previews of the [[YourSearch Result]].\sn"+"* If you are not interested in the tiddler text previews but prefer to get longer lists of tiddlers on one result page you may ''switch of the text preview''.\sn"+"* If the [[YourSearch Result]] contains the tiddler you are looking for you can just ''click its title to display'' it in your TiddlyWiki. Alternatively you may also ''open all found tiddlers'' at once. \sn"+"* Use [[YourSearch Options]] to customize YourSearch to your needs. E.g. depending on the size of your screen you may change the number of tiddlers displayed in the [[YourSearch Result]]. In the [[YourSearch Options]] and the AdvancedOptions you may also switch off YourSearch in case you temporarily want to use the standard search.\sn"+"* For the most frequently actions ''access keys'' are defined so you can perform your search without using the mouse.\sn"+"\sn";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Help"]="<<tiddler [[YourSearch Introduction]]>>"+"\sn"+"!Filtered Search<html><a name='Filtered'/></html>\sn"+"Using the Filtered Search you can restrict your search to certain parts of a tiddler, e.g only search the tags or only the titles.\sn"+"|!What you want|!What you type|!Example|\sn"+"|Search ''titles only''|start word with ''!''|{{{!jonny}}}|\sn"+"|Search ''contents only''|start word with ''%''|{{{%football}}}|\sn"+"|Search ''tags only''|start word with ''#''|{{{#Plugin}}}|\sn"+"\sn"+"You may use more than one filter for a word. E.g. {{{!#Plugin}}} finds tiddlers containing \s"Plugin\s" either in the title or in the tags (but does not look for \s"Plugin\s" in the content).\sn"+"\sn"+"!Boolean Search<html><a name='Boolean'/></html>\sn"+"The Boolean Search is useful when searching for multiple words.\sn"+"|!What you want|!What you type|!Example|\sn"+"|''All words'' must exist|List of words|{{{jonny jeremy}}}|\sn"+"|''At least one word'' must exist|Separate words by ''or''|{{{jonny or jeremy}}}|\sn"+"|A word ''must not exist''|Start word with ''-''|{{{-jonny}}}|\sn"+"\sn"+"''Note:'' When you specify two words, separated with a space, YourSearch finds all tiddlers that contain both words, but not necessarily next to each other. If you want to find a sequence of word, e.g. '{{{John Brown}}}', you need to put the words into quotes. I.e. you type: {{{\s"john brown\s"}}}.\sn"+"\sn"+"!'Exact Word' Search<html><a name='Exact'/></html>\sn"+"By default a search result all matches that 'contain' the searched text. \sn"+" E.g. if you search for 'Task' you will get all tiddlers containing 'Task', but also 'CompletedTask', 'TaskForce' etc.\sn"+"\sn"+"If you only want to get the tiddlers that contain 'exactly the word' you need to prefix it with a '='. E.g. typing '=Task' will the tiddlers that contain the word 'Task', ignoring words that just contain 'Task' as a substring.\sn"+"\sn"+"!Combined Search<html><a name='Combined'/></html>\sn"+"You are free to combine the various search options.\sn"+"\sn"+"''Examples''\sn"+"|!What you type|!Result|\sn"+"|{{{!jonny !jeremy -%football}}}| all tiddlers with both {{{jonny}}} and {{{jeremy}}} in its titles, but no {{{football}}} in content.|\sn"+"|{{{#=Task}}}|All tiddlers tagged with 'Task' (the exact word). Tags named 'CompletedTask', 'TaskForce' etc. are not considered.|\sn"+"\sn"+"!~CaseSensitiveSearch and ~RegExpSearch<html><a name='Case'/></html>\sn"+"The standard search options ~CaseSensitiveSearch and ~RegExpSearch are fully supported by YourSearch. However when ''~RegExpSearch'' is on Filtered and Boolean Search are disabled.\sn"+"\sn"+"!Access Keys<html><a name='Access'/></html>\sn"+"You are encouraged to use the access keys (also called \s"shortcut\s" keys) for the most frequently used operations. For quick reference these shortcuts are also mentioned in the tooltip for the various buttons etc.\sn"+"\sn"+"|!Key|!Operation|\sn"+"|{{{Alt-F}}}|''The most important keystroke'': It moves the cursor to the search input field so you can directly start typing your query. Pressing {{{Alt-F}}} will also display the previous search result. This way you can quickly display multiple tiddlers using \s"Press {{{Alt-F}}}. Select tiddler.\s" sequences.|\sn"+"|{{{ESC}}}|Closes the [[YourSearch Result]]. When the [[YourSearch Result]] is already closed and the cursor is in the search input field the field's content is cleared so you start a new query.|\sn"+"|{{{Alt-1}}}, {{{Alt-2}}},... |Pressing these keys opens the first, second etc. tiddler from the result list.|\sn"+"|{{{Alt-O}}}|Opens all found tiddlers.|\sn"+"|{{{Alt-P}}}|Toggles the 'Preview Text' mode.|\sn"+"|{{{Alt-'<'}}}, {{{Al